Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Rodentia > Sciuridae > Sciurus > Sciurus niger
 

Sciurus niger (eastern fox squirrel; fox squirrel)

Language: Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The fox squirrel (Sciurus niger), also known as the eastern fox squirrel or Bryant's fox squirrel, is the largest species of tree squirrel native to North America. Despite the differences in size and coloration, they are sometimes mistaken for American Red Squirrels or Eastern Gray Squirrels in areas where the species co-exist.
View Wikipedia Record: Sciurus niger

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
0
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
9
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 2.96
EDGE Score: 1.38

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  1.76 lbs (800 g)
Birth Weight [2]  15 grams
Female Maturity [2]  11 months 23 days
Male Maturity [2]  11 months 23 days
Diet [3]  Frugivore, Granivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [3]  20 %
Diet - Plants [3]  30 %
Diet - Seeds [3]  50 %
Forages - Arboreal [3]  100 %
Arboreal [1]  Yes
Gestation [2]  44 days
Litter Size [2]  3
Litters / Year [2]  1
Maximum Longevity [2]  16 years
Weaning [2]  84 days

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Allegheny Highlands forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Canadian Aspen forests and parklands Canada Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central and Southern mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central forest-grasslands transition United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central U.S. hardwood forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chihuahuan desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Colorado Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
East Central Texas forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Edwards Plateau savanna United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Everglades United States Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Flint Hills tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Florida sand pine scrub United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mississippi lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Nebraska Sand Hills mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Ozark Mountain forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Piney Woods forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
South Florida rocklands United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Texas blackland prairies United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Western short grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Amistad National Recreation Area   Texas, United States
Audubon National Wildlife Refuge IV 14642 North Dakota, United States
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Big Thicket Biosphere Reserve National Park II 616880 Texas, United States
Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge VI 19192 Maryland, United States
Buffalo National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 59947 Arkansas, United States
Calvin College Ecosystem Preserve 90 Michigan, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Cedar Creek LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV   Minnesota, United States
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Chickasaw National Recreation Area V 7025 Oklahoma, United States
Chippewa Nature Center   Michigan, United States    
Congaree Swamp National Park II 6095 South Carolina, United States
Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   North Carolina, United States
Cuyahoga Valley National Park II 24907 Ohio, United States
De Soto National Wildlife Refuge IV 8007 Iowa, Nebraska, United States
Devils Tower National Monument V 1361 Wyoming, United States
Edwin S. George Reserve 1297 Michigan, United States
Elkhorn Slough Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 964 California, United States  
Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge VI 66133 Arkansas, United States
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Fort Necessity National Battlefield III 1019 Pennsylvania, United States
Fort Scott National Historic Site   Kansas, United States
Friendship Hill National Historic Site III 697 Pennsylvania, United States
Golden Gate National Recreation Area V 26135 California, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Harpers Ferry National Historical Park VI 715 West Virginia, United States
Herbert Hoover National Historic Site   Iowa, United States
Homestead National Monument of America V 850 Nebraska, United States
Horicon National Wildlife Refuge IV 21369 Wisconsin, United States
Horseshoe Bend National Military Park V 1926 Alabama, United States
Hot Springs National Park II 5740 Arkansas, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Knife River Indian Villages National Hist. Site National Historic Site III 1756 North Dakota, United States
Konza Prairie Biosphere Reserve 8617 Kansas, United States  
Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge VI 28351 Louisiana, United States
Lake Meredith National Recreation Area V   Texas, United States
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Little River National Wildlife Refuge   Oklahoma, United States
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Ocmulgee National Monument V 693 Georgia, United States
Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge IV 38256 Florida, United States
Ozark National Scenic Riverways National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 54621 Missouri, United States
Pipestone National Monument V 326 Minnesota, United States
San Antonio Missions National Historical Park VI 854 Texas, United States
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area V 38440 California, United States
Santee Coastal Reserve and Washo Reserve State Habitat Area IV 20850 South Carolina, United States  
Scotts Bluff National Monument V 3185 Nebraska, United States
Shiloh National Military Park III 4061 Tennessee, United States
Shortgrass Steppe LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   Colorado, United States
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore II 62563 Michigan, United States
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Stones River National Battlefield III 518 Tennessee, United States
University of MI Biosphere Reserve 10003 Michigan, United States  
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Western Michigan University's Asylum Lake Preserve 274 Michigan, United States
Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge IV 26618 Alabama, United States

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No

Prey / Diet

Arachis hypogaea (Earthnut)[4]
Asimina triloba (pawpaw)[5]
Castanea pumila (Ozark chinkapin)[5]
Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet)[5]
Ceratonia siliqua (Carob Tree)[4]
Corylus americana (American hazelnut)[5]
Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive)[5]
Eucalyptus lamprocalyx (eurabbie)[5]
Fagus grandifolia (American beech)[5]
Gleditsia triacanthos (honeylocusts)[5]
Gymnocladus dioica (Kentucky Coffee Tree)[5]
Helianthus annuus (Sunflower)[4]
Heteromeles arbutifolia (Toyon)[4]
Juglans californica (Southern California walnut)[4]
Juglans nigra (black walnut)[6]
Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum)[5]
Liriodendron tulipifera (tuliptree)[5]
Livistona drudei[4]
Malva parviflora (cheeseweed mallow)[4]
Nyssa sylvatica (blackgum)[5]
Ostrya virginiana (Chisos hophornbeam)[5]
Pinus halepensis (aleppo pine)[4]
Platanus occidentalis (American sycamore)[4]
Prunus persica (peach)[4]
Quercus agrifolia (Encina)[4]
Quercus macrocarpa (Burr Oak)[6]
Quercus muehlenbergii (Yellow Chestnut Oak)[6]
Strelitzia nicolai (Giant White Bird of Paradise)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)2
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)1
Anobium punctatum (furniture beetle)1
Apis mellifera (honey bee)1
Archilochus colubris (Ruby-throated Hummingbird)1
Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse)1
Bombus fervidus (Golden northern bumble bee)1
Castor canadensis (american beaver)2
Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)3
Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay)1
Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker)1
Erynnis brizo (Sleepy Dusky Wing)1
Erynnis juvenalis (Juvenal's duskywing skipper)1
Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Greenhouse thrip)1
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)2
Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole)1
Microtus pinetorum (woodland vole)1
Neotoma floridana (eastern woodrat)3
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)2
Papilio glaucus (Eastern tiger swallowtail)2
Papilio troilus (spicebush swallowtail)1
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)3
Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker)1
Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee)2
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)1
Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle)1
Reticulitermes flavipes (eastern subterranean termite)1
Satyrium calanus (Banded hairstreak)2
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)3
Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)1
Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch)1
Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch)1
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail)2
Tamias striatus (eastern chipmunk)2
Thryothorus ludovicianus (Carolina Wren)1
Turdus migratorius (American Robin)1
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)1
Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow)1

Predators

Accipiter cooperii (Cooper's Hawk)[4]
Accipiter gentilis (Northern Goshawk)[5]
Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)[4]
Bubo virginianus (Great Horned Owl)[5]
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)[5]
Buteo lagopus (Rough-legged Hawk)[5]
Buteo lineatus (Red-shouldered Hawk)[5]
Buteo regalis (Ferruginous Hawk)[5]
Canis latrans (Coyote)[5]
Canis lupus (Wolf)[5]
Cathartes aura (Turkey Vulture)[4]
Crotalus horridus (Timber rattlesnake (atricaudatus))[5]
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum)[5]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[4]
Lynx rufus (Bobcat)[5]
Mustela frenata (Long-tailed Weasel)[5]
Pituophis melanoleucus (Eastern Pine Snake)[5]
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)[5]
Strix varia (Barred Owl)[4]
Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Gray Fox)[5]
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)[5]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Bohmiella wilsoni <Unverified Name>[7]
Citellinema bifurcatum[7]
Conorhinopsylla stanfordi[8]
Cuterebra emasculator (tree squirrel bot fly)[5]
Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick)[5]
Dipetalonema interstitium <Unverified Name>[7]
Enderleinellus longiceps[4]
Erchanella bakeri <Unverified Name>[7]
Gongylonema pulchrum[7]
Heligmodendrium hassalli <Unverified Name>[7]
Hoplopleura sciuricola[4]
Ixodes cookei (American castor bean tick)[5]
Ixodes hearlei[5]
Ixodes scapularis (Black legged tick)[5]
Moniliformis clarki[7]
Opisodasys robustus robustus[8]
Orchopeas howardi howardi[8]
Orchopeas howardi texensis[8]
Physaloptera massino <Unverified Name>[7]
Raillietina bakeri <Unverified Name>[7]
Strongyloides robustus <Unverified Name>[7]
Syphacia thompsoni <Unverified Name>[7]
Taenia mustelae[7]
Taenia pisiformis[7]
Tenoretta celebensis <Unverified Name>[7]
Trichostrongylus calcaratus <Unverified Name>[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Gladys Porter Zoo
Hutchinson Zoo

Range Map

North America; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org
2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
5Sciurus niger, John L. Koprowski, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 479, pp. 1-9 (1994)
6Geographic variation in walnut seed size correlates with hoarding behaviour of two rodent species, N. Tamura and F. Hayashi, Ecol Res (2008) 23: 607–614
7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
8International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access