Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Rodentia > Sciuridae > Sciurus > Sciurus carolinensis
 

Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel; gray squirrel; grey squirrel)

Language: French

Wikipedia Abstract

Sciurus carolinensis, common name eastern gray squirrel or grey squirrel depending on region, is a tree squirrel in the genus Sciurus. It is native to eastern North America, but has since been introduced to European regions.
View Wikipedia Record: Sciurus carolinensis

Infraspecies

Invasive Species

The grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) is native to deciduous forests in the USA and has been introduced to the UK, Ireland, Italy and South Africa. In the introduced range grey squirrels damage trees by eating the bark and in Europe they cause the local extinction of red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) populations through competition and disease.
View ISSG Record: Sciurus carolinensis

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
0
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
9
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 2.96
EDGE Score: 1.38

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  1.18 lbs (533 g)
Birth Weight [2]  15 grams
Female Maturity [2]  11 months 13 days
Male Maturity [2]  1 year 1 month
Diet [3]  Frugivore, Granivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [3]  20 %
Diet - Plants [3]  30 %
Diet - Seeds [3]  50 %
Forages - Arboreal [3]  100 %
Arboreal [1]  Yes
Gestation [2]  44 days
Litter Size [2]  4
Litters / Year [2]  2
Maximum Longevity [2]  24 years
Speed [4]  11.99 MPH (5.36 m/s)
Weaning [2]  66 days

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Allegheny Highlands forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Canadian Aspen forests and parklands Canada Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central and Southern mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central forest-grasslands transition United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central U.S. hardwood forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East Central Texas forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern forest-boreal transition Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Edwards Plateau savanna United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Everglades United States Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Flint Hills tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Florida sand pine scrub United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mid-Continental Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mississippi lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Ozark Mountain forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Piney Woods forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
South Florida rocklands United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Texas blackland prairies United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Antietam National Battlefield III 3263 Maryland, United States
Assateague Island National Seashore II 8621 Maryland, United States
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area National Recreation Area V 120283 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Big Thicket Biosphere Reserve National Park II 616880 Texas, United States
Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge VI 19192 Maryland, United States
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Borrowdale Woodland Complex 1650 England, United Kingdom
Buffalo National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 59947 Arkansas, United States
Cadair Idris 9353 Wales, United Kingdom
Canaveral National Seashore II 9090 Florida, United States
Cape Hatteras National Seashore II 21476 North Carolina, United States
Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge IV 8964 South Carolina, United States
Carl Sandburg Home National Hist. Site National Historic Site III 271 North Carolina, United States
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Castle Eden Dene 480 England, United Kingdom
Catoctin Mountain Park National Park II 5994 Maryland, United States
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Chickasaw National Recreation Area V 7025 Oklahoma, United States
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Congaree Swamp National Park II 6095 South Carolina, United States
Cumberland Gap National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 24282 Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, United States
Cuyahoga Valley National Park II 24907 Ohio, United States
Dartmoor 57244 England, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes 5491 England, United Kingdom
Dunkeld–Blairgowrie Lochs 1058 Scotland, United Kingdom
East Devon Pebblebed Heaths 2767 England, United Kingdom
Edwin S. George Reserve 1297 Michigan, United States
Effigy Mounds National Monument V 1296 Iowa, United States
Elkhorn Slough Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 964 California, United States  
Epping Forest 3966 England, United Kingdom  
Eryri/ Snowdonia 48773 Wales, United Kingdom  
Fire Island National Seashore V 9433 New York, United States
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Fort Matanzas National Monument III 269 Florida, United States
Fort Necessity National Battlefield III 1019 Pennsylvania, United States
Fort Pulaski National Monument V 4213 Georgia, United States
Friendship Hill National Historic Site III 697 Pennsylvania, United States
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
George Washington Birthplace National Monument V 435 Virginia, United States
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge VI 3161 New Jersey, United States
Guilford Courthouse National Military Park V 216 North Carolina, United States
Harpers Ferry National Historical Park VI 715 West Virginia, United States
Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site III 861 Pennsylvania, United States
Horseshoe Bend National Military Park V 1926 Alabama, United States
Hot Springs National Park II 5740 Arkansas, United States
Hubbard Brook Biosphere Reserve 7809 New Hampshire, United States
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Jean Lafitte National Hist. Park & Preserve National Historical Park II 17686 Louisiana, United States
Kippenrait Glen 152 Scotland, United Kingdom
Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve II 256073 Western Cape, South Africa  
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
Lake District High Fells 66717 England, United Kingdom
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Mole Gap to Reigate Escarpment 2194 England, United Kingdom  
Moor House-Upper Teesdale Biosphere Reserve 18254 England, United Kingdom
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
Morecambe Bay Pavements 6449 England, United Kingdom
Morristown National Historical Park VI 1677 New Jersey, United States
Naddle Forest 892 England, United Kingdom  
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
North Somerset and Mendip Bats 1387 England, United Kingdom
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park 20001 Tennessee, United States
Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge IV 38256 Florida, United States
Ozark National Scenic Riverways National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 54621 Missouri, United States
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
River Dee 6046 Scotland, United Kingdom
River Eden 6087 England, United Kingdom  
River Tay 23469 Scotland, United Kingdom
River Tweed 9380 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Santee Coastal Reserve and Washo Reserve State Habitat Area IV 20850 South Carolina, United States  
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
Shiloh National Military Park III 4061 Tennessee, United States
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore II 62563 Michigan, United States
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Stones River National Battlefield III 518 Tennessee, United States
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Valley Forge National Historical Park VI 3509 Pennsylvania, United States
Voyageurs National Park II 177960 Minnesota, United States
Western Michigan University's Asylum Lake Preserve 274 Michigan, United States
Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge IV 26618 Alabama, United States
Yewbarrow Woods 279 England, United Kingdom

Ecosystems

Emblem of

North Carolina

Prey / Diet

Actias luna (luna moth)[5]
Amauroderma fuscatum (Turkeytail)[5]
Ambystoma maculatum (Spotted Salamander)[5]
Antheraea polyphemus (polyphemus moth)[5]
Armillaria mellea (Honey Fungus)[5]
Calosoma scrutator (Fiery searcher)[5]
Carex stricta (upright sedge)[5]
Chenopodium album (lambsquarters goosefoot)[5]
Colias philodice (clouded sulphur)[5]
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood)[5]
Corylus avellana (common filbert)[6]
Diapheromera femorata (Common American Walkingstick)[5]
Elaphomyces granulatus (False Truffle)[6]
Fagus sylvatica (European beech)[6]
Gryllus pennsylvanicus (fall field cricket)[5]
Hemaris thysbe (common clear-wing)[5]
Heteromeles arbutifolia (Toyon)[6]
Ilex opaca (American holly)[5]
Juglans hindsii (northern california walnut)[6]
Juglans regia (English walnut)[6]
Juniperus virginiana (Eastern Red-cedar)[5]
Lycoperdon pyriforme (Stump Puffball)[5]
Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)[5]
Magnolia grandiflora (southern magnolia)[6]
Malacosoma americana (Eastern tent caterpillar)[5]
Molothrus ater (Brown-headed Cowbird)[5]
Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher)[5]
Omphalotus olearius (Jack olantern)[5]
Papilio glaucus (Eastern tiger swallowtail)[5]
Pinus strobus (Eastern white pine)[5]
Pinus virginiana (Virginia pine)[5]
Platanus mexicana (American sycamore)[5]
Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander)[5]
Pleurotus ostreatus (Oyster Mushroom)[5]
Prunus serotina (Black Cherry)[5]
Pseudacris crucifer (Spring Peeper)[5]
Quercus alba (White Oak)[5]
Rubus idaeus (Raspberry)[6]
Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)[5]
Sorghum bicolor (broom-corn)[6]
Ulmus americana[6]
Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove)[5]
Acer rubrum (red maple)[5]
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)[5]
Ampelocissus latifolia (American ivy)[5]
Carpinus caroliniana (American hornbeam)[5]
Carya alba (mockernut hickory)[5]
Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet)[5]
Fagus grandifolia (American beech)[5]
Hamamelis virginiana (American witchhazel)[5]
Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum)[5]
Panicum virgatum (old switch panic grass)[5]
Pinus taeda (Loblolly pine)[5]
Quercus phellos (Willow Oak)[5]
Robinia pseudoacacia (Post locust)[5]
Smilax rotundifolia (Horse Brier)[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acrosternum hilare (Green stinkbug)7
Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird)6
Agkistrodon contortrix (Southern Copperhead)3
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)10
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)9
Anaxyrus americanus americanus (Eastern American Toad)4
Apis mellifera (honey bee)5
Archilochus colubris (Ruby-throated Hummingbird)2
Armadillidium vulgare (pillbug)2
Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse)10
Bombus fervidus (Golden northern bumble bee)4
Branta canadensis (Canada Goose)2
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)2
Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal)13
Castor canadensis (american beaver)15
Charadrius vociferus (Killdeer)2
Chelydra serpentina (Common Snapping Turtle)2
Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)14
Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow)13
Cryptotis parva (North American Least Shrew)7
Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay)12
Dendroctonus frontalis (southern pine beetle)2
Diapheromera femorata (Common American Walkingstick)4
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum)6
Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker)7
Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat)6
Euproctis chrysorrhoea (Brown-tail)2
Gryllus pennsylvanicus (fall field cricket)2
Lithobates catesbeianus (American Bullfrog)2
Lithobates sphenocephalus sphenocephalus (Florida Leopard Frog)3
Lithobates sylvaticus (Wood Frog)4
Marmota monax (woodchuck)3
Megaceryle alcyon (Belted Kingfisher)3
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)23
Mephitis mephitis (Striped Skunk)11
Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole)12
Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird)7
Molothrus ater (Brown-headed Cowbird)5
Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher)8
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)22
Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat)5
Orthotaenia undulana3
Papilio glaucus (Eastern tiger swallowtail)3
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)16
Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker)9
Plestiodon fasciatus (Five-lined Skink)4
Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee)8
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)16
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat)3
Reticulitermes flavipes (eastern subterranean termite)5
Rhyacionia buoliana (European pine-shoot moth)3
Scalopus aquaticus (Eastern Mole)3
Sciurus niger (eastern fox squirrel)3
Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)9
Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch)15
Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch)10
Strix varia (Barred Owl)3
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)5
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail)16
Tamias striatus (eastern chipmunk)24
Terrapene carolina (Florida Box Turtle)10
Thamnophis sirtalis (Common Garter Snake)3
Thryothorus ludovicianus (Carolina Wren)2
Turdus migratorius (American Robin)14
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)10
Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove)8
Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow)8

Predators

Accipiter cooperii (Cooper's Hawk)[6]
Accipiter gentilis (Northern Goshawk)[6]
Aedes albopictus (forest day mosquito)[5]
Agkistrodon contortrix (Southern Copperhead)[5]
Bubo virginianus (Great Horned Owl)[6]
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)[5]
Buteo lineatus (Red-shouldered Hawk)[6]
Buteo platypterus (Broad-winged Hawk)[6]
Canis lupus (Wolf)[6]
Cathartes aura (Turkey Vulture)[6]
Crotalus horridus (Timber rattlesnake (atricaudatus))[7]
Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick)[5]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[6]
Heterodon platirhinos (Eastern Hognose Snake)[5]
Lynx canadensis (lynx)[6]
Lynx rufus (Bobcat)[6]
Megascops asio (Eastern Screech-Owl)[6]
Neovison vison (American Mink)[6]
Strix varia (Barred Owl)[5]
Triatoma sanguisuga (Eastern blood-sucking cone)[5]
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)[5]

Providers

Shelter 
Crataegus viridis (desert hawthorn)[5]
Lindera benzoin (northern spicebush)[5]
Lonicera japonica (Chinese honeysuckle)[5]
Osmundastrum cinnamomeum (cinnamon fern)[5]
Phytolacca americana (common pokeweed)[5]
Populus grandidentata (bigtooth aspen)[5]
Pteridium aquilinum (northern bracken fern)[5]
Quercus velutina (Black Oak)[5]
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)[5]
Sambucus nigra (European black elderberry)[5]
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)[5]
Ulmus americana (American elm)[5]
Acer rubrum (red maple)[5]
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)[5]
Ampelocissus latifolia (American ivy)[5]
Carpinus caroliniana (American hornbeam)[5]
Carya alba (mockernut hickory)[5]
Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet)[5]
Fagus grandifolia (American beech)[5]
Hamamelis virginiana (American witchhazel)[5]
Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum)[5]
Panicum virgatum (old switch panic grass)[5]
Pinus taeda (Loblolly pine)[5]
Quercus phellos (Willow Oak)[5]
Robinia pseudoacacia (Post locust)[5]
Smilax rotundifolia (Horse Brier)[5]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Amalaraeus penicilliger mustelae[8]
Baylisascaris procyonis[9]
Cediopsylla simplex[8]
Ceratophyllus vison[8]
Conorhinopsylla stanfordi[8]
Enderleinellus longiceps[6]
Heligmodendrium hassalli <Unverified Name>[9]
Hoplopleura sciuricola[6]
Megabothris acerbus[8]
Moniliformis clarki[9]
Neohaematopinus sciuri[6]
Orchopeas caedens caedens[8]
Orchopeas caedens durus[8]
Orchopeas howardi howardi[8]
Orchopeas leucopus (rodent flea)[8]
Orchopeas nepos[8]
Peromyscopsylla spectabilis spectabilis[8]
Sciurodendrium gardneri <Unverified Name>[9]
Spilopsyllus cuniculi (European rabbit flea)[8]
Strongyloides robustus <Unverified Name>[9]
Taenia mustelae[9]
Taenia taeniaeformis <Unverified Name>[9]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Aalborg Zoo
Milwaukee County Zoological Gardens
Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zool. Gdns.
Saint Louis Zoological Park

Range Map

North America; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org
2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4Wikipedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
5Study of Northern Virginia Ecology
6Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
7Diet of the Timber Rattlesnake, Crotalus horridus, Rulon W. Clark, Journal of Herpetology, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 494-499, 2002
8International Flea Database
9Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Edwin S. George Reserve, University of Michigan, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access