Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Rodentia > Erethizontidae > Erethizon > Erethizon dorsatus
 

Erethizon dorsatus (common porcupine; porcupine)

Synonyms: Erethizon dorsatum
Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The North American porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum), also known as the Canadian porcupine or common porcupine, is a large rodent in the New World porcupine family. The beaver is the only other larger rodent in North America.
View Wikipedia Record: Erethizon dorsatus

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
4
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
25
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 9.78
EDGE Score: 2.38

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  18.96 lbs (8.60 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  1.10 lbs (500 g)
Female Maturity [2]  3 years
Male Maturity [2]  3 years
Arboreal [1]  Yes
Diet [1]  Herbivore
Gestation [2]  7 months
Litter Size [2]  1
Litters / Year [2]  1
Maximum Longevity [2]  23 years
Nocturnal [1]  Yes
Weaning [2]  60 days

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Alaska Peninsula montane taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Alaska-St. Elias Range tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Alberta Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Alberta-British Columbia foothills forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Allegheny Highlands forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Arctic coastal tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra    
Arctic foothills tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Arizona Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Beringia lowland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Beringia upland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Blue Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
British Columbia mainland coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Brooks-British Range tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
California Central Valley grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
California coastal sage and chaparral Mexico, United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California interior chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California montane chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Canadian Aspen forests and parklands Canada Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cascade Mountains leeward forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central British Columbia Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Central Pacific coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Chihuahuan desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Colorado Plateau shrublands United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Colorado Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Cook Inlet taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Copper Plateau taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Eastern forest-boreal transition Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Fraser Plateau and Basin complex Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga Canada, United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Interior Yukon-Alaska alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Klamath-Siskiyou forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mid-Continental Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Midwestern Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Mojave desert United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Muskwa-Slave Lake forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Nebraska Sand Hills mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Central Rockies forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern California coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern Cordillera forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Pacific coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern transitional alpine forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northwest Territories taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Ogilvie-MacKenzie alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Okanagan dry forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Pacific Coastal Mountain icefields and tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Palouse grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Puget lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Occidental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Nevada forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Snake-Columbia shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Central Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Hudson Bay taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Wasatch and Uinta montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Western Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western short grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Willamette Valley forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Wyoming Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Yukon Interior dry forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Agate Fossil Beds National Monument V 4731 Nebraska, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Arches National Park II 76539 Utah, United States
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Bandelier National Monument V 8107 New Mexico, United States
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Beaver Creek Biosphere Reserve 275028 Arizona, United States  
Big Bend Biosphere Reserve National Park II 815561 Texas, United States
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area V 36286 Montana, Wyoming, United States
Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park II 12551 Colorado, United States
Bryce Canyon National Park II 36348 Utah, United States
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Canyonlands National Park II 335430 Utah, United States
Capital Reef National Park II 243722 Utah, United States
Carlsbad Caverns National Park II 15448 New Mexico, United States
Cascade Head Biosphere Reserve 17423 Oregon, United States
Cedar Breaks National Monument III 6111 Utah, United States
Central Plains Biosphere Reserve 15345 United States  
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Coram Biosphere Reserve 7460 Montana, United States
Coronado National Monument National Memorial III 4360 Arizona, United States
Craters of the Moon National Monument V 690996 Idaho, United States
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
Dinosaur National Monument III 203307 Colorado, Utah, United States
Dye Creek Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 38152 California, United States  
El Malpais National Monument III 109980 New Mexico, United States
Elk Island National Park II 47171 Alberta, Canada
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fraser Biosphere Reserve 23050 Colorado, United States  
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Glacier National Park II 953799 Montana, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Grand Teton National Park II 231724 Wyoming, United States
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Great Basin National Park II 77367 Nevada, United States
Greenwater Provincial Park II 11019 Ontario, Canada
Guadalupe Mountains National Park II 46114 Texas, United States
H.J. Andrews Biosphere Reserve 15815 Oregon, United States
Heath and Marjorie Angelo Coast Range Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 7008 California, United States
Hubbard Brook Biosphere Reserve 7809 New Hampshire, United States
Ivvavik National Park II 2382752 Yukon, Canada
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Jornada Biosphere Reserve Ib 30913 New Mexico, United States
Katmai National Park and Preserve Ib 421782 Alaska, United States
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kejimkujik Seaside Adjunct National Park II 4970 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Konza Prairie Biosphere Reserve 8617 Kansas, United States  
Kootenay National Park II 341762 British Columbia, Canada
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
Lake Chelan National Recreation Area II 606367 Washington, United States
Lake Mead National Recreation Area V 670229 Arizona, Nevada, United States
Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area V 103172 Washington, United States
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Lassen Volcanic National Park II 29388 California, United States
Lava Beds National Monument III 20002 California, United States
Mojave and Colorado Deserts Biosphere Reserve 5901 California, United States  
Mount Rainier National Park II 235186 Washington, United States
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
Natural Bridges National Monument III 7412 Utah, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Pecos National Historical Park V 6539 New Mexico, United States
Petrified Forest National Park II 44522 Arizona, United States
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserve de la Biosphere de Charlevoix Biosphere Reserve 1383790 Canada  
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Rocky Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 239938 Colorado, United States
San Joaquin Biosphere Reserve 4527 California, United States  
Scotts Bluff National Monument V 3185 Nebraska, United States
Sequoia and Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve II 172261 California, United States
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore II 62563 Michigan, United States
Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve 3821173 Canada  
University of MI Biosphere Reserve 10003 Michigan, United States  
Voyageurs National Park II 177960 Minnesota, United States
Vuntut National Park II 1076795 Yukon, Canada
Walnut Canyon National Monument V 3386 Arizona, United States
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
Whiskey-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area V 197791 California, United States
White Sands National Monument III 139922 New Mexico, United States
Wind Cave National Park II 29471 South Dakota, United States
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Woodland Caribou Provincial Wilderness Park Provincial Park II 1072124 Ontario, Canada
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States
Wupatki National Monument III 36098 Arizona, United States
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada
Yosemite National Park II 95209 California, United States
Zion National Park II 135667 Utah, United States

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No

Prey / Diet

Carex garberi (elk sedge)[3]
Picea glauca (Canadian spruce)[4]
Picea mariana (Black spruce)[4]
Salix alaxensis (feltleaf willow)[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acanthis flammea (Common Redpoll)1
Alces alces (moose)1
Castor canadensis (american beaver)1
Dendroctonus rufipennis (spruce beetle)2
Ernobius bicolor1
Lagopus lagopus (Willow Ptarmigan)1
Lagopus leucura (White-tailed Ptarmigan)2
Lemmus sibiricus (brown lemming)1
Lepus othus (Alaskan Hare)1
Loxia leucoptera (White-winged Crossbill)1
Ovibos moschatus (muskox)1
Ovis dalli (Dall's sheep)2
Pinicola enucleator (Pine Grosbeak)1
Rangifer tarandus (caribou)2
Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (red squirrel)3

Predators

Canis lupus (Wolf)[4]
Lynx canadensis (lynx)[4]
Martes pennanti (Fisher)[5]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Andrya americana <Unverified Name>[6]
Capillaria hepatica[6]
Ceratophyllus adustus[7]
Chaetopsylla setosa[7]
Dipetalonema arbuta <Unverified Name>[6]
Dirofilaria hystrix <Unverified Name>[6]
Dirofilaria spinosa <Unverified Name>[6]
Dirofilaria subdermata <Unverified Name>[6]
Evaginuris evaginata <Unverified Name>[6]
Monoecocestus americanus <Unverified Name>[6]
Schistosomatium douthitti[6]
Taenia twitchelli <Unverified Name>[6]
Thrassis acamantis acamantis[7]
Wellcomia compar <Unverified Name>[6]
Wellcomia evoluta <Unverified Name>[6]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Akron Zoological Park
Aquarium of Niagara
Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum
Artis Zoo
Bay Beach Wildlife Sanctuary
Bergen County Zoological Park
Biodome de Montreal
Blackpool Zoo
Bronx Children's Zoo
Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservat'n Society
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Garden
Calgary Zoo, Garden & Prehistoric Park
Cameron Park Zoobruneri
Cheyenne Mtn Zoological Park
Cleveland Metroparks Zoo
Columbian Park Zoo
Connecticut's Beardsley Zoo
Coyote Point Museum
Dakota Zoo
Denver Zoological Gardens
Disney's Animal Kingdom
Edinburgh Zoo-Scottish National Zoo
Exmoor Zoological Park
Forest Park Zoological Societybruneri
Fort Worth Zoological Park
Galloway Wildlife Conservation Park
Granby Zoo / Zoo de Granby
Great Plains Zooepixanthus
Houston Zoo, Inc.
INTERZOO
John Ball Zoological Garden
Lake Superior Zoological Gardens
Living Desert State Park (Carlsbad)
Milwaukee County Zoological Gardens
Minnesota Zoological Garden
Miskolc Zoo/Állatkert és Kultúrpark
Moonridge Animal Park
Museum of Science - Live Animal Center
NEW Zoo
Niabi Zoo
Northwest Trek Wildlife Park
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo
Parc Merveilleux
Pocatello Zoo
Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium
Prospect Park Zoo
Pueblo Zoo
Queens Zoo
Red River Zoo
Saitama Children's Zoo
San Diego Wild Animal Park
 dorsatum
San Diego Zoodorsatum
Schoenbrunner Tiergarten GmbH
Six Flags Discovery Kingdom
St. Paul's Como Zoo
The Philadelphia Zoo
Tierpark Hagenbeck GmbH
Topeka Zoological Park
Trevor Zoo at Millbrook School
Tulsa Zoo & Living Museum
Turtle Back Zoo
Ueno Zoological Gardens
Utica Zoo
Valley Zoo & John Janzen Nature Center
Willow Park Zoo
Woodland Park Zoological Gardens
Zoo Boise
Zoo Decin - Pastyrska Stena
Zoo New England, Stone Zoo
Zoo of Antwerp
Zoo Parc Overloon
Zoo Sauvage de St-Félicien
ZooAmerica (No. American Wildlife Pk.)
Zoological Garden Prague
Zoologicka zahrada Olomouc
Zoologická a botanická zahrada Plzen
Zoologischer Garten Halle GmbH
Zoologischer Garten Magdeburg

Range Map

Middle America; North America;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 3Exploring the Denali Food Web, ParkWise, National Park Service 4Making The Forest And Tundra Wildlife Connection 5Erethizon dorsatum, Charles A. Woods, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 29, pp. 1-6 (1973) 6Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 7International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access