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Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise; common porpoise)

Synonyms: Delphinus phocoena
Language: French

Wikipedia Abstract

The harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) is one of six species of porpoise. It is one of the smallest marine mammals. As its name implies, it stays close to coastal areas or river estuaries, and as such, is the most familiar porpoise to whale watchers. This porpoise often ventures up rivers, and has been seen hundreds of miles from the sea. The harbour porpoise may be polytypic, with geographically distinct populations representing distinct races: P. p.
View Wikipedia Record: Phocoena phocoena

Infraspecies

Phocoena phocoena phocoena (North Atlantic Harbor Porpoise)
Phocoena phocoena relicta (Black Sea Harbor Porpoise)
Phocoena phocoena vomerina (Eastern North Pacific Harbor Porpoise)

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
4
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
25
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 9.71
EDGE Score: 2.37

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  115.74 lbs (52.50 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  15.43 lbs (7.00 kg)
Female Maturity [2]  2 years 10 months
Male Maturity [2]  4 years
Diet [1]  Carnivore
Gestation [2]  10 months 20 days
Litter Size [2]  1
Litters / Year [2]  1
Maximum Longevity [2]  20 years
Speed [3]  13.65 MPH (6.1 m/s)
Water Biome [1]  Pelagic, Rivers and Streams, Coastal, Brackish Water
Weaning [2]  8 months 3 days

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Map Climate Land Use
Adlergrund 57815 Germany    
Agger Tange, Nissum Bredning, Skibsted Fjord og Agerø 63217 Denmark  
Æbelø, havet syd for og Nærå 27881 Denmark  
Ålborg Bugt, Randers Fjord og Mariager Fjord 169472 Denmark  
Banc d'Arguin National Park II 2949017 Mauritania
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
Borkum-Riffgrund 154559 Germany      
Cabo Busto-Luanco 28662 Spain    
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary   California, United States
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Clayoquot Sound Biosphere Reserve 864738 British Columbia, Canada  
Dee Estuary/ Aber Dyfrdwy 39057 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Doggerbank 419820 Germany      
Dornoch Firth and Morrich More 21499 Scotland, United Kingdom
Dråby Vig 4146 Denmark  
ESTRECHO 47388 Spain  
Far East State Marine Reserve 158928 Primorsky Krai, Russia      
Farallon National Wildlife Refuge IV 352 California, United States
Fehmarnbelt 69170 Germany  
FENGARI SAMOTHRAKIS, ANATOLIKES AKTES, VRACHONISSIDA ZOURAFA KAI THALASSIA ZONI 40619 Greece  
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fyns Hoved, Lillegrund og Lillestrand 5392 Denmark  
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Hamburgisches Wattenmeer 33977 Germany    
Havet mellem Romsø og Hindsholm samt Romsø 10415 Denmark  
Havet og kysten mellem Hundested og Rørvig 9894 Denmark    
Havet og kysten mellem Karrebæk Fjord og Knudshoved Odde 41773 Denmark  
Hesselø med omliggende stenrev 10361 Denmark      
Hirsholmene, havet vest herfor og Ellinge Œs udløb 23376 Denmark    
Ilhas Desertas 27927 Portugal      
Isles of Scilly Complex 66350 England, United Kingdom    
Kadetrinne 24728 Germany  
Kandalaksha State Nature Reserve 174283 Murmansk, Karelia, Russia
Karadagskiy Zapovednik Nature Zapovednik 13876 Ukraine  
Kims Top og den Kinesiske Mur 64475 Denmark  
Komandorsk Biosphere Reserve 9016082 Kamchatka Krai , Russia      
Kosterfjorden-Väderöfjorden 132206 Sweden  
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
Kronotsky Biosphere Reserve 2822275 Kamchatka Krai , Russia
Løgstør Bredning, Vejlerne og Bulbjerg 110624 Denmark    
Lillebælt 86610 Denmark  
Lochs Duich, Long and Alsh Reefs 5883 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Luce Bay and Sands 120487 Scotland, United Kingdom
Lysegrund 7804 Denmark      
Maden på Helnæs og havet vest for 5053 Denmark  
MIKRES KYKLADES: IRAKLEIA, SCHOINOUSSA, KOUFONISIA, KEROS, ANTIKERIA KAI THALASSIA ZONI 31088 Greece  
Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve II 20461 Quebec, Canada
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Mull of Galloway 337 Scotland, United Kingdom
Nakskov Fjord 20250 Denmark  
Nationalpark Niedersächsisches Wattenmeer 684374 Germany      
North Harris 32450 Scotland, United Kingdom
North Northumberland Dunes 2836 England, United Kingdom  
NTP S-H Wattenmeer und angrenzende Küstengebiete 1118041 Germany  
Ostoja Slowinska 79446 Poland    
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Parque Nacional Laguna San Rafael National Park II 4560904 Aisén, Chile  
Penarronda-Barayo 10544 Spain    
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Prince Edward Island National Park II   Prince Edward Island, Canada  
Røsnæs, Røsnæs Rev og Kalundborg Fjord 13996 Denmark  
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Roskilde Fjord 33293 Denmark  
Ruegen   Germany        
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada
SBZ 1 / ZPS 1 27164 Belgium  
SBZ 2 / ZPS 2 35751 Belgium  
SBZ 3 / ZPS 3 14038 Belgium    
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Sejerø Bugt og Saltbæk Vig 108509 Denmark    
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Shell Flat and Lune Deep 26107 England, United Kingdom
Skagens Gren og Skagerrak 664909 Denmark    
Skælskør Fjord og havet og kysten mellem Agersø og Glænø 42890 Denmark  
Smålandsfarvandet nord for Lolland, Guldborg Sund, Bøtø Nor og Hyllekrog-Rødsand 192367 Denmark  
Solway Firth 107829 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
South Solway Mosses 4849 England, United Kingdom
SPA Östliche Deutsche Bucht 774707 Germany      
SPA Pommersche Bucht 495241 Germany    
Stavns Fjord, Samsø Østerflak og Nordby Hede 38704 Denmark  
Stora Middelgrund och Röde bank 28195 Sweden  
Store Middelgrund 5281 Denmark  
Sydfynske Øhav 111163 Denmark  
Sydlige Nordsø 608611 Denmark      
Sylter Außenriff 1313190 Germany      
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Vadehavet med Ribe Å, Tved Å og Varde Å vest for Varde 332930 Denmark  
Venø, Venø Sund 7230 Denmark  
Vrångöskärgården 17306 Sweden  
Waddensea Area Nature Reserve with Management Subsidy IV 600666 Netherlands  
Westliche Rönnebank 21254 Germany    
Wolin i Uznam 76089 Poland    
Zatoka Pucka i Pólwysep Helski 66334 Poland    

Prey / Diet

Ammodytes tobianus (lesser sand eel)[3]
Aphia minuta (Transparent goby)[4]
Atherina boyeri (Big-scale sand smelt)[4]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[5]
Clupea pallasii (Pacific herring)[4]
Doryteuthis opalescens (california market squid)[6]
Doryteuthis pealeii (longfin inshore squid)[4]
Engraulis encrasicolus (Southern African anchovy)[4]
Limanda limanda (Sand dab)[4]
Mallotus villosus (Capelin)[5]
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)[4]
Merluccius bilinearis (Whiting)[4]
Mesogobius batrachocephalus (Knout goby)[4]
Neogobius melanostomus (Round goby)[4]
Osmerus mordax (Rainbow smelt)[4]
Pegusa lascaris (Sand sole)[4]
Pollachius virens (Sillock)[4]
Ponticola syrman (Syrman goby)[4]
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot)[4]
Sander lucioperca (Pike-perch)[4]
Sardinops sagax (Australian pilchard)[4]
Scomber scombrus (Split)[4]
Solea solea (True sole)[4]
Trisopterus esmarkii (Norway pout)[4]
Urophycis tenuis (White hake)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alopias vulpinus (Zorro thresher shark)2
Amblyraja hyperborea (Arctic skate)2
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)4
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)5
Balaenoptera borealis (Sei Whale)2
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)3
Carcharhinus plumbeus (Thickskin shark)2
Cerorhinca monocerata (Rhinoceros Auklet)2
Coryphaena hippurus (Mahi-mahi)2
Cystophora cristata (Hooded Seal)3
Delphinus delphis (Short-beaked Saddleback Dolphin)3
Entosphenus tridentatus (Pacific lamprey)2
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)3
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)3
Gadus morhua (rock cod)2
Globicephala melas (Long-finned Pilot Whale)4
Halichoerus grypus (Gray Seal)2
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)4
Histriophoca fasciata (Ribbon Seal)2
Lagenorhynchus acutus (Atlantic White-sided Dolphin)4
Lagenorhynchus albirostris (White-beaked Dolphin)4
Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific White-sided Dolphin)3
Lamna nasus (Porbeagle shark)3
Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)2
Larus canus (Mew Gull)2
Larus glaucescens (Glaucous-winged Gull)2
Lota lota (Thin-tailed burbot)2
Micropterus dolomieu (Smallmouth bass)2
Morus bassanus (Northern Gannet)3
Oncorhynchus kisutch (coho salmon or silver salmon)2
Oncorhynchus mykiss (redband trout)2
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon or king salmon)2
Ophiodon elongatus (Lingcod)2
Pagophilus groenlandicus (Harp Seal)2
Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant)2
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)5
Prionace glauca (Tribon blou)4
Puffinus griseus (Sooty Shearwater)2
Salmo trutta (Brown trout)2
Salvelinus namaycush (American lake char)2
Sander vitreus (Walleye)2
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)2
Theragra chalcogramma (Whiting)2
Thunnus thynnus (horse mackerel)4
Tursiops truncatus (Bottlenosed Dolphin)2
Uria aalge (Common Murre)5
Urophycis tenuis (White hake)2
Xiphias gladius (Swordfish)2

Predators

Carcharodon carcharias (Maneater shark)[3]
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)[7]
Somniosus microcephalus (gray shark)[3]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Anisakis simplex[3]
Anisakis typica[3]
Bolbosoma capitatum[8]
Braunina cordiformis[3]
Campula oblonga[8]
Contracaecum aduncum[8]
Contracaecum osculatum[8]
Corynosoma alaskensis[3]
Corynosoma semerme[8]
Corynosoma strumosum[3]
Diphyllobothrium lanceolatum[8]
Diphyllobothrium latum[8]
Diphyllobothrium plerocercoid <Unverified Name>[8]
Diphyllobothrium stemmacephalum[8]
Distomum pallasii <Unverified Name>[8]
Hadwenius mironovus <Unverified Name>[8]
Hadwenius nipponicus[3]
Halocercus invaginatus[3]
Halocercus ponticus[8]
Halocercus taurica[8]
Lecithodesmus nipponicus <Unverified Name>[8]
Opisthorchis tenuicollis[8]
Orthosplanchnus minorovi <Unverified Name>[8]
Pharurus convolutus <Unverified Name>[8]
Pholeter gastrophilus[3]
Pseudalius inflexus[3]
Pseudoterranova decipiens[8]
Pyramicocephalus phocarum[8]
Stenurus minor[8]
Terranova decipiens[3]
Torynurus convolutus[3]
Torynurus dalli <Unverified Name>[8]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Kamogawa Sea World
Vancouver Aquarium Marine Science Ctr

Distribution

East Pacific; Eastern Atlantic Ocean; Indo-West Pacific; Western Atlantic Ocean;

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Gardner A.L, 05-Dec-2008, ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 3Phocoena phocoena, David E. Gaskin, Peter W. Arnold, and Barbara A. Blair, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 42, pp. 1-8 (1974) 4THE DIET OF HARBOUR PORPOISE (PHOCOENA PHOCOENA) IN THE NORTHEAST ATLANTIC, M. B. SANTOS & G. J. PIERCE, Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review 2003, 41, 355–390 5Summer Diet of the Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in the Estuary and the Northern Gulf of St. Lawrence, Pierre-Michel Fontaine, Mike O. Hammill, Cyrille Barrette, and Michael C. Kingsley, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 51(1): 172–178 (1994) 6CephBase - Cephalopod (Octopus, Squid, Cuttlefish and Nautilus) Database 7Food Web Relationships of Northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca : a Synthesis of the Available Knowledge, Charles A. Simenstad, Bruce S. Miller, Carl F. Nyblade, Kathleen Thornburgh, and Lewis J. Bledsoe, EPA-600 7-29-259 September 1979 8Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955 Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility Specially protected natural territories of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
EDGE analysis provided by EDGE of Existence programme, Zoological Society of London
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011