Species recognized by Gardner A.L, 20-Aug-2007, ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System in
Attributes / relations provided by ♦ 1
Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org ♦ 2Ursus maritimus
, Douglas P. DeMaster and Ian Stirling, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 145, pp. 7 (1981) ♦ 3
de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits.
Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 ♦ 4Diet composition of polar bears in Svalbard and the western Barents Sea
, Andrew E. Derocher, Øystein Wiig, Magnus Andersen, Polar Biol (2002) 25: 448452 ♦ 5Alaska Wildlife Notebook Series
, Alaska Department of Fish and Game ♦ 6Alopex lagopus
, Alexandra M. Audet, C. Brian Robbins, and Serge Larivière, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 713, pp. 110 (2002) ♦ 7
Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database
of the Natural History Museum, London
Range map provided by IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature), Conservation International & NatureServe.