Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Carnivora > Canidae > Vulpes > Vulpes vulpes
 

Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)

Language: French

Infraspecies

Invasive Species

The European red fox is probably responsible for declines of some small canids and ground-nesting birds in North America, and numerous small- and medium-sized rodents and marsupials in Australia. A programme to reduce predation pressure on native fauna within the critical weight range of 35 g to 5.5 kg in Western Australia has involved the use of 1080 fox baits.
View ISSG Record: Vulpes vulpes

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
1
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
12
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 3.55
EDGE Score: 1.52

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  9.11 lbs (4.13 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  100 grams
Female Maturity [1]  10 months 4 days
Male Maturity [1]  10 months 4 days
Diet [2]  Omnivore
Gestation [1]  52 days
Litter Size [1]  5
Litters / Year [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [1]  21 years
Nocturnal [2]  Yes
Speed [3]  32.01 MPH (14.31 m/s)
Weaning [1]  48 days

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Afghan Mountains semi-desert Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Al Hajar montane woodlands Oman Afrotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Alai-Western Tian Shan steppe Kazahkstan, Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Alashan Plateau semi-desert China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Alaska Peninsula montane taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Alaska-St. Elias Range tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Alberta Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Alberta-British Columbia foothills forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Allegheny Highlands forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai alpine meadow and tundra China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Altai montane forest and forest steppe China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai steppe and semi-desert Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Amur meadow steppe China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests Turkey Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appenine deciduous montane forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Egypt , Iraq, Jordan, Syria Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Arctic coastal tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra    
Arctic foothills tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Badghyz and Karabil semi-desert Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Tajikistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Baffin coastal tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baluchistan xeric woodlands Pakistan, Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Bering tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Beringia lowland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Beringia upland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Blue Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Bohai Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas  
British Columbia mainland coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Brooks-British Range tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Caledon conifer forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
California Central Valley grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
California coastal sage and chaparral Mexico, United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California interior chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California montane chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Canadian Aspen forests and parklands Canada Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Carpathian montane forests Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Cascade Mountains leeward forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Caspian lowland desert Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Caucasus mixed forests Georgia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central Afghan Mountains xeric woodlands Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Anatolian steppe Turkey Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central and Southern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Asian northern desert Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Asian riparian woodlands Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Asian southern desert Turkmenistan stretching, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central British Columbia Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Central China loess plateau mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central forest-grasslands transition United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Indochina dry forests Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central Korean deciduous forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Pacific coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Central Persian desert basins Iran, Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Central U.S. hardwood forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Changbai Mountains mixed forests China, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Changjiang Plain evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cherskii-Kolyma mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Chhota-Nagpur dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma montane forests Myanmar, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chukchi Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Colorado Plateau shrublands United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Colorado Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Cook Inlet taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Copper Plateau taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Corsican montane broadleaf and mixed forests France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Crimean Submediterranean forest complex Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Da Hinggan-Dzhagdy Mountains conifer forests China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Daba Mountains evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Daurian forest steppe China, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Davis Highlands tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East Afghan montane conifer forests Pakistan, Afghanistan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
East Central Texas forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East European forest steppe Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Iran, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Eastern forest-boreal transition Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Gobi desert steppe China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Coniferous Forests
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Edwards Plateau savanna United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Elburz Range forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests    
Emin Valley steppe China, Kazakstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Euxine-Colchic broadleaf forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Everglades United States Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Flint Hills tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Florida sand pine scrub United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Fraser Plateau and Basin complex Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Ghorat-Hazarajat alpine meadow Afghanistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Gissaro-Alai open woodlands Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Goadavari-Krishna mangroves India Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Gobi Lakes Valley desert steppe Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Great Basin montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Great Lakes Basin desert steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Guizhou Plateau broadleaf and mixed forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Gulf of Oman desert and semi-desert Oman, United Arab Emirates Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Hainan Island monsoon rain forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Helanshan montane conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Hengduan Mountains subalpine conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
High Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Himalayan subtropical pine forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Hindu Kush alpine meadow Afghanistan, Pakistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Hokkaido deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Hokkaido montane conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Honshu alpine conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Huang He Plain mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Iberian conifer forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Illyrian deciduous forests Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Indochina mangroves Thailand, Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Indus River Delta-Arabian Sea mangroves India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Indus Valley desert Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga Canada, United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Interior Yukon-Alaska alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Irrawaddy dry forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Irrawaddy moist deciduous forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Jian Nan subtropical evergreen forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Junggar Basin semi-desert China, Kazakstan, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kamchatka Mountain tundra and forest tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Kamchatka-Kurile meadows and sparse forests Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Kamchatka-Kurile taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe Pakistan, China, Afghanistan, India Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Kayah-Karen montane rain forests Myanmar, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Kazakh forest steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh semi-desert Kazakhstan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kazakh steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh upland Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Khangai Mountains alpine meadow Mongolia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Khangai Mountains conifer forests Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Klamath-Siskiyou forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Kola Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Kopet Dag semi-desert Iran, Turkmenistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kopet Dag woodlands and forest steppe Iran, Turkmenistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Kuh Rud and Eastern Iran montane woodlands Iran Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Low Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Luang Prabang montane rain forests Laos, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets Morocco, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean High Atlas juniper steppe Morocco Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Meghalaya subtropical forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mesopotamian shrub desert Iraq, Syria, Jordan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Mid-Continental Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Middle Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Middle East steppe Syria, Iraq Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Midwestern Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Mississippi lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests Myanmar, India, Bangladesh Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Muskwa-Slave Lake forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Myanmar coastal rain forests Myanmar, Bangladesh Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Narmada Valley dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Nebraska Sand Hills mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Nenjiang River grassland China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Newfoundland Highland forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Nihonkai evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Nihonkai montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Nile Delta flooded savanna Egypt Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Central Rockies forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
North Saharan steppe and woodlands Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
North Tibetan Plateau-Kunlun Mountains alpine desert China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Northeast China Plain deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeast India-Myanmar pine forests India, Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Northeast Siberian coastal tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Northeast Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests China, India, Bhutan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Annamites rain forests Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern Cordillera forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Northern Indochina subtropical forests China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Khorat Plateau moist deciduous forests Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Pacific coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Thailand-Laos moist deciduous forests Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern transitional alpine forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Triangle subtropical forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Triangle temperate forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern Vietnam lowland rain forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Northwest Iberian montane forests Portugal, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Northwest Territories taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows China, Pakistan, India Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Northwestern thorn scrub forests India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Nujiang Langcang Gorge alpine conifer and mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Ogilvie-MacKenzie alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Okanagan dry forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Ordos Plateau steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Orissa semi-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ozark Mountain forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pacific Coastal Mountain icefields and tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Palouse grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pamir alpine desert and tundra China, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Paropamisus xeric woodlands Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Persian Gulf desert and semi-desert Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Pindus Mountains mixed forests Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Piney Woods forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Puget lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Pyrenees conifer and mixed forests Spain, France, Andorra Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Qaidam Basin semi-desert China Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Qilian Mountains conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Qilian Mountains subalpine meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Qin Ling Mountains deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Qionglai-Minshan conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Rann of Kutch seasonal salt marsh India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Red River freshwater swamp forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert Egypt, Jordan, Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Registan-North Pakistan sandy desert Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Rodope montane mixed forests Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sahara desert Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Algeria, Mauritania, Mali, Chad, Niger Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sahelian Acacia savanna Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sayan Alpine meadows and tundra Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sayan Intermontane steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sayan montane conifer forests Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
Selenge-Orkhon forest steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sichuan Basin evergreen broadleaf forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sierra Nevada forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Snake-Columbia shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Appenine mixed montane forests Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
South Avalon-Burin oceanic barrens Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
South Central Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forests China, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Iran Nubo-Sindian desert and semi-desert Iran, Iraq, Pakistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Saharan steppe and woodlands Mauritania, Mali, Algeria, Niger, Chad, Sudan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Siberian forest steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southeast Tibet shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southeastern Indochina dry evergreen forests Viet Nam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southern Annamites montane rain forests Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Hudson Bay taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Southern Korea evergreen forests South Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Vietnam lowland dry forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Morocco Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southwestern Arabian foothills savanna Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Oman Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Southwestern Arabian montane woodlands Yemen, Saudi Arabia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Suiphun-Khanka meadows and forest meadows China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Sulaiman Range alpine meadows Afghanistan, Pakistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sundarbans freshwater swamp forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sundarbans mangroves Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Taiheiyo evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiheiyo montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taimyr-Central Siberian tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Taklimakan desert China Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tarim Basin deciduous forests and steppe China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Texas blackland prairies United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Thar desert India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tian Shan foothill arid steppe China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tian Shan montane conifer forests China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Tian Shan montane steppe and meadows China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tibetan Plateau alpine shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh Iran, Iraq Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Torngat Mountain tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Trans-Baikal Bald Mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Trans-Baikal conifer forests Russia, Mongolia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests France, Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub    
Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Ural montane forests and tundra Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Ussuri broadleaf and mixed forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Wasatch and Uinta montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
West Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands  
Western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows India, Nepal Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Western Himalayan broadleaf forests India, Pakistan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests India, Pakistan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Coniferous Forests
Western short grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Siberian hemiboreal forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Willamette Valley forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Wyoming Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Yamal-Gydan tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Yarlung Tsangpo arid steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Yellow Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Yukon Interior dry forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Yunnan Plateau subtropical evergreen forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Zagros Mountains forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Ailaoshan Nature Reserve V 332544 Yunnan, China  
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Altaisky Zapovednik Ia 2177587 Altai, Russia
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Auyuittuq National Park II 4808115 Nunavut, Canada
Badghyz Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 215164 Turkmenistan  
Baikalo-Lensky Zapovednik Ia 1630896 Irkutsk, Russia
Baikalskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 458883 Russia  
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berezinskiy Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 209113 Belarus  
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Big Thicket Biosphere Reserve National Park II 616880 Texas, United States
Canyonlands National Park II 335430 Utah, United States
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Capital Reef National Park II 243722 Utah, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Chernye Zemli Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik IV 621951 Russia  
Craters of the Moon National Monument V 690996 Idaho, United States
Croajingolong National Park II 217067 Victoria, Australia
Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve 1433211 Romania
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
Daurskiy Biosphere Reserve 562659 Russia  
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
Dinosaur National Monument III 203307 Colorado, Utah, United States
Fitzgerald River National Park II 732417 Western Australia, Australia
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Fujian Wuyishan Nature Reserve V 206754 Fujian, China  
Gaoligong Mountain National Nature Reserve V 1245925 Yunnan, China  
Grampians National Park II 416373 Victoria, Australia
Grand Teton National Park II 231724 Wyoming, United States
Great Gobi National Park Ia 13211440 Mongolia  
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Ivvavik National Park II 2382752 Yukon, Canada
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Kaplankyr Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 1293994 Turkmenistan  
Katunsky Biosphere Reserve 393162 Altai, Russia
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
Lake Chelan National Recreation Area II 606367 Washington, United States
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Lake Torne Area Biosphere Reserve 238457 Sweden  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Lazovsky Zapovednik Ia 299030 Primorsky Krai, Russia
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
Magadansky Zapovednik 2332834 Russia  
Malaya Sozva Zapovednik Ia 557376 Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia
Mont Ventoux Biosphere Reserve 198594 France  
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Mount Everest (Sagarmatha) National Park II 275416 Nepal
Mount Hakusan National Park V 219319 Toyama, Japan
Mount Rainier National Park II 235186 Washington, United States
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Noatak Biosphere Reserve 7500143 Alaska, United States  
North Pennine Moors 254789 England, United Kingdom
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Parco Del Cilento e Vallo de Diano National Park 551095 Italy
Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio National Park V 333737 Italy
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Queen Maud Gulf Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird Sanctuary IV 15335601 Nunavut, Canada
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra Nevada Biosphere Reserve 424147 Spain  
Reserve de la Biosphere de Charlevoix Biosphere Reserve 1383790 Canada  
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Riverland Biosphere Reserve Ia 1490891 South Australia, Australia
Rocky Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 239938 Colorado, United States
SIERRA NORTE 438558 Spain  
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  
Sirmilik National Park II 5475284 Canada
Sokhondinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 521363 Chita, Russia
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve 3821173 Canada  
Teberdinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 210198 Karachay-Cherkessia, Russia
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Tuktut Nogait National Park II 5761538 Northwest Territories, Canada
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Uluru - Kata Tjuta National Park II 332429 Northern Territory, Australia
Visimskiy Zapovednik Biosphere Reserve 443816 Russia  
Vuntut National Park II 1076795 Yukon, Canada
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Winisk River Provincial Park II 434735 Ontario, Canada
Wolong Nature Reserve V 826140 Sichuan, China  
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Woodland Caribou Provincial Wilderness Park Provincial Park II 1072124 Ontario, Canada
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States
Yathong Nature Reserve Ia 270264 New South Wales, Australia
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Eastern Afromontane Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe No
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Horn of Africa Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Yemen No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Japan Japan No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No
Mountains of Central Asia Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan No
Mountains of Southwest China China, Myanmar No

Prey / Diet

Abax pilleri[4]
Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird)[5]
Agkistrodon contortrix (Southern Copperhead)[5]
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)[5]
Ampelocissus latifolia (American ivy)[5]
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)[5]
Anaxyrus boreas (Western Toad)[6]
Apodemus flavicollis (Yellow-necked mouse)[4]
Apodemus sylvaticus (Old World wood and field mouse)[4]
Arvicola terrestris (European water vole)[4]
Blarina carolinensis (Southern Short-tailed Shrew)[7]
Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse)[8]
Branta canadensis (Canada Goose)[5]
Branta hutchinsii (Cackling Goose)[8]
Calcarius lapponicus (Lapland Longspur)[8]
Callospermophilus saturatus (Cascade golden-mantled ground squirrel)[9]
Capreolus capreolus (western roe deer)[4]
Carya alba (mockernut hickory)[5]
Castor canadensis (american beaver)[5]
Cathartes aura (Turkey Vulture)[5]
Cercartetus nanus (Eastern Pygmy Possum)[10]
Charadrius alexandrinus (Snowy Plover)[11]
Chorthippus biguttulus (Bow-winged Grasshopper)[4]
Clethrionomys glareolus (Bank vole)[4]
Clethrionomys rutilus (northern red-backed vole)[8]
Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)[5]
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood)[5]
Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow)[5]
Cryptotis parva (North American Least Shrew)[5]
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum)[5]
Dolichovespula maculata (baldfaced hornet)[5]
Dynastes tityus (Eastern hercules beetle)[5]
Eurycea guttolineata (Three-lined Salamander)[5]
Fagus grandifolia (American beech)[5]
Gavia pacifica (Pacific Loon)[8]
Geothlypis trichas (Common Yellowthroat)[5]
Gryllus pennsylvanicus (fall field cricket)[5]
Heterodon platirhinos (Eastern Hognose Snake)[5]
Ilex opaca (American holly)[5]
Juniperus virginiana (Eastern Red-cedar)[5]
Lagopus lagopus (Willow Ptarmigan)[8]
Lagopus leucura (White-tailed Ptarmigan)[12]
Lemmus sibiricus (brown lemming)[8]
Lepus americanus (Snowshoe Hare)[8]
Lepus arcticus (Arctic Hare)[13]
Lepus europaeus (European Hare)[4]
Lepus townsendii (White-tailed Jackrabbit)[14]
Lumbricus rubellus <Unverified Name>[4]
Lumbricus terrestris[4]
Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)[5]
Martes americana (American Marten)[8]
Megaceryle alcyon (Belted Kingfisher)[5]
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)[5]
Mephitis mephitis (Striped Skunk)[5]
Microtus agrestis (field vole)[4]
Microtus arvalis (common vole)[4]
Microtus canicaudus (gray-tailed vole)[15]
Microtus pinetorum (woodland vole)[16]
Microtus townsendii (Townsend's vole)[17]
Mustela erminea (Ermine)[8]
Mustela frenata (Long-tailed Weasel)[18]
Numenius americanus (Long-billed Curlew)[19]
Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat)[5]
Oryzomys palustris (marsh rice rat)[20]
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)[5]
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)[5]
Plestiodon fasciatus (Five-lined Skink)[5]
Poliocitellus franklinii (Franklin's ground squirrel)[21]
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)[5]
Prunus mahaleb (St Lucie cherry)[22]
Prunus serotina (Black Cherry)[5]
Quercus phellos (Willow Oak)[5]
Quercus velutina (Black Oak)[5]
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat)[5]
Rubus idaeus (Raspberry)[8]
Scalopus aquaticus (Eastern Mole)[5]
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)[5]
Sciurus niger (eastern fox squirrel)[23]
Spermophilus xanthoprymnus (Asia Minor ground squirrel)[24]
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail)[5]
Talpa europaea (European Mole)[4]
Tamias striatus (eastern chipmunk)[5]
Terrapene carolina (Florida Box Turtle)[5]
Trifolium pratense (Red Clover)[5]
Urocitellus elegans (Wyoming ground squirrel)[25]
Urocitellus parryii (Arctic ground squirrel)[8]
Urocitellus richardsonii (Richardson's ground squirrel)[26]
Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry)[5]
Vulpes lagopus (Arctic Fox)[27]
Phytolacca americana (common pokeweed)[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Accipiter gentilis (Northern Goshawk)7
Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawk)5
Acrosternum hilare (Green stinkbug)5
Aegolius funereus (Boreal Owl)5
Agkistrodon contortrix (Southern Copperhead)10
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)4
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)4
Anaxyrus americanus americanus (Eastern American Toad)3
Apis mellifera (honey bee)5
Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)7
Ardea cinerea (Grey Heron)5
Asio flammeus (Short-eared Owl)6
Asio otus (Long-eared Owl)12
Athene noctua (Little Owl)4
Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse)7
Bubo scandiacus (Snowy Owl)4
Bubo virginianus (Great Horned Owl)7
Buteo buteo (Common Buzzard)7
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)21
Buteo lagopus (Rough-legged Hawk)7
Buteo regalis (Ferruginous Hawk)4
Canis latrans (Coyote)15
Canis lupus (Wolf)9
Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal)8
Carduelis tristis (American Goldfinch)3
Castor canadensis (american beaver)4
Chelydra serpentina (Common Snapping Turtle)3
Ciconia ciconia (White Stork)7
Circus aeruginosus (Western Marsh Harrier)4
Circus cyaneus (Northern Harrier)6
Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)6
Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow)12
Corvus corax (Northern Raven)7
Crotalus horridus (Timber rattlesnake (atricaudatus))7
Cryptotis parva (North American Least Shrew)3
Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay)10
Diapheromera femorata (Common American Walkingstick)3
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum)11
Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker)7
Erinaceus europaeus (western European hedgehog)3
Falco rusticolus (Gyrfalcon)5
Falco tinnunculus (Eurasian Kestrel)4
Felis silvestris (Wildcat)7
Gulo gulo (Wolverine)3
Heterodon platirhinos (Eastern Hognose Snake)6
Lampropeltis calligaster (Prairie Kingsnake)4
Lanius collurio (Red-backed Shrike)6
Lanius excubitor (Northern Shrike)4
Lynx canadensis (lynx)7
Lynx rufus (Bobcat)5
Marmota monax (woodchuck)3
Martes americana (American Marten)6
Martes martes (European Pine Marten)4
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)13
Mephitis mephitis (Striped Skunk)15
Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole)6
Milvus migrans (Black Kite)4
Milvus milvus (Red Kite)6
Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird)7
Mustela erminea (Ermine)11
Mustela frenata (Long-tailed Weasel)6
Mustela nivalis (Least Weasel)8
Mustela putorius (European Polecat)3
Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher)7
Neovison vison (American Mink)4
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)11
Papilio glaucus (Eastern tiger swallowtail)3
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)9
Pica pica (Eurasian Magpie)3
Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker)6
Pituophis melanoleucus (Eastern Pine Snake)4
Plestiodon fasciatus (Five-lined Skink)3
Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee)3
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)18
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat)3
Rhagio scolopaceus (Downlooker Snipe Fly)3
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)10
Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)9
Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch)6
Strix aluco (Tawny Owl)6
Strix nebulosa (Great Grey Owl)3
Strix varia (Barred Owl)18
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)7
Sus scrofa (wild boar)4
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail)8
Tamias striatus (eastern chipmunk)10
Taxidea taxus (American Badger)4
Thryothorus ludovicianus (Carolina Wren)3
Turdus merula (Eurasian Blackbird)3
Turdus migratorius (American Robin)8
Tyto alba (Barn Owl)8
Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Gray Fox)6
Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)6
Zamenis longissimus (Aesculapean Snake)5
Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove)4
Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow)3

Predators

Aquila audax (Wedge-tailed Eagle)[28]
Calliphora vomitoria (Blue bottle fly)[5]
Canis lupus (Wolf)[8]
Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick)[5]
Echidnophaga myrmecobii (Red flea)[29]
Gypaetus barbatus (Bearded Vulture)[30]
Lynx canadensis (lynx)[8]
Triatoma sanguisuga (Eastern blood-sucking cone)[5]
Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)[8]

Providers

Shelter 
Crataegus viridis (desert hawthorn)[5]
Phragmites australis (common reed)[5]
Pinus taeda (Loblolly pine)[5]
Pteridium aquilinum (northern bracken fern)[5]
Smilax rotundifolia (Horse Brier)[5]
Typha latifolia (Reedmace)[5]
Phytolacca americana (common pokeweed)[5]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Acanthocheilonema dracunculoides <Unverified Name>[31]
Aelurostrongylus pridhami <Unverified Name>[31]
Ajellomyces crescens[32]
Alaria alata <Unverified Name>[31]
Alaria americana <Unverified Name>[31]
Alaria arisaemoides[31]
Alaria marcianae <Unverified Name>[31]
Alaria mustelae[31]
Alveococcus multilocularis <Unverified Name>[31]
Amalaraeus dissimilis[33]
Amalaraeus penicilliger mustelae[33]
Amalaraeus penicilliger syrt[33]
Amblyomma americanum (Lone Star tick)[32]
Amoebotaenia paradoxa <Unverified Name>[31]
Amphalius runatus runatus[33]
Amphipsylla longispina longispina[33]
Amphipsylla marikovskii ewingi[33]
Amphipsylla primaris mitis[33]
Amphipsylla primaris primaris[33]
Amphipsylla schelkovnikovi[33]
Amphipsylla sibirica sepifera[33]
Anaplasma phagocytophilum[32]
Ancylostoma caninum[31]
Ancylostoma kusimaense <Unverified Name>[31]
Ancylostoma tubaeforme[31]
Angiostrongylus vasorum[31]
Aonchotheca putorii <Unverified Name>[31]
Apophallus donicus[31]
Archaeopsylla erinacei[32]
Archaeopsylla erinacei erinacei[33]
Arthrostoma miyazakiense <Unverified Name>[31]
Ascaris marginata <Unverified Name>[31]
Ascaris triquetra <Unverified Name>[31]
Blastomyces dermatitidis[32]
Borrelia afzelii[32]
Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease)[32]
Brachylaima recurva <Unverified Name>[31]
Brucella abortus[32]
Brucella canis[32]
Caenopsylla laptevi laptevi[33]
Calliphora vomitoria[5]
Callopsylla kaznakovi[33]
Calodium plica <Unverified Name>[31]
Capillaria aerophila[31]
Capillaria bohmi <Unverified Name>[31]
Capillaria plica[31]
Cediopsylla inaequalis inaequalis[33]
Cediopsylla simplex[33]
Centrorhynchus elongatus[32]
Ceratophyllus gallinae (European chicken flea)[32]
Ceratophyllus spinosus[33]
Ceratophyllus vison[33]
Chaetopsylla globiceps[32]
Chaetopsylla homoea[33]
Chaetopsylla korobkovi[33]
Chaetopsylla lasia[33]
Chaetopsylla lotoris[33]
Chaetopsylla matina[33]
Chaetopsylla mikado[33]
Chaetopsylla mirabilis[33]
Chaetopsylla rothschildi[33]
Chaetopsylla trichosa[32]
Citellophilus altaicus[33]
Citellophilus sungaris sungaris[33]
Clonorchis sinensis (human liver fluke)[31]
Concinnum ten <Unverified Name>[31]
Coptopsylla caucasica[33]
Corynosoma strumosum[31]
Crenosoma decoratum <Unverified Name>[31]
Crenosoma vulpis[31]
Cryptocotyle lingua[31]
Ctenocephalides arabicus[33]
Ctenocephalides canis (Dog flea)[33]
Ctenocephalides felis (Cat flea)[32]
Ctenocephalides felis felis[33]
Ctenophthalmus bisoctodentatus bisoctodentatus[33]
Ctenophthalmus iranus iranus[33]
Ctenophthalmus pollex[33]
Ctenophthalmus rettigi smiti[33]
Ctenophthalmus secundus asiaticus[33]
Ctenophthalmus teres[33]
Cylicospirura skrjabini <Unverified Name>[31]
Dermacentor variabilis[5]
Dicrocoelium dendriticum (Lancet liver fluke)[31]
Dilepis undula[31]
Dilepis vulpes <Unverified Name>[31]
Dioctophyme renale[31]
Dipetalonema reconditum <Unverified Name>[31]
Diphyllobothrium cordatum[31]
Diphyllobothrium erinacei <Unverified Name>[31]
Diphyllobothrium latum[31]
Diphyllobothrium minus <Unverified Name>[31]
Diplopylidium noelleri <Unverified Name>[31]
Dipylidium caninum (cucumber tapeworm)[31]
Dirofilaria immitis (Heartworm)[31]
Dirofilaria ochmanni <Unverified Name>[31]
Dirofilaria repens <Unverified Name>[31]
Dochmius trigonocephalus <Unverified Name>[31]
Echidnophaga gallinacea (sticktight flea)[33]
Echidnophaga myrmecobii[33]
Echidnophaga perilis (Rabbit stickfast flea)[33]
Echinochasmus perfoliatus <Unverified Name>[31]
Echinococcus granulosus[31]
Echinococcus multilocularis[31]
Echinoparyphium multiovatus <Unverified Name>[31]
Echinostoma revolutum[31]
Ehrlichia canis[32]
Euchoplopsyllus glacialis lynx[33]
Eucoleus aerophilus <Unverified Name>[31]
Eucoleus boehemi <Unverified Name>[31]
Euparyphium melis <Unverified Name>[31]
Euryhelmis squamula[31]
Eurytrema procyonis <Unverified Name>[31]
Filaroides martis[31]
Frontopsylla mutata[33]
Frontopsylla semura[33]
Giardia duodenalis <Unverified Name>[29]
Graphidium strigosum[31]
Haplorchis taichui <Unverified Name>[31]
Hasstilesia tricolor[31]
Heligmosomum costellatum <Unverified Name>[31]
Hemistomum alatum <Unverified Name>[31]
Heterophyes dispar[31]
Heterophyes heterophyes[31]
Hydatigera krepkogorski <Unverified Name>[31]
Hydatigera taeniaeformis[31]
Isthmiophora melis[31]
Ixodes canisuga (Dog tick)[32]
Ixodes hexagonus (European dog tick)[32]
Ixodes nipponensis[32]
Ixodes ovatus[32]
Ixodes persulcatus (Taiga tick)[32]
Ixodes ricinus (Deer tick)[32]
Ixodes scapularis (Black legged tick)[32]
Ixodes ventalloi (Rabbit tick)[32]
Joyeuxiella echinorhynchoides <Unverified Name>[31]
Joyeuxiella pasqualei[31]
Leptopsylla algira popovi[33]
Leptospira interrogans[32]
Linguatula serrata (tongueworm)[29]
Macracanthorhynchus catulinus[31]
Mastophorus muris[31]
Megabothris abantis[33]
Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked)[32]
Mesocestoides erschovi <Unverified Name>[31]
Mesocestoides leptothylacus <Unverified Name>[31]
Mesocestoides lineatus <Unverified Name>[31]
Mesocestoides litteratus <Unverified Name>[31]
Mesocestoides paucitesticulus <Unverified Name>[31]
Mesocestoides petrowi <Unverified Name>[31]
Mesopsylla apscheronica[33]
Mesopsylla hebes hebes[33]
Metagonimus yokogawai[31]
Metorchis albidus[31]
Metorchis bilis <Unverified Name>[31]
Metorchis conjunctus[31]
Molineus barbatus <Unverified Name>[31]
Molineus legerae <Unverified Name>[31]
Molineus patens <Unverified Name>[31]
Moniliformis moniliformis[31]
Multiceps multiceps[31]
Multiceps serialis[31]
Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine tuberculosis)[32]
Nanophyetus salmincola <Unverified Name>[31]
Neopsylla mana[33]
Neopsylla pleskei armeniaca[33]
Nosopsyllus afghanus[33]
Nosopsyllus eremicus[33]
Nosopsyllus fasciatus (northern rat flea)[33]
Nosopsyllus iranus attenuatus[33]
Nosopsyllus iranus iranus[33]
Nosopsyllus punjabensis[33]
Odontopsyllus quirosi[32]
Ollulanus tricuspis[31]
Oncicola canis[31]
Ophthalmopsylla volgensis arnoldi[33]
Ophthalmopsylla volgensis volgensis[33]
Opisthorchis felineus <Unverified Name>[31]
Opisthorchis tenuicollis[31]
Orchopeas caedens caedens[33]
Orchopeas caedens durus[33]
Oropsylla alaskensis[33]
Oropsylla arctomys[33]
Oropsylla bruneri[33]
Oropsylla silantiewi[33]
Oslerus osleri[31]
Otodectes cynotis[32]
Oxynema crassispiculum <Unverified Name>[31]
Oxynema linstowi <Unverified Name>[31]
Oxynema numidica <Unverified Name>[31]
Paraceras laxisinus[33]
Paraceras melis[32]
Paraceras melis melis[33]
Paragonimus heterorchis <Unverified Name>[31]
Paragonimus kellicotti[31]
Paragonimus skrjabini <Unverified Name>[31]
Paragonimus westermani <Unverified Name>[31]
Paramonopsyllus scalonae[33]
Pearsonema plica <Unverified Name>[31]
Phagicola longa[31]
Pharyngostomum cordatum <Unverified Name>[31]
Physaloptera praeputialis <Unverified Name>[31]
Physaloptera rara <Unverified Name>[31]
Physaloptera sibirica <Unverified Name>[31]
Plagiorchis elegans[31]
Plagiorchis massino <Unverified Name>[31]
Plagiorchis muris[31]
Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus[31]
Prosostephanus industrius <Unverified Name>[31]
Protospirura muris <Unverified Name>[31]
Pseudamphistomum truncatum[31]
Pterygodermatites affinis[31]
Pulex irritans (human flea)[33]
Rhadinopsylla dahurica diclinica[33]
Rhadinopsylla li transbaikalica[33]
Rhadinopsylla ucrainica[33]
Rhipicephalus pusillus[32]
Rhipicephalus turanicus[32]
Rictularia affinis <Unverified Name>[31]
Rictularia cahirensis[31]
Rictularia proni[31]
Rictularia vulpi <Unverified Name>[31]
Sarcocystis cruzi <Unverified Name>[29]
Sarcocystis tenella <Unverified Name>[29]
Sarcoptes scabiei (itch mite)[32]
Schistosoma japonicum <Unverified Name>[31]
Seuratascaris numidicum <Unverified Name>[31]
Soboliphyme baturini <Unverified Name>[31]
Spilopsyllus cuniculi (European rabbit flea)[33]
Spirocerca lupi[31]
Spirocerca vigisiana <Unverified Name>[31]
Spirometra erinacei <Unverified Name>[31]
Spirometra erinacei-europaei <Unverified Name>[31]
Spirura rytipleurites <Unverified Name>[31]
Strongyloides planiceps <Unverified Name>[31]
Strongyloides stercoralis (threadworm)[32]
Strongyloides vulpis <Unverified Name>[31]
Synosternus cleopatrae cleopatrae[33]
Synosternus pallidus[33]
Synosternus robustus[33]
Syphacia montana <Unverified Name>[31]
Taenia cervi <Unverified Name>[31]
Taenia crassiceps[31]
Taenia djeirani <Unverified Name>[31]
Taenia endothoracicus[31]
Taenia hydatigena <Unverified Name>[31]
Taenia intermedia <Unverified Name>[31]
Taenia krabbei <Unverified Name>[31]
Taenia krepkogorski <Unverified Name>[31]
Taenia macrocystis <Unverified Name>[31]
Taenia multiceps <Unverified Name>[31]
Taenia mustelae[31]
Taenia ovata <Unverified Name>[31]
Taenia ovis <Unverified Name>[31]
Taenia parenchymatosa <Unverified Name>[31]
Taenia pisiformis[31]
Taenia polyacantha[31]
Taenia serialis <Unverified Name>[31]
Taenia solium <Unverified Name>[31]
Taenia taeniaeformis <Unverified Name>[31]
Tarsopsylla octodecimdentata[32]
Tarsopsylla octodecimdentata octodecimdentata[33]
Tetratirotaenia polyacantha <Unverified Name>[31]
Thelazia callipaeda <Unverified Name>[31]
Thominx aerophilus <Unverified Name>[31]
Thominx bohmi <Unverified Name>[31]
Toxascaris leonina[31]
Toxocara canis[31]
Toxocara cati (feline roundworm)[31]
Toxocara mystax <Unverified Name>[31]
Trichinella britovi <Unverified Name>[31]
Trichinella murrelli <Unverified Name>[31]
Trichinella nativa <Unverified Name>[31]
Trichinella nelsoni <Unverified Name>[31]
Trichinella spiralis (pork worm)[31]
Trichocephalus georgicus <Unverified Name>[31]
Trichuris cyrenaica <Unverified Name>[31]
Trichuris vulpis <Unverified Name>[31]
Uncinaria stenocephala (Northern hookworm)[31]
Vermipsylla alakurt[33]
Vigisospirura grimaldiae <Unverified Name>[31]
Vigisospirura potekhini <Unverified Name>[31]
Xenopsylla conformis conformis[33]
Xenopsylla gerbilli gerbilli[33]
Xenopsylla nesokiae[33]
Xenopsylla nubica[33]
Xenopsylla persica[33]
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Y. pseudotuberculosis)[32]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Alameda Park Zoo
Alexandria Zoological Parkfulvus
Almaty State Zoo of Kazakhstan
America's Teaching Zoo
Attica Zoological Park S.A.
Audubon Zoo
 fulvus
Australia Zoo
Brookgreen Gardens
Caldwell Zoo
Cape May County Park Zoo
Connecticut's Beardsley Zoo
Cosley Zoo
Dakota Zoo
 fulvus
Dartmoor Zoological Park
David Traylor Zoo of Emporiafulvus
Dickerson Park Zoo
Domaine Zoologique de Pescheray
Dubai Municipal Zooarabica
Giza Zoological Garden
Great Plains Zoofulvus
Haifa Zoo & Biological Institute
Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park
Hutchinson Zoo
Inokashira Park Zoojaponica
Jardim Zoologico / Lisbon Zoosilacea
Kaliningrad Zoo
Kazan Zoological & Botanical Garden
Kharkiv Zoo
Kishinev Zoopark
Knoxville Zoological Gardensfulvus
Leningrad Zoo - St. Petersburgcrucigera
Little Rock Zoological Gardensfulvus
Maryland Zoo in Baltimore
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny w Lodz
Miskolc Zoo/Állatkert és Kultúrpark
Moonridge Animal Park
Moscow Zoological Park
Nagyerdei Kultúrpark KHT.
Natural Science Center of Greensborofulvus
NEW Zoo
Nikolaev Zoo of Nikolaev-City Councilkrymeamontana
Northwest Trek Wildlife Park
Oatland Island Wildlife Center
Oklahoma City Zoological Park
Opel-Zoo von Opel HessischeZoostiftung
Paradise Wildlife Park
Parc Animalier de Sainte Croix
Patronato del Parque Zoologico de Leon
Permskii Zoologicheskii Sad
Podkrusnohorsky Zoopark Chomutov
Ranua Wildlife Parkvulpes
Riga Zoovulpes
Rosamond Gifford Zoo at Burnet Parkfulvus
Scandinavian Wildlife Parkvulpes
Seoul Zoo
Sharjah Breeding Centre For Endangeredarabica
Shepreth Wildlife Parkabeitorum
Six Flags Discovery Kingdomnecator
Skansen Foundation, Zool. Dept.vulpes
Sofia Zoological Gardens
Staten Island Zoo
Tallinn Zoo
Tbilisi Zoo
The Naples Zoo
Trevor Zoo at Millbrook School
Turtle Back Zoo
Ueno Zoological Gardensjaponica
Utica Zoo
Virginia Living Museum
 fulvus
Western North Carolina Nature Center
Wild Animal Park Mechelen Planckendaelcrucigera
Willow Park Zoo
Yokohama Zool. Gardensjaponica
Zoo and Aqua-Terrarium Ltd. Pécs
Zoo de Pont-Scorff
Zoo Decin - Pastyrska Stena
Zoo of Acadiana
Zoo Sauvage de St-Félicien
Zoological Garden of Polish Fauna
Zoologicka Zahrada Bratislava
ZooMontana

Range Map

Africa; Australia; Croajingolong; Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China); North America; Southern Asia; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Gardner A.L, 2007-08-20, in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 3Wikipedia licensed under a Creative Commons License 4Ecology of Commanster 5Study of Northern Virginia Ecology 6Anurans as prey: an exploratory analysis and size relationships between predators and their prey, L. F. Toledo, R. S. Ribeiro & C. F. B. Haddad, Journal of Zoology 271 (2007) 170–177 7Blarina carolinensis, Timothy S. McCay, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 673, pp. 1–7 (2001) 8Making The Forest And Tundra Wildlife Connection 9Spermophilus saturatus, Stephan C. Trombulak, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 322, pp. 1-4 (1988) 10Cercartetus nanus, JAMIE M. HARRIS, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 815:1–10 (2008) 11Snowy Plover (Kentish Plover) Charadrius alexandrinus, K. Boula, 1996, U.S. Forest Service 12Exploring the Denali Food Web, ParkWise, National Park Service 13Lepus arcticus, Troy L. Best and Travis Hill Henry, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 457, pp. 1-9 (1994) 14Lepus townsendii, Burton K. Lim, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 288, pp. 1-6 (1987) 15Microtus canicaudus, B. J. Verts and Leslie N. Carraway, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 267, pp. 1-4 (1987) 16Microtus pinetorum, Michael J. Smolen, Mammalian Species No. 147, pp. 1-7 (1981) 17Microtus townsendii, John E. Cornely and B. J. Verts, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 325, pp. 1-9 (1988) 18Mustela frenata, Steven R. Sheffield and Howard H. Thomas, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 570, pp. 1-9 (1997) 19SPECIES ASSESSMENT FOR LONG-BILLED CURLEW (NUMENIUS AMERICANUS) IN WYOMING, DARBY N. DARK-SMILEY and DOUGLAS A. KEINATH, Wyoming Natural Diversity Database 2000 20Oryzomys palustris, James L. Wolfe, Mammalian Species No. 176, pp. 1-5 (1982) 21Spermophilus franklinii, Andrea C. Ostroff and Elmer J. Finck, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 724, pp. 1–5 (2003) 22Prunus mahaleb and Birds: The High-Efficiency Seed Dispersal System of a Temperate Fruiting Tree, Carlos M. Herrera and Pedro Jordano, Ecological Monographs Vol. 51, No. 2 (Jun., 1981), pp. 203-218 23Sciurus niger, John L. Koprowski, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 479, pp. 1-9 (1994) 24Spermophilus xanthoprymnus (Rodentia: Sciuridae), MUTLU KART Gür AND HAKAN Gür, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 42(864):183–194 (2010) 25Spermophilus elegans, David A. Zegers, Mammalian Species No. 214, pp. 1-7 (1984) 26Spermophilus richardsonii, Gail R. Michener and James W. Koeppl, Mammalian Species No. 243, pp. 1-8, (1985) 275.1 Arctic fox, Alopex lagopus, A. Angerbjo&#776;rn, P. Hersteinsson and M. Tannerfeldt, Sillero-Zubiri, C., Hoffmann, M. and Macdonald, D.W. (eds). 2004. Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. x + 430 pp. 28Olsen, J., Judge, D., Fuentes, E., Rose, AB and Debus, S. (2010). Diets of Wedge-tailed Eagles (Aquila audax) and Little Eagles (Hieraaetus morphnoides) breeding near Canberra, Australia Journal of Raptor Research 44: 50–61 29Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19 30Assessing the diet of nestling Bearded Vultures: a comparison between direct observation methods, Antoni Margalida, Joan Bertran, and Jennifer Boudet, J. Field Ornithol. 76(1):40–45, 2005 31Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 32Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2. 33International Flea Database
Invasive Status provided by Global Invasive Species Database Downloaded on 10 May 2011.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Images provided by Google Image Search
EDGE analysis provided by EDGE of Existence programme, Zoological Society of London
Range map provided by Patterson, B. D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M. F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B. E. Young. 2007. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 3.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy—Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International—CABS, World Wildlife Fund—US, and Environment Canada—WILDSPACE.
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011