Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Carnivora > Canidae > Vulpes > Vulpes macrotis
 

Vulpes macrotis (Kit Fox)

Synonyms: Vulpes macrotis macrotis; Vulpes macrotis mutica; Vulpes macrotis neomexicanus; Vulpes muticus; Vulpes velox mutica

Wikipedia Abstract

The kit fox (Vulpes macrotis) is a fox species of North America. Its range is primarily in the Southwestern United States and northern and central Mexico. Some mammalogists classify it as conspecific with the swift fox, V. velox, but molecular systematics imply that the two species are distinct.
View Wikipedia Record: Vulpes macrotis

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
1
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
12
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 3.57
EDGE Score: 1.52

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  4.52 lbs (2.05 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  40 grams
Diet [2]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates)
Diet - Ectothermic [2]  10 %
Diet - Endothermic [2]  60 %
Diet - Invertibrates [2]  30 %
Forages - Ground [2]  100 %
Gestation [3]  52 days
Litter Size [1]  4
Maximum Longevity [1]  16 years
Nocturnal [4]  Yes
Weaning [3]  56 days

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Arizona Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Baja California desert Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
California Central Valley grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
California coastal sage and chaparral Mexico, United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California interior chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California montane chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Central Mexican matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Chihuahuan desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Colorado Plateau shrublands United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Colorado Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Eastern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Gulf of California xeric scrub Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Meseta Central matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Mojave desert United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Northern Mesoamerican Pacific mangroves Mexico Neotropic Mangroves    
San Lucan xeric scrub Mexico Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sierra de la Laguna dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sierra de la Laguna pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Juarez and San Pedro Martir pine-oak forests Mexico Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Occidental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Nevada forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Snake-Columbia shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tamaulipan matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Wasatch and Uinta montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Wyoming Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No

Prey / Diet

Charadrius montanus (Mountain Plover)[5]
Dipodomys deserti (desert kangaroo rat)[6]
Dipodomys heermanni (Heermann's kangaroo rat)[7]
Dipodomys ingens (giant kangaroo rat)[8]
Dipodomys ordii (Ord's kangaroo rat)[9]
Dipodomys spectabilis (banner-tailed kangaroo rat)[10]
Lepus californicus (Black-tailed Jackrabbit)[3]
Sylvilagus audubonii (Desert Cottontail)[11]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Accipiter cooperii (Cooper's Hawk)1
Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)2
Arizona elegans (arenicola)1
Asio otus (Long-eared Owl)2
Athene cunicularia (Burrowing Owl)1
Bubo virginianus (Great Horned Owl)6
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)1
Buteo regalis (Ferruginous Hawk)2
Buteo swainsoni (Swainson's Hawk)2
Canis latrans (Coyote)7
Crotalus atrox (Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnake)1
Crotalus cerberus (viridis)1
Falco mexicanus (Prairie Falcon)1
Ictidomys tridecemlineatus (thirteen-lined ground squirrel)1
Lanius ludovicianus (Loggerhead Shrike)1
Lynx rufus (Bobcat)3
Mephitis mephitis (Striped Skunk)2
Neovison vison (American Mink)1
Pituophis catenifer (Gopher Snake)4
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)1
Taxidea taxus (American Badger)3
Tyto alba (Barn Owl)5
Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Gray Fox)2
Vulpes velox (Swift Fox)1
Xerospermophilus spilosoma (spotted ground squirrel)1

Predators

Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)[12]
Canis latrans (Coyote)[3]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Cediopsylla inaequalis inaequalis[13]
Echidnophaga gallinacea (sticktight flea)[13]
Hoplopsyllus anomalus (rodent flea)[13]
Meringis californicus[13]
Odontopsyllus dentatus[13]
Pulex irritans (human flea)[13]
Thrassis augustsoni[13]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Arizona-Sonora Desert Museummacrotis
Moonridge Animal Parkmacrotis
 muticus
Southwest Wildlife Conservation Centerarsipus

Range Map

Middle America; North America;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
34.5 Kit fox, Vulpes macrotis, R. List and B.L. Cypher, Sillero-Zubiri, C., Hoffmann, M. and Macdonald, D.W. (eds). 2004. Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. x + 430 pp.
4Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org
5SPECIES ASSESSMENT FOR MOUNTAIN PLOVER (CHARADRIUS MONTANUS) IN WYOMING, HAMILTON SMITH AND DOUGLAS A. KEINATH, United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, November 2004
6Dipodomys deserti, Troy L. Best, Nancy J. Hildreth, and Clyde Jones, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 339, pp. 1-8 (1989)
7Dipodomys heermanni, Douglas A. Kelt, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 323, pp. 1-7 (1988)
8Dipodomys ingens, Daniel F. Williams and Kerry S. Kilburn, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 377, pp. 1-7 (1991)
9Dipodomys ordii, Tom E. Garrison and Troy L. Best, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 353, pp. 1-10 (1990)
10Vulpes macrotis, John C. McGrew, Mammalian Species No. 123, pp. 1-6 (1979)
11Sylvilagus audubonii, Joseph A. Chapman and Gale R. Willner, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 106, pp. 1-4 (1978)
12Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
13International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access