Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Carnivora > Canidae > Urocyon > Urocyon cinereoargenteus
 

Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Gray Fox; common gray fox)

Synonyms: Canis cinereoargenteus
Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) is a carnivorous mammal of the family Canidae ranging throughout most of the southern half of North America from southern Canada to the northern part of South America (Venezuela and Colombia). This species and the closely related Channel Island fox (Urocyon littoralis) are the only living members of the genus Urocyon, which is considered to be among the most primitive of the living canids.
View Wikipedia Record: Urocyon cinereoargenteus

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
2
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
19
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 6.37
EDGE Score: 2

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  10.47 lbs (4.75 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  95 grams
Female Maturity [1]  11 months 15 days
Male Maturity [1]  1 year
Diet [2]  Omnivore
Gestation [1]  57 days
Litter Size [1]  4
Litters / Year [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [1]  16 years
Nocturnal [2]  Yes
Speed [3]  32.70 MPH (14.62 m/s)
Weaning [1]  55 days

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Allegheny Highlands forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Amazon-Orinoco-Southern Caribbean mangroves Brazil, Columbia, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela Neotropic Mangroves  
Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Apure-Villavicencio dry forests Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Arizona Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Baja California desert Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Bajío dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Balsas dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Belizean pine forests Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Blue Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
California Central Valley grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
California coastal sage and chaparral Mexico, United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California interior chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California montane chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Catatumbo moist forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cauca Valley montane forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American Atlantic moist forests Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American dry forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central American montane forests Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American pine-oak forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central forest-grasslands transition United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Mexican matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Pacific coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Central tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central U.S. hardwood forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chiapas Depression dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chiapas montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chihuahuan desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Chimalapas montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chocó-Darién moist forests Colombia, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Colorado Plateau shrublands United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Colorado Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Cordillera de Merida páramo Venezuela Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Cordillera La Costa montane forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cordillera Oriental montane forests Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Costa Rican seasonal moist forests Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
East Central Texas forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Eastern forest-boreal transition Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Panamanian montane forests Colombia, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Edwards Plateau savanna United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Everglades United States Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Flint Hills tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Florida sand pine scrub United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Guajira-Barranquilla xeric scrub Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Gulf of California xeric scrub Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Isthmian-Atlantic moist forests Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Isthmian-Pacific moist forests Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Jalisco dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Klamath-Siskiyou forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
La Costa xeric shrublands Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Llanos Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Magdalena Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Magdalena Valley montane forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Magdalena-Urabá moist forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Maracaibo dry forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Meseta Central matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Mesoamerican Gulf-Caribbean mangroves Bahamas, United Kingdom Neotropic Mangroves
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mississippi lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mojave desert United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Motagua Valley thornscrub Guatemala Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Nebraska Sand Hills mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern Andean páramo Ecuador, Colombia Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Northern California coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Mesoamerican Pacific mangroves Mexico Neotropic Mangroves    
Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northwestern Andean montane forests Colombia, Ecuador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Oaxacan montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ozark Mountain forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Palouse grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Panamanian dry forests Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Pantanos de Centla Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Paraguana xeric scrub Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Petén-Veracruz moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Piney Woods forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
San Lucan xeric scrub Mexico Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Santa Marta montane forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Santa Marta páramo Colombia Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sierra de la Laguna dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sierra de la Laguna pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra de los Tuxtlas Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Sierra Juarez and San Pedro Martir pine-oak forests Mexico Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre de Chiapas moist forest Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sierra Madre de Oaxaca pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre del Sur pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Occidental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Nevada forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sinaloan dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sinú Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Snake-Columbia shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran-Sinaloan transition subtropical dry forest Mexico Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South American Pacific mangroves Colombia, Panama, Ecuador Neotropic Mangroves    
South Central Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
South Florida rocklands United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Mesoamerican Pacific mangroves Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Mangroves    
Southern Pacific dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Talamancan montane forests Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tamaulipan matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tehuacán Valley matorral Mexico Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Texas blackland prairies United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Venezuelan Andes montane forests Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz moist forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Wasatch and Uinta montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Western Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Western short grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Willamette Valley forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Wyoming Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Yucatán dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Yucatán moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Rio Colorado Biosphere Reserve VI 2320468 Sonora, Mexico  
Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, CA III 184543 California, United States
Arches National Park II 76539 Utah, United States
Archipelago Golfo de Fonseca Marine National Park 9779 Honduras  
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Bandelier National Monument V 8107 New Mexico, United States
Beaver Creek Biosphere Reserve 275028 Arizona, United States  
Big Bend Biosphere Reserve National Park II 815561 Texas, United States
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Big Thicket Biosphere Reserve National Park II 616880 Texas, United States
Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park II 12551 Colorado, United States
Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge VI 19192 Maryland, United States
Bladen Branch Nature Reserve Ia 100225 Belize  
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Bryce Canyon National Park II 36348 Utah, United States
Buffalo National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 59947 Arkansas, United States
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Canaveral National Seashore II 9090 Florida, United States
Canyonlands National Park II 335430 Utah, United States
Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge IV 8964 South Carolina, United States
Capital Reef National Park II 243722 Utah, United States
Carlsbad Caverns National Park II 15448 New Mexico, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area V 7622 Georgia, United States
Chickasaw National Recreation Area V 7025 Oklahoma, United States
Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary IV 122962 Belize
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Colorado National Monument III 20420 Colorado, United States
Cuero y Salado Wildlife Refuge IV 19771 Honduras    
Cumberland Island National Seashore II 20629 Georgia, United States
Cusuco National Park II 44047 Honduras  
Cuyahoga Valley National Park II 24907 Ohio, United States
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Dinosaur National Monument III 203307 Colorado, Utah, United States
Dye Creek Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 38152 California, United States  
El Malpais National Monument III 109980 New Mexico, United States
Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge VI 66133 Arkansas, United States
Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania Nat'l Military Park National Military Park V 10384 Virginia, United States
Golden Gate National Recreation Area V 26135 California, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Great Basin National Park II 77367 Nevada, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Guadalupe Mountains National Park II 46114 Texas, United States
Heath and Marjorie Angelo Coast Range Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 7008 California, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Iztaccihuatl-Popocatepetl National Park II 224456 Mexico State, Mexico
Jeanette Kawas National Park 6379 Honduras    
Jornada Biosphere Reserve Ib 30913 New Mexico, United States
Joshua Tree National Park II 305076 California, United States
La Amistad International Park National Park II 541617 Panama, Costa Rica  
La Muralla National Park II 36946 Honduras  
Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge VI 28351 Louisiana, United States
Lake Mead National Recreation Area V 670229 Arizona, Nevada, United States
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Lassen Volcanic National Park II 29388 California, United States
Lava Beds National Monument III 20002 California, United States
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Maya Multiple Use Area 1156412 Guatemala  
Natural Bridges National Monument III 7412 Utah, United States
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park 20001 Tennessee, United States
Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge IV 38256 Florida, United States
Organ Pipe Cactus Biosphere Reserve 327376 Arizona, United States  
Ozark National Scenic Riverways National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 54621 Missouri, United States
Palo Verde National Park II 46190 Costa Rica  
Petrified Forest National Park II 44522 Arizona, United States
Pico Bonito National Park II 138952 Honduras    
Pico Pijol National Park II 29599 Honduras  
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserva de Mapimi Biosphere Reserve VI 849819 Chihuahua, Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera El Cielo Biosphere Reserve 353161 Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra Gorda Biosphere Reserve VI 955579 Queretaro, Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve VI 1312618 Mexico  
Reserva de la Michilia Biosphere Reserve VI 23405 Durango, Mexico  
Saguaro National Park II 11686 Arizona, United States
San Dimas Biosphere Reserve 17161 California, United States  
San Francisco Peninsular Watershed County Wildlife Refuge or Management Area 30320 California, United States  
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area V 38440 California, United States
Santee Coastal Reserve and Washo Reserve State Habitat Area IV 20850 South Carolina, United States  
Sequoia and Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve II 172261 California, United States
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
Shipstern Nature Reserve IV 20453 Belize
Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (incl. Tayrona NP) National Park II 1031303 Colombia  
Sierra de Agalta National Park II 128902 Honduras  
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore II 62563 Michigan, United States
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge IV 26618 Alabama, United States
Whiskey-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area V 197791 California, United States
White Sands National Monument III 139922 New Mexico, United States
Wupatki National Monument III 36098 Arizona, United States
Yosemite National Park II 95209 California, United States
Zion National Park II 135667 Utah, United States

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No
Tropical Andes Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela No
Tumbes-Choco-Magdalena Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru No

Prey / Diet

Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)[4]
Anas acuta (Northern Pintail)[4]
Anas fulvigula (Mottled Duck)[4]
Chaetodipus penicillatus (desert pocket mouse)[4]
Chordeiles minor (Common Nighthawk)[4]
Conepatus leuconotus (American Hog-nosed Skunk)[5]
Dipodomys californicus (California kangaroo rat)[4]
Dipodomys deserti (desert kangaroo rat)[4]
Dipodomys heermanni (Heermann's kangaroo rat)[6]
Dipodomys venustus (narrow-faced kangaroo rat)[4]
Gallinula chloropus (Common Moorhen)[4]
Geomys bursarius (plains pocket gopher)[7]
Larus canus (Mew Gull)[4]
Microtus californicus (California vole)[8]
Microtus canicaudus (gray-tailed vole)[9]
Microtus ochrogaster (prairie vole)[4]
Microtus pinetorum (woodland vole)[10]
Microtus townsendii (Townsend's vole)[11]
Mustela frenata (Long-tailed Weasel)[12]
Myotis grisescens (gray myotis)[4]
Myrtillocactus geometrizans (Bilberry Cactus)[13]
Neobuxbaumia tetetzo[14]
Neurotrichus gibbsii (Shrew-mole)[4]
Opuntia robusta (Wheel Cactus)[15]
Oreoscoptes montanus (Sage Thrasher)[4]
Otospermophilus variegatus (rock squirrel)[16]
Peromyscus boylii (brush mouse)[4]
Peromyscus eva (Eva's desert mouse)[17]
Peromyscus polionotus (oldfield mouse)[4]
Reithrodontomys megalotis (western harvest mouse)[4]
Schismus barbatus (Mediterranean grass)[4]
Sciurus niger (eastern fox squirrel)[18]
Sylvilagus audubonii (Desert Cottontail)[19]
Sylvilagus bachmani (Brush Rabbit)[20]
Sylvilagus cunicularius (Mexican Cottontail)[21]
Tamias alpinus (alpine chipmunk)[4]
Tamias merriami (Merriam's chipmunk)[22]
Thomomys talpoides (northern pocket gopher)[4]
Urocitellus elegans (Wyoming ground squirrel)[23]
Zapus princeps (western jumping mouse)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Accipiter cooperii (Cooper's Hawk)3
Accipiter gentilis (Northern Goshawk)3
Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawk)1
Aegolius acadicus (Northern Saw-whet Owl)1
Agkistrodon contortrix (Southern Copperhead)1
Amazilia violiceps (Violet-crowned Hummingbird)1
Aphelocoma californica (Western Scrub-Jay)1
Aphelocoma ultramarina (Mexican Jay)1
Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)3
Ardea herodias (Great Blue Heron)1
Artibeus jamaicensis (Jamaican fruit-eating bat)1
Asio flammeus (Short-eared Owl)2
Asio otus (Long-eared Owl)3
Athene cunicularia (Burrowing Owl)1
Bassariscus astutus (Ringtail)2
Bubo scandiacus (Snowy Owl)1
Bubo virginianus (Great Horned Owl)11
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)6
Buteo lagopus (Rough-legged Hawk)2
Buteo lineatus (Red-shouldered Hawk)2
Buteo platypterus (Broad-winged Hawk)1
Buteo regalis (Ferruginous Hawk)3
Buteo swainsoni (Swainson's Hawk)1
Calothorax pulcher (Beautiful Sheartail)1
Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus (Cactus Wren)1
Campylorhynchus jocosus (Boucard's Wren)1
Canis latrans (Coyote)16
Canis lupus (Wolf)1
Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush)1
Chaetodipus nelsoni (Nelson's pocket mouse)1
Choeronycteris mexicana (Mexican long-tongued bat)1
Circus cyaneus (Northern Harrier)2
Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker)1
Corvus cryptoleucus (Chihuahuan Raven)1
Crotalus atrox (Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnake)3
Crotalus cerberus (viridis)3
Crotalus horridus (Timber rattlesnake (atricaudatus))3
Cynanthus sordidus (Dusky Hummingbird)2
Didelphis marsupialis (Common Opossum)1
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum)1
Dipodomys phillipsii (Phillips's kangaroo rat)1
Elanus leucurus (White-tailed Kite)1
Falco sparverius (American Kestrel)1
Haemorhous mexicanus (House Finch)3
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)2
Icterus parisorum (Scott's Oriole)1
Icterus pustulatus (Streak-backed Oriole)1
Icterus wagleri (Black-vented Oriole)1
Lampropeltis calligaster (Prairie Kingsnake)1
Lanius ludovicianus (Loggerhead Shrike)1
Leptonycteris curasoae (southern long-nosed bat)1
Leptonycteris nivalis (Mexican long-nosed bat)2
Liomys irroratus (Mexican spiny pocket mouse)1
Lynx rufus (Bobcat)9
Martes americana (American Marten)1
Megascops asio (Eastern Screech-Owl)1
Melanerpes hypopolius (Grey-breasted Woodpecker)2
Melozone fusca (Canyon Towhee)1
Mephitis macroura (Hooded Skunk)1
Mephitis mephitis (Striped Skunk)5
Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird)1
Momotus mexicanus (Russet-crowned Motmot)1
Mustela erminea (Ermine)1
Mustela frenata (Long-tailed Weasel)4
Myiarchus cinerascens (Ash-throated Flycatcher)1
Myiarchus nuttingi (Nutting's Flycatcher)1
Myiarchus tuberculifer (Dusky-capped Flycatcher)1
Neotoma albigula (white-throated woodrat)1
Neotoma goldmani (Goldman's woodrat)1
Neovison vison (American Mink)2
Passerina versicolor (Varied Bunting)2
Pecari tajacu (collared peccary)1
Peucaea mystacalis (Bridled Sparrow)1
Phainopepla nitens (Phainopepla)1
Pheucticus chrysopeplus (Yellow Grosbeak)1
Pheucticus melanocephalus (Black-headed Grosbeak)1
Picoides scalaris (Ladder-backed Woodpecker)2
Pituophis catenifer (Gopher Snake)5
Pituophis melanoleucus (Eastern Pine Snake)3
Pogonomyrmex barbatus (red harvester ant)2
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)4
Puma concolor (Cougar)2
Spilogale putorius (Eastern Spotted Skunk)1
Spinus psaltria (Lesser Goldfinch)2
Strix varia (Barred Owl)2
Sturnira lilium (little yellow-shouldered bat)1
Sylvilagus audubonii (Desert Cottontail)1
Taxidea taxus (American Badger)7
Toxostoma curvirostre (Curve-billed Thrasher)3
Trogon elegans (Elegant Trogon)1
Tyrannus vociferans (Cassin's Kingbird)1
Tyto alba (Barn Owl)9
Vulpes macrotis (Kit Fox)2
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)8
Zenaida asiatica (White-winged Dove)2

Predators

Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)[4]
Cathartes aura (Turkey Vulture)[4]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Alaria americana <Unverified Name>[24]
Alaria arisaemoides[24]
Alaria marcianae <Unverified Name>[24]
Alaria mustelae[24]
Amblyomma americanum (Lone Star tick)[25]
Ancylostoma caninum[24]
Ancylostoma tubaeforme[25]
Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease)[25]
Cediopsylla inaequalis[25]
Cediopsylla simplex[25]
Centrorhynchus conspectus[24]
Chaetopsylla lotoris[26]
Conorhinopsylla stanfordi[26]
Cryptosporidium parvum[25]
Ctenocephalides canis (Dog flea)[25]
Ctenocephalides felis (Cat flea)[25]
Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick)[25]
Dirofilaria immitis (Heartworm)[24]
Dracunculus insignis <Unverified Name>[24]
Echidnophaga gallinacea (sticktight flea)[25]
Echinococcus multilocularis[24]
Euryhelmis squamula[24]
Eurytrema procyonis <Unverified Name>[24]
Foxella ignota[25]
Ixodes scapularis (Black legged tick)[25]
Leptospira interrogans[25]
Listeria monocytogenes (Listeriosis)[25]
Molineus barbatus <Unverified Name>[24]
Multiceps packi <Unverified Name>[24]
Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine tuberculosis)[25]
Odontopsyllus dentatus[25]
Orchopeas howardi bolivari[26]
Orchopeas howardi howardi[26]
Orchopeas sexdentatus[25]
Paragonimus kellicotti[24]
Paragonimus mexicanus <Unverified Name>[24]
Paragonimus rudis <Unverified Name>[24]
Physaloptera clausa <Unverified Name>[24]
Physaloptera maxillaris[24]
Physaloptera rara <Unverified Name>[24]
Procyotrema marsupiformis[24]
Pulex irritans (human flea)[26]
Pulex simulans[25]
Spirocerca lupi[24]
Stenistomera alpina[26]
Taenia pisiformis[24]
Toxascaris leonina[24]
Toxocara canis[24]
Trichinella spiralis (pork worm)[24]
Troglotrema mustelae[24]
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Y. pseudotuberculosis)[25]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Amarillo Zooscottii
Arizona-Sonora Desert Museumscottii
Audubon Zoofloridanus
Birmingham Zoofloridanus
Brevard Zoo
Brookgreen Gardens
Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden
Guadalajara Zoonigrirostris
Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Parkfloridanus
Living Desert State Park (Carlsbad)
Moonridge Animal Park
 californicus
Natural Science Center of Greensborocinereoargenteus
NY State Zoo at Thompson Parkcinereoargenteus
Parque Zoologico Jaime Duque - Bogota
Project Wildlifecalifornicus
Red River Zooocythous
Sequoia Park Zoo
Taipei Zoo
Tallahassee Museum of History and
Texas Zoo
Virginia Living Museum
Western North Carolina Nature Center
Zoo New England, Stone Zoocinereoargenteus
Zoo of Acadianacinereoargenteus
Zoologico Nacional La Aurora
Zoologico Nacional Simon Bolivarcostaricensis

Range Map

Middle America; North America; South America;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 3Wikipedia licensed under a Creative Commons License 4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 5Conepatus leuconotus (Carnivora: Mephitidae), JERRY W. DRAGOO AND STEVEN R. SHEFFIELD, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 827:1–8 (2009) 6Dipodomys heermanni, Douglas A. Kelt, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 323, pp. 1-7 (1988) 7Geomys bursarius (Rodentia: Geomyidae), MATTHEW B. CONNIOR, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 43(879):104–117 (2011) 8Microtus californicus (Rodentia: Cricetidae), NICHOLE L. CUDWORTH AND JOHN L. KOPROWSKI, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 42(868):230–243 (2010) 9Microtus canicaudus, B. J. Verts and Leslie N. Carraway, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 267, pp. 1-4 (1987) 10Microtus pinetorum, Michael J. Smolen, Mammalian Species No. 147, pp. 1-7 (1981) 11Microtus townsendii, John E. Cornely and B. J. Verts, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 325, pp. 1-9 (1988) 12Mustela frenata, Steven R. Sheffield and Howard H. Thomas, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 570, pp. 1-9 (1997) 13Effectiveness of Dispersal of an Ornithocorous Cactus Myrtillocactus geometrizans (Cactaceae) in a Patchy Environment, Mónica G. Pérez-Villafaña and Alfonso Valiente-Banuet, The Open Biology Journal, 2009, 2, 101-113 14THE ROLE OF SEED DISPERSERS IN THE POPULATION DYNAMICS OF THE COLUMNAR CACTUS NEOBUXBAUMIA TETETZO, HÉCTOR GODÍNEZ-ALVAREZ, ALFONSO VALIENTE-BANUET, AND ALBERTO ROJAS-MARTÍNEZ, Ecology, 83(9), 2002, pp. 2617-2629 15Seed predation and dispersal in a dominant desert plant: Opuntia, ants, birds, and mammals, Mario González-Espinosa and Pedro F. Quintana-Ascencio, Frugivores and Seed Dispersal (eds A. Estrada & T. H. Fleming.), pp. 273–284. Dr W. Junk, Publishers, Dordrecht. 16Spermophilus variegatus, Emily C. Oaks, Paul J. Young, Gordon L. Kirkland, Jr., and David F. Schmidt, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 272, pp. 1-8 (1987) 17Peromyscus eva, Sergio Ticul Álvarez-Castañeda and Patricia Cortés-Calva, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 738, pp. 1–3 (2003) 18Sciurus niger, John L. Koprowski, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 479, pp. 1-9 (1994) 19Sylvilagus audubonii, Joseph A. Chapman and Gale R. Willner, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 106, pp. 1-4 (1978) 20Sylvilagus bachmani, Joseph A. Chapman, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 34, pp. 1-4 (1974) 21Sylvilagus cunicularius, Fernando A. Cervantes, Consuelo Lorenzo, Julieta Vargas, and Thorvald Holmes, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 412, pp. 1-4 (1992) 22Tamias merriami, Troy L. Best and Nancy J. Granai, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 476, pp. 1-9 (1994) 23Spermophilus elegans, David A. Zegers, Mammalian Species No. 214, pp. 1-7 (1984) 24Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 25Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2. 26International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access