Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Carnivora > Canidae > Urocyon > Urocyon littoralis

Urocyon littoralis (Island Fox; island gray fox; Channel Islands gray fox)

Synonyms: Vulpes littoralis

Wikipedia Abstract

The island fox (Urocyon littoralis) is a small fox that is native to six of the eight Channel Islands of California. There are six subspecies of the fox, each unique to the island it lives on, reflecting its evolutionary history. Other names for the island fox include coast fox, short-tailed fox, island gray fox, Channel Islands fox, Channel Islands gray fox, California Channel Island fox and insular gray fox.
View Wikipedia Record: Urocyon littoralis


Urocyon littoralis catalinae (Santa Catalina Island fox)
Urocyon littoralis clementae (San Clemente Island fox)
Urocyon littoralis dickeyi (San Nicolas Island fox)
Urocyon littoralis littoralis (Santa Barbara Island fox)
Urocyon littoralis santacruzae (Santa Cruz Island fox)
Urocyon littoralis santarosae (Santa Rosa Island fox)

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 6.37
EDGE Score: 4.77


Adult Weight [1]  4.17 lbs (1.89 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  100 grams
Female Maturity [1]  1 year
Diet [2]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Frugivore, Granivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [2]  20 %
Diet - Invertibrates [2]  10 %
Diet - Plants [2]  20 %
Diet - Seeds [2]  20 %
Diet - Vertibrates [2]  30 %
Forages - Ground [2]  100 %
Gestation [1]  52 days
Litter Size [1]  3
Litters / Year [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [3]  10 years
Nocturnal [4]  Yes
Weaning [1]  61 days


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
California coastal sage and chaparral Mexico, United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Santa Catalina Island Local Land Trust Preserve   California, United States      
Santa Cruz Island Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve 46021 California, United States

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States Yes

Prey / Diet

Comarostaphylis diversifolia (summer holly)[5]
Heteromeles arbutifolia (Toyon)[5]
Opuntia littoralis (coastal prickly-pear)[3]
Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse)[5]
Schinus molle (false pepper)[5]
Stenopelmatus fuscus (Jerusalem cricket)[5]
Vitis californica (California wild grape)[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aegolius acadicus (Northern Saw-whet Owl)1
Athene cunicularia (Burrowing Owl)2
Bubo virginianus (Great Horned Owl)1
Glaucidium gnoma (Northern Pygmy-Owl)1
Ixoreus naevius (Varied Thrush)1
Lampropeltis zonata (California Mountain Kingsnake)1
Pituophis catenifer (Gopher Snake)1
Tyto alba (Barn Owl)1


Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)[3]


Parasitized by 
Angiocaulus gubernaculatus <Unverified Name>[6]
Dirofilaria immitis (Heartworm)[6]
Ixodes pacificus (California black-legged tick)[7]
Leptospira interrogans[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Charles Paddock Zooclementae
Coyote Point Museumclementae
Los Angeles Zoo & Botanical Gardensclementae
Orange County Zooclementae
Santa Barbara Zoological Gardensclementae
Utah's Hogle Zooclementae

Range Map

North America;



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
34.4 Island fox, Urocyon littoralis, G.W. Roemer, T.J. Coonan, L. Munson and R.K. Wayne, Sillero-Zubiri, C., Hoffmann, M. and Macdonald, D.W. (eds). 2004. Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. x + 430 pp.
4Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
5Resource utilization by two insular endemic mammalian carnivores, the island fox and island spotted skunk, Kevin R. Crooks and Dirk Van Vuren, Oecologia (1995) 104:301-307
6Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
7Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Le Saout, S., Hoffmann, M., Shi, Y., Hughes, A., Bernard, C., Brooks, T.M., Bertzky, B., Butchart, S.H.M., Stuart, S.N., Badman, T. & Rodrigues, A.S.L. (2013) Protected areas and effective biodiversity conservation. Science, 342, 803–805
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access