Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Carnivora > Phocidae > Phoca > Phoca vitulina
 

Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)

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Wikipedia Abstract

The harbor (or harbour) seal (Phoca vitulina), also known as the common seal, is a true seal found along temperate and Arctic marine coastlines of the Northern Hemisphere. The most widely distributed of pinniped (walruses, eared seals, and true seals), they are found in coastal waters of the northern Atlantic and Pacific oceans, the Baltic and North Seas. Harbor seals are brown, tan, or gray, with distinctive V-shaped nostrils.
View Wikipedia Record: Phoca vitulina

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
2
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
18
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 6.11
EDGE Score: 1.96

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  253.53 lbs (115.00 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  24.25 lbs (11.00 kg)
Female Maturity [2]  3 years
Male Maturity [2]  4 years
Diet [1]  Carnivore
Gestation [2]  8 months 13 days
Litter Size [2]  1
Litters / Year [2]  1
Maximum Longevity [2]  48 years
Water Biome [1]  Coastal
Weaning [2]  30 days

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Map Climate Land Use
Agger Tange, Nissum Bredning, Skibsted Fjord og Agerø 63217 Denmark  
Anholt og havet nord for 33006 Denmark    
Ascrib, Isay and Dunvegan 6388 Scotland, United Kingdom
Assateague Island National Seashore II 8621 Maryland, United States
Auyuittuq National Park II 4808115 Nunavut, Canada
Balgö 5296 Sweden  
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Borkum-Riffgrund 154559 Germany      
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
Cape Hatteras National Seashore II 21476 North Carolina, United States
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Doggerbank 419820 Germany      
Dornoch Firth and Morrich More 21499 Scotland, United Kingdom
Dungeness 7966 England, United Kingdom
Essex Estuaries 114016 England, United Kingdom
Falsterbohalvön 104630 Sweden  
Fehmarnbelt 69170 Germany  
Firth of Lorn 51830 Scotland, United Kingdom
Firth of Tay & Eden Estuary 38085 Scotland, United Kingdom
Flamborough Head 15597 England, United Kingdom  
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fyns Hoved, Lillegrund og Lillestrand 5392 Denmark  
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Gullmarsfjorden 28143 Sweden  
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Hamburgisches Wattenmeer 33977 Germany    
Havet og kysten mellem Karrebæk Fjord og Knudshoved Odde 41773 Denmark  
Havet og kysten mellem Præstø Fjord og Grønsund 78948 Denmark  
Havet omkring Nordre Rønner 45801 Denmark    
Hesselø med omliggende stenrev 10361 Denmark      
Hirsholmene, havet vest herfor og Ellinge Œs udløb 23376 Denmark    
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Hund und Paapsand 6318 Germany  
Inverpolly 29349 Scotland, United Kingdom
Kejimkujik Seaside Adjunct National Park II 4970 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kinloch and Kyleakin Hills 13015 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Kosterfjorden-Väderöfjorden 132206 Sweden  
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
Kungsbackafjorden 19430 Sweden  
Lochs Duich, Long and Alsh Reefs 5883 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Lovns Bredning, Hjarbæk Fjord og Skals, Simested og Nørre Ådal, samt Skravad Bæk 58102 Denmark  
Luce Bay and Sands 120487 Scotland, United Kingdom
Løgstør Bredning, Vejlerne og Bulbjerg 110624 Denmark    
Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve II 20461 Quebec, Canada
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
NTP S-H Wattenmeer und angrenzende Küstengebiete 1118041 Germany  
Nationalpark Niedersächsisches Wattenmeer 684374 Germany      
Nibe Bredning, Halkær Ådal og Sønderup Ådal 46720 Denmark  
Nordre älvs estuarium 17508 Sweden  
North Norfolk Coast 7926 England, United Kingdom  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Pater Noster-skärgården 5970 Sweden    
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  
Reserve de la Biosphere de Charlevoix Biosphere Reserve 1383790 Canada  
Ronas Hill – North Roe 12110 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Rum 26775 Scotland, United Kingdom
Røsnæs, Røsnæs Rev og Kalundborg Fjord 13996 Denmark  
SBZ 1 / ZPS 1 27164 Belgium  
SBZ 2 / ZPS 2 35751 Belgium  
SBZ 3 / ZPS 3 14038 Belgium    
SPA Östliche Deutsche Bucht 774707 Germany      
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada
Saltholm og omliggende hav 17836 Denmark  
Sanday 27112 Scotland, United Kingdom    
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Sirmilik National Park II 5475284 Canada
Smålandsfarvandet nord for Lolland, Guldborg Sund, Bøtø Nor og Hyllekrog-Rødsand 192367 Denmark  
Solent Maritime 27985 England, United Kingdom
Solway Firth 107829 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
Sound of Arisaig (Loch Ailort to Loch Ceann Traigh) 11260 Scotland, United Kingdom
St Kilda 62932 Scotland, United Kingdom    
Stavns Fjord, Samsø Østerflak og Nordby Hede 38704 Denmark  
Sunart 25320 Scotland, United Kingdom
Sydlige Nordsø 608611 Denmark      
Sydöstra Ölands sjömarker 21728 Sweden  
Sylter Außenriff 1313190 Germany      
Sälöfjorden 7089 Sweden  
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Vadehavet med Ribe Å, Tved Å og Varde Å vest for Varde 332930 Denmark  
Venø, Venø Sund 7230 Denmark  
Vestamager og havet syd for 15269 Denmark  
Vrångöskärgården 17306 Sweden  
Waddensea Area Nature Reserve with Management Subsidy IV 600666 Netherlands  
Waddensea of Hamburg Biosphere Reserve 31422 Germany  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States
Ålborg Bugt, Randers Fjord og Mariager Fjord 169472 Denmark  
Æbelø, havet syd for og Nærå 27881 Denmark  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website Map
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Japan Japan No

Prey / Diet

Clupea harengus (Yawling)[3]
Doryteuthis opalescens (california market squid)[4]
Doryteuthis pealeii (longfin inshore squid)[4]
Enteroctopus dofleini (North Pacific giant octopus)[4]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[3]
Illex illecebrosus (northern shortfin squid)[4]
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)[3]
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)[3]
Microstomus kitt (Sweet fluke)[3]
Thaleichthys pacificus (Candlefish)[5]
Trisopterus esmarkii (Norway pout)[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alopias vulpinus (Zorro thresher shark)2
Amblyraja hyperborea (Arctic skate)2
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)5
Anoplopoma fimbria (Skil)1
Arctocephalus townsendi (Guadalupe Fur Seal)1
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)4
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)2
Callorhinus ursinus (Northern Fur Seal)2
Calonectris diomedea (Cory's Shearwater)1
Carcharhinus falciformis (Silky shark)1
Carcharhinus obscurus (Whaler shark)1
Carcharhinus plumbeus (Thickskin shark)1
Carcharhinus signatus (Shark)1
Caulolatilus princeps (Bighead tilefish)1
Cerorhinca monocerata (Rhinoceros Auklet)2
Citharichthys sordidus (Sanddab)1
Clupea pallasii pallasii (Pacific herring)1
Conger conger (Conger)1
Coryphaena hippurus (Mahi-mahi)1
Coryphaenoides rupestris (Roundnose grenadier)1
Cynoscion regalis (Weakfish)1
Cystophora cristata (Hooded Seal)1
Delphinus delphis (Short-beaked Saddleback Dolphin)2
Dipturus batis (Blue skate)2
Enhydra lutris (Sea Otter)2
Eopsetta jordani (Petrale sole)1
Etmopterus pusillus (Smooth lanternshark)1
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)1
Fulmarus glacialis (Northern Fulmar)1
Gadus morhua (rock cod)2
Gavia arctica (Black-throated Loon)1
Genyonemus lineatus (White croaker)1
Globicephala melas (Long-finned Pilot Whale)4
Halichoerus grypus (Gray Seal)1
Hippoglossina oblonga (Fourspot flounder)1
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)3
Istiophorus platypterus (Atlantic sailfish)1
Kogia breviceps (Pygmy Sperm Whale)1
Lagenorhynchus acutus (Atlantic White-sided Dolphin)2
Lagenorhynchus albirostris (White-beaked Dolphin)4
Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific White-sided Dolphin)1
Lamna nasus (Porbeagle shark)3
Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)3
Larus californicus (California Gull)1
Larus canus (Mew Gull)1
Larus glaucescens (Glaucous-winged Gull)1
Larus heermanni (Heermann's Gull)1
Larus marinus (Great Black-backed Gull)1
Leucoraja naevus (Cuckoo ray)1
Lissodelphis borealis (Northern Right Whale Dolphin)1
Lophius piscatorius (Monkfish)1
Merluccius bilinearis (Whiting)2
Merluccius merluccius (Herring hake)1
Merluccius productus (Whiting)2
Mirounga angustirostris (Northern Elephant Seal)1
Morus bassanus (Northern Gannet)1
Mustelus canis (Dogfish)1
Ophiodon elongatus (Lingcod)1
Pagophilus groenlandicus (Harp Seal)2
Paralichthys dentatus (fluke)1
Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Shag)1
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)1
Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant)1
Phalacrocorax penicillatus (Brandt's Cormorant)1
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)5
Phocoenoides dalli (Dall's Porpoise)1
Physeter macrocephalus (Sperm Whale)1
Pollachius pollachius (Pollock)1
Pollachius virens (Sillock)2
Pomatomus saltatrix (Tailor run)1
Prionace glauca (Tribon blou)4
Pseudorca crassidens (False Killer Whale)1
Puffinus creatopus (Pink-footed Shearwater)1
Puffinus gravis (Greater Shearwater)1
Puffinus griseus (Sooty Shearwater)2
Puffinus tenuirostris (Short-tailed Shearwater)1
Raja clavata (Roker)1
Raja montagui (Homelyn ray)1
Raja rhina (Longnose skate)1
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot)2
Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon)1
Scyliorhinus canicula (Small-spotted catshark)1
Sebastes flavidus (Yellowtail rockfish)1
Sebastes goodei (Rockfish)1
Somniosus pacificus (Pacific Sleeper Shark)1
Sphyrna zygaena (Smooth hammerhead shark)1
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)2
Synodus foetens (Soapfish)1
Thunnus thynnus (horse mackerel)2
Trichiurus lepturus (Atlantic Cutlassfish)1
Tursiops truncatus (Bottlenosed Dolphin)1
Uria aalge (Common Murre)7
Urophycis chuss (Squirrel hake)1
Urophycis tenuis (White hake)1
Xiphias gladius (Swordfish)1
Zalophus californianus (California Sealion)1

Predators

Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)[5]
Somniosus pacificus (Pacific Sleeper Shark)[6]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Acanthocheilonema spirocauda <Unverified Name>[7]
Acinetobacter lwoffii[8]
Aeromonas hydrophila[8]
Anisakis simplex[7]
Anisakis typica[7]
Anophryocephalus skrjabini <Unverified Name>[7]
Apophallus venustus[7]
Bolbosoma nipponicum[7]
Bordetella bronchiseptica (Kennel cough)[8]
Citrobacter diversus[8]
Citrobacter freundii[8]
Clostridium difficile[8]
Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens / Pulpy kidney disease)[8]
Contracaecum osculatum[7]
Corynosoma falcatum[7]
Corynosoma magdaleni[7]
Corynosoma semerme[7]
Corynosoma strumosum[7]
Corynosoma villosum[7]
Corynosoma wegeneri[7]
Cotylophallus similis <Unverified Name>[7]
Coxiella burnetii[8]
Cryptocotyle lingua[7]
Cryptosporidium parvum[8]
Dioctophyme renale[7]
Dipetalonema odendhali <Unverified Name>[7]
Dipetalonema spirocauda[7]
Diphyllobothrium alascense[7]
Diphyllobothrium cordatum[7]
Diphyllobothrium elegans[7]
Diphyllobothrium hians[7]
Diphyllobothrium lanceolatum[7]
Diphyllobothrium latum[7]
Diphyllobothrium osmeri <Unverified Name>[7]
Diphyllobothrium schistochilus <Unverified Name>[7]
Diphyllobothrium tetrapterus[7]
Dirofilaria immitis (Heartworm)[7]
Dirofilaria spirocauda <Unverified Name>[7]
Echinophthirius horridus[8]
Echinostoma acanthoides <Unverified Name>[7]
Edwardsiella tarda[8]
Enterococcus faecium[8]
Escherichia coli (E. coli)[8]
Filaria spiricauda <Unverified Name>[7]
Hysterothylacium auctum <Unverified Name>[7]
Listeria ivanovii[8]
Morganella morganii[8]
Mycoplasma phocidae[8]
Orthosplanchnus arctica <Unverified Name>[7]
Orthosplanchnus arcticus[7]
Otostrongylus circumlitus <Unverified Name>[7]
Parafilaroides decorus <Unverified Name>[7]
Parafilaroides gymnurus <Unverified Name>[7]
Pasteurella multocida[8]
Phagicola septentrionalis[7]
Phocascaris cystophorae <Unverified Name>[7]
Phocascaris netsiki <Unverified Name>[7]
Phocascaris phocae <Unverified Name>[7]
Phocitrema fusiforme[7]
Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae[8]
Plesiomonas shigelloides[8]
Pricetrema phocae <Unverified Name>[7]
Pricetrema zalophi <Unverified Name>[7]
Proteus vulgaris[8]
Providencia stuartii[8]
Pseudamphistomum truncatum[7]
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Aeruginosa)[8]
Pseudoterranova decipiens[7]
Pyramicocephalus phocarum[7]
Raphidascaris acus <Unverified Name>[7]
Schistocephalus solidus[7]
Serratia liquefaciens[8]
Skrjabinaria spirocauda <Unverified Name>[7]
Staphylococcus aureus (Golden staph)[8]
Streptococcus canis[8]
Streptococcus phocae[8]
Terranova azarasi <Unverified Name>[7]
Terranova decipiens[7]
Trigonocotyle skrjabini <Unverified Name>[7]
Zalophotrema hepaticum[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Acquario di Genova
Adventure Aquarium
Alaska SeaLife Center
Albuquerque Biological Park
Aqua Zoo Friesland
 vitulina
Aquarium & Rainforest at Moody Gardens
Aquarium du Quebec
Aquarium of Niagara
Aquarium of the Pacific, Long Beach
Bermuda Aquarium Museum and Zooconcolor
Blank Park Zoo of Des Moines
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Gardenvitulina
Buttonwood Park Zoo
 vitulina
Central Park Zoo
Chicago Zoological Park
Cleveland Metroparks Zoo
Copenhagen Zoo
 vitulina
Denver Zoological Gardens
Detroit Zoological Societyconcolor
 richardii
Dierenrijk Europa
 vitulina
Faunia (Parque Biologico De Madrid,SA)
 vitulina
Fota Wildlife Parkvitulina
Fresno Chaffee Zoo
Henry Vilas Zoo
Indianapolis Zoo
Jardim Zoologico / Lisbon Zoo
John G. Shedd Aquariumvitulina
Kolmardens Djurpark ABvitulina
L'Oceanografic
Lake Superior Zoological Gardens
Le Pal, Parc Animalier
Los Angeles Zoo & Botanical Gardens
Louisville Zoological Garden
Marineland Mallorca
Milwaukee County Zoological Gardens
Neunkircher Zoologischer Garten GmbH
New England Aquariumconcolor
New York Aquarium
North Carolina Zoological Park
Nyíregyházi Állatpark Nonprofit KFT
 vitulina
Ocean Park Corporation
Odense Zoologiske Havevitulina
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Poznaniu
Oklahoma City Zoological Park
Oregon Coast Aquarium
Ouwehand Zoo
 vitulina
Parc Zoologique Fort Mardyck
 vitulina
Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium
 richardii
Roger Williams Park Zoo
Rostock Zoologischer Garten
San Diego Zoorichardii
Six Flags Discovery Kingdom
Skansen Foundation, Zool. Dept.vitulina
Slottsskogen Zoovitulina
St. Paul's Como Zoo
Tiergarten der Stadt Nürnbergvitulina
Tierpark Dählhölzlivitulina
Toledo Zoological Gardens
Touroparc
Usti nad Labem Zoo
Valley Zoo & John Janzen Nature Centerrichardii
Vancouver Aquarium Marine Science Ctr
 richardii
Virginia Aquarium&Marine Science Ctr
Zoo am Meer Bremerhaven GmbHvitulina
Zoo Duisburg AG
Zoo of Antwerp
Zoo Osnabrück
Zoo Sauvage de St-Félicien
Zoo Zürich
 vitulina
Zoologicka Zahrada Jihlava
 vitulina
Zoologischer Garten Augsburg GmbH
 vitulina
Zoologischer Garten Frankfurtvitulina
Zoologischer Garten Saarbruecken
ZOOMARINE - Mundo Aquatico S.A.
Zoomarine Italia S.p.A.

Distribution

East Pacific; Eastern Atlantic Ocean; Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China); Indo-West Pacific; North America; Southern Asia; Western Atlantic Ocean;

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Wozencraft W.C., 2007-08-20, in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 3The harbour seal Phoca vitulina as a predator in the Skagerrak. Haerkoenen, T | Heide-Joergensen, M-P, Ophelia. Vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 191-207 1991 4CephBase - Cephalopod (Octopus, Squid, Cuttlefish and Nautilus) Database 5Alaska Wildlife Notebook Series, Alaska Department of Fish and Game 6Diet of Pacific sleeper shark, Somniosus pacificus, in the Gulf of Alaska, Mei-Sun Yang and Benjamin N. Page, Fish. Bull. 97:406–409 (1999) 7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 8Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2.
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955 GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
EDGE analysis provided by EDGE of Existence programme, Zoological Society of London
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011