Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Carnivora > Phocidae > Halichoerus > Halichoerus grypus
 

Halichoerus grypus (Gray Seal; horsehead; Baltic gray seal; Atlantic seal; Atlantic gray seal)

Language: French

Wikipedia Abstract

The grey seal (Halichoerus grypus, meaning "hooked-nosed sea pig") is found on both shores of the North Atlantic Ocean. It is a large seal of the family Phocidae or "true seals". It is the only species classified in the genus Halichoerus. Its name is spelled gray seal in the US; it is also known as Atlantic seal and the horsehead seal.
View Wikipedia Record: Halichoerus grypus

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
3
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
22
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 7.75
EDGE Score: 2.17

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  590.84 lbs (268.00 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  30.86 lbs (14.00 kg)
Female Maturity [2]  4 years
Male Maturity [2]  5 years 2 months
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Piscivore
Diet - Fish [3]  80 %
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  20 %
Forages - Marine [3]  100 %
Gestation [2]  8 months
Litter Size [2]  1
Litters / Year [2]  1
Maximum Longevity [2]  43 years
Speed [4]  3.83 MPH (1.71 m/s)
Water Biome [1]  Coastal, Brackish Water
Weaning [2]  19 days

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Adlergrund 57815 Germany    
Allirahu 4844 Estonia  
Anholt og havet nord for 33006 Denmark    
Assateague Island National Seashore II 8621 Maryland, United States
Axmar-Gåsholma 13861 Sweden  
Balgö 5296 Sweden  
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
Björkör 13062 Finland    
Borkum-Riffgrund 154559 Germany      
Bråviken yttre 21628 Sweden  
Bullerö-Bytta 35372 Sweden  
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Drakön-Tihällan 3857 Sweden  
Eckelsudde 1050 Sweden  
Fair Isle 1387 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Falsterbohalvön 104630 Sweden  
Faray and Holm of Faray 1941 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Firth of Tay & Eden Estuary 38085 Scotland, United Kingdom
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Gotska Sandön-Salvorev 149486 Sweden    
Gran 1171 Sweden  
Haparanda skärgård 18361 Sweden  
Hesselø med omliggende stenrev 10361 Denmark      
Hirsholmene, havet vest herfor og Ellinge Œs udløb 23376 Denmark    
Holmöarna 59823 Sweden  
Hoy 23474 Scotland, United Kingdom
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Huvudskär 5131 Sweden    
Hävringe-Källskären 27648 Sweden  
Isles of Scilly Complex 66350 England, United Kingdom    
Itäisen Suomenlahden saaristo ja vedet 236302 Finland    
Kejimkujik Seaside Adjunct National Park II 4970 Nova Scotia, Canada
Klåvskär 6074 Finland    
Kolga lahe 6018 Estonia    
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
Kristiinankaupungin saaristo 19914 Finland  
Kronören 14403 Sweden  
Lundy 7573 England, United Kingdom  
Luvian saaristo 18785 Finland  
Lågskär 2617 Finland    
Marakallen 14786 Sweden    
Merenkurkun saaristo 316695 Finland    
Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve II 20461 Quebec, Canada
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
Mousa 1311 Scotland, United Kingdom
NTP S-H Wattenmeer und angrenzende Küstengebiete 1118041 Germany  
Ostoja Slowinska 79446 Poland    
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Pernajanlahtien ja Pernajan saariston merensuojelualue 162534 Finland  
Rahjan saaristo 20710 Finland    
Raudrahu 2418 Estonia    
Rödkallen-SörÄspen 17514 Sweden    
SBZ 1 / ZPS 1 27164 Belgium  
SBZ 2 / ZPS 2 35751 Belgium  
SBZ 3 / ZPS 3 14038 Belgium    
SPA Östliche Deutsche Bucht 774707 Germany      
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada
Saltholm og omliggende hav 17836 Denmark  
Sankt Anna och Gryts skärgårdar 31837 Sweden    
Seksmiilarin saaristo 42581 Finland  
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Signilskär - Märket 51966 Finland      
Skärgårdsreservaten 22778 Sweden  
Smålandsfarvandet nord for Lolland, Guldborg Sund, Bøtø Nor og Hyllekrog-Rødsand 192367 Denmark  
Snöanskärgården 13971 Sweden  
Solway Firth 107829 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
South Solway Mosses 4849 England, United Kingdom
St Kilda 62932 Scotland, United Kingdom    
Start Point to Plymouth Sound & Eddystone 84204 England, United Kingdom  
Stor-Rebben 6713 Sweden  
Stora Grindö 1926 Sweden  
Stora Nassa 7286 Sweden  
Städsholmen 3116 Sweden  
Svenska Björn 9835 Sweden    
Svenska Högarna 6591 Sweden  
Sydlige Nordsø 608611 Denmark      
Sydöstra Ölands sjömarker 21728 Sweden  
Sylter Außenriff 1313190 Germany      
Söderskärin ja Långörenin saaristo 45020 Finland  
Tagamõisa 33316 Estonia    
Tammisaaren ja Hangon saariston ja Pohjanpitäjänlahden merensuojelualue 130052 Finland  
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
Tintagel–Marsland–Clovelly Coast 6004 England, United Kingdom  
Trzebiatowsko-Kolobrzeski Pas Nadmorski 43166 Poland    
Uhtju 6003 Estonia  
Uudenkaupungin saaristo 140830 Finland  
Vadehavet med Ribe Å, Tved Å og Varde Å vest for Varde 332930 Denmark  
Vilsandi 45057 Estonia    
Väinamere 670389 Estonia  
Värnanäs skärgård 3835 Sweden  
Waddensea Area Nature Reserve with Management Subsidy IV 600666 Netherlands  
West Estonian Archipelago Biosphere Reserve 3854844 Estonia  
Wolin i Uznam 76089 Poland    
Y Twyni o Abermenai i Aberffraw/ Abermenai to Aberffraw Dunes 4623 Wales, United Kingdom  
Zalew Wislany i Mierzeja Wislana 100974 Poland  
Zatoka Pucka i Pólwysep Helski 66334 Poland    
Örö Sankor 2661 Sweden  

Prey / Diet

Ammodytes dubius (offshore sand lance)[5]
Ammodytes tobianus (lesser sand eel)[6]
Anarhichas lupus (Wolffish)[6]
Anchoa spinifer (Spicule anchovy)[6]
Atherina presbyter (common sand smelt)[6]
Belone belone (Garfish)[6]
Bothus leopardinus (Pacific leopard flounder)[6]
Bovichtus angustifrons (Thornfish)[6]
Callionymus lyra (european dragonet)[6]
Carcinus maenas (green crab)[6]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[6]
Conger conger (Conger)[6]
Dicentrarchus labrax (White salmon)[6]
Eledone cirrhosa (Curled octopus)[6]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[5]
Glyptocephalus cynoglossus (Witch flounder)[6]
Hippoglossoides platessoides (American dab)[5]
Histioteuthis heteropsis[7]
Illex illecebrosus (northern shortfin squid)[6]
Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis (whiff)[6]
Limanda ferruginea (rusty flounder)[5]
Limanda limanda (Sand dab)[6]
Mallotus villosus (Capelin)[5]
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)[6]
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)[6]
Merluccius bilinearis (Whiting)[5]
Microstomus kitt (Sweet fluke)[6]
Molva molva (Ling)[6]
Myoxocephalus scorpius (Short-spined sea scorpion)[6]
Mytilus edulis (Blue mussel)[6]
Phrynorhombus norvegicus (Norwegian topknot)[6]
Platichthys flesus (North Atlantic flounder)[6]
Pleuronectes platessa (European plaice)[6]
Pollachius virens (Sillock)[6]
Pseudopleuronectes americanus (rough flounder)[6]
Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon)[6]
Salmo trutta (Brown trout)[6]
Scomber scombrus (Split)[6]
Scophthalmus maximus (Turbot)[6]
Scophthalmus rhombus (Flounder)[6]
Sebastes mentella (Redfish)[6]
Solea solea (True sole)[6]
Spondyliosoma cantharus (Old wife)[6]
Taurulus bubalis (longspined sea scorpion)[6]
Trachurus trachurus (Scad)[6]
Trisopterus minutus (poor cod)[6]
Urophycis tenuis (White hake)[6]
Zeugopterus punctatus (Topknot)[6]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alca torda (Razorbill)1
Alopias vulpinus (Zorro thresher shark)1
Alosa pseudoharengus (kyack)1
Alosa sapidissima (American shad)1
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)4
Artediellus atlanticus (Atlantic hookear)1
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)2
Balaenoptera borealis (Sei Whale)1
Balaenoptera physalus (Fin Whale)1
Boreogadus saida (Polar cod)1
Brachyramphus brevirostris (Kittlitz's Murrelet)1
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)1
Careproctus reinhardti (Longfin seasnail)1
Centropristis striata (Sea bass)1
Cepphus grylle (Black Guillemot)1
Cystophora cristata (Hooded Seal)1
Delphinapterus leucas (Beluga)1
Dipturus batis (Blue skate)2
Erignathus barbatus (Bearded Seal)2
Fratercula arctica (Atlantic Puffin)1
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)1
Fratercula corniculata (Horned Puffin)1
Fulmarus glacialis (Northern Fulmar)1
Gadus morhua (rock cod)3
Gavia adamsii (Yellow-billed Loon)1
Gavia arctica (Black-throated Loon)1
Gavia immer (Great Northern Loon)1
Gavia stellata (Red-throated Loon)1
Globicephala melas (Long-finned Pilot Whale)1
Glyptocephalus cynoglossus (Witch flounder)1
Hippoglossoides platessoides (American dab)2
Histriophoca fasciata (Ribbon Seal)1
Lagenorhynchus acutus (Atlantic White-sided Dolphin)1
Lagenorhynchus albirostris (White-beaked Dolphin)3
Lamna nasus (Porbeagle shark)3
Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)2
Larus canus (Mew Gull)1
Larus glaucescens (Glaucous-winged Gull)1
Larus marinus (Great Black-backed Gull)1
Leucoraja erinacea (common skate)1
Limanda ferruginea (rusty flounder)1
Liparis gibbus (Dusky snailfish)1
Lycodes reticulatus (Arctic eelpout)1
Malacoraja senta (Smooth skate)1
Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale)1
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)2
Merluccius bilinearis (Whiting)1
Mirounga angustirostris (Northern Elephant Seal)1
Morus bassanus (Northern Gannet)1
Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus (Sea raven)1
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)1
Pagophilus groenlandicus (Harp Seal)2
Paralichthys dentatus (fluke)1
Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Shag)1
Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant)2
Phoca largha (Spotted Seal)1
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)1
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)2
Phoebastria immutabilis (Laysan Albatross)1
Physeter macrocephalus (Sperm Whale)1
Pollachius virens (Sillock)2
Prionace glauca (Tribon blou)2
Pusa hispida (Ringed Seal)1
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot)2
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)1
Scophthalmus aquosus (brill)2
Sebastes mentella (Redfish)1
Somniosus microcephalus (gray shark)1
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)1
Stenotomus chrysops (Scup)1
Stercorarius parasiticus (Parasitic Jaeger)1
Tetronarce nobiliana (Atlantic electric ray)1
Thunnus thynnus (horse mackerel)2
Triglops murrayi (Moustache sculpin)1
Uria aalge (Common Murre)2
Uria lomvia (Thick-billed Murre)1
Urophycis chuss (Squirrel hake)2
Urophycis regia (Spotted hake)1
Urophycis tenuis (White hake)1
Xiphias gladius (Swordfish)1

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Aeromonas hydrophila[8]
Anisakis simplex[9]
Anisakis typica[9]
Bordetella bronchiseptica (Kennel cough)[8]
Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens / Pulpy kidney disease)[8]
Contracaecum aduncum[9]
Contracaecum osculatum[9]
Corynosoma falcatum[9]
Corynosoma hadweni[9]
Corynosoma magdaleni[9]
Corynosoma semerme[9]
Corynosoma strumosum[9]
Corynosoma wegeneri[9]
Cryptocotyle lingua[9]
Dioctophyme renale[9]
Dipetalonema spirocauda[8]
Diphyllobothrium cordatum[9]
Echinophthirius horridus[6]
Echinostoma acanthoides[9]
Edwardsiella tarda[8]
Escherichia coli (E. coli)[8]
Hysterothylacium auctum <Unverified Name>[9]
Metorchis albidus[9]
Mycoplasma phocae[8]
Opisthorchis felineus[9]
Opisthorchis tenuicollis[9]
Otostrongylus circumlitus <Unverified Name>[9]
Pasteurella multocida[8]
Phocanema decipiens[9]
Phocascaris cystophorae <Unverified Name>[9]
Phocascaris phocae <Unverified Name>[9]
Pseudamphistomum truncatum[9]
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Aeruginosa)[8]
Pseudoterranova decipiens[9]
Pseudoterranova krabbei <Unverified Name>[9]
Raphidascaris acus <Unverified Name>[9]
Schistocephalus solidus[9]
Serratia liquefaciens[8]
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus)[8]
Streptococcus dysgalactiae[8]
Streptococcus gallolyticus[8]
Streptococcus phocae[8]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Adventure Aquarium
Albuquerque Biological Park
Aquarium du Quebec
Boras Djurpark Zoo
Chicago Zoological Park
Colchester Zoo
Detroit Zoological Society
Indianapolis Zoo
Kaliningrad Zoo
Kolmardens Djurpark AB
Lietuvos Zoologijos Sodas
Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens
Los Angeles Zoo & Botanical Gardens
Louisville Zoological Garden
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Warsaw
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Wybrzeza
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny, Plock
Ocean Park Corporation
Podkrusnohorsky Zoopark Chomutov
Riga Zoo
Rome Zoo-Fondazione Bioparco di Roma
San Francisco Zoological Gardens
Silesian Zoological Garden
Skansen Foundation, Zool. Dept.
Smithsonian National Zoological Park
Tallinn Zoo
Toledo Zoological Gardens
Welsh Mountain Zoo
Westfalischer Zoologischer Gtn Munster
Zagreb Zoo / Zooloski vrt Zagreb
Zoo Aquarium de Madrid (GRPR)
Zoo Hannover GmbH
Zoologicka Zahrada Kosice
ZOOMARINE - Mundo Aquatico S.A.
Zoomarine Italia S.p.A.

Range Map

North America;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org
2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4How fast does a seal swim? Variations in swimming behaviour under differing foraging conditions, Susan L. Gallon, Carol E. Sparling, Jean-Yves Georges, Michael A. Fedak, Martin Biuw and Dave Thompson, The Journal of Experimental Biology 210, 3285-3294 (2007)
5Offshore diet of grey seals Halichoerus grypus near Sable Island, Canada, W. D. Bowen, G . D. Harrison, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 112: 1-11, 1994
6Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
7CephBase - Cephalopod (Octopus, Squid, Cuttlefish and Nautilus) Database
8Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2.
9Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access