Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Carnivora > Phocidae > Hydrurga > Hydrurga leptonyx

Hydrurga leptonyx (Leopard seal)

Wikipedia Abstract

The leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx), also referred to as the sea leopard, is the second largest species of seal in the Antarctic (after the southern elephant seal). Along with all of the other earless seals, it belongs to the family Phocidae, and is the only species in the genus Hydrurga. The name hydrurga means "water worker" and leptonyx is the Greek for "small clawed".
View Wikipedia Record: Hydrurga leptonyx

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 12.4
EDGE Score: 2.6


Adult Weight [2]  810.75 lbs (367.75 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  66.14 lbs (30.00 kg)
Female Maturity [2]  3 years
Male Maturity [2]  4 years
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates)
Diet - Endothermic [3]  20 %
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  80 %
Forages - Marine [3]  100 %
Gestation [2]  9 months 4 days
Litter Size [2]  1
Migration [1]  Intercontinental
Water Biome [1]  Pelagic, Coastal
Weaning [2]  30 days

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Coorong National Park II 121235 South Australia, Australia
Croajingolong National Park II 217067 Victoria, Australia
Lavinia Nature Reserve State Reserve II 17390 Tasmania, Australia    
Macquarie Island Nature Reserve Ia 233540 Tasmania, Australia  
Palmer LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   Antarctica    
Tierra Del Fuego National Park II 172861 Argentina


Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
New Zealand New Zealand No

Prey / Diet

Antarctomysis maxima[4]
Aptenodytes forsteri (Emperor Penguin)[5]
Aptenodytes patagonicus (King Penguin)[1]
Arctocephalus gazella (Antarctic Fur Seal)[4]
Daption capense (Cape Petrel)[4]
Electrona antarctica (Lanternfish)[4]
Eudyptes chrysolophus (Macaroni Penguin)[1]
Euphausia superba (Antarctic krill)[4]
Filippovia knipovitchi (Smooth Hooked Squid)[6]
Gobionotothen gibberifrons (Humped rockcod)[4]
Gymnoscopelus nicholsi (Nichol's lanternfish)[4]
Kondakovia longimana (Giant Warty Squid)[6]
Lobodon carcinophaga (Crabeater Seal)[5]
Mirounga leonina (Southern Elephant Seal)[4]
Ningaui yvonnae (Southern Ningaui)[4]
Pagothenia borchgrevinki (Bald notothen)[4]
Pleuragramma antarctica (Antarctic silverfish)[4]
Pygoscelis adeliae (Adelie Penguin)[5]
Pygoscelis papua (Gentoo Penguin)[4]
Trematomus hansoni (Striped rockcod)[4]
Trematomus scotti (Crowned rockcod)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aptenodytes forsteri (Emperor Penguin)1
Aptenodytes patagonicus (King Penguin)2
Arctocephalus gazella (Antarctic Fur Seal)3
Arctocephalus tropicalis (Subantarctic Fur Seal)2
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)1
Diomedea epomophora (Royal Albatross)1
Diomedea exulans (Wandering Albatross)2
Dissostichus eleginoides (Patagonsky klykach)2
Fulmarus glacialoides (Southern Fulmar)1
Hyperoodon planifrons (Southern Bottlenose Whale)2
Leptonychotes weddellii (Weddell Seal)2
Macronectes giganteus (Southern Giant Petrel)1
Macronectes halli (Northern Giant Petrel)2
Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale)1
Mirounga leonina (Southern Elephant Seal)2
Ommatophoca rossii (Ross Seal)1
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)4
Pagodroma nivea (Snow Petrel)1
Phoebetria fusca (Sooty Albatross)2
Phoebetria palpebrata (Light-mantled Albatross)1
Physeter macrocephalus (Sperm Whale)2
Pygoscelis adeliae (Adelie Penguin)1
Pygoscelis papua (Gentoo Penguin)1
Thalassarche chrysostoma (Grey-headed Albatross)1
Thalassarche melanophris (Black-browed Albatross)1
Thalassoica antarctica (Antarctic Petrel)1
Ziphius cavirostris (Cuvier's Beaked Whale)1


Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)[4]


Parasitized by 
Anisakis similis <Unverified Name>[7]
Antarctophthirus ogmorhini[7]
Contracaecum mirounga <Unverified Name>[8]
Contracaecum ogmorhini <Unverified Name>[7]
Contracaecum osculatum[7]
Contracaecum radiatum <Unverified Name>[7]
Corynosoma australe[8]
Corynosoma bullosum[8]
Corynosoma cetaceum[4]
Corynosoma evae[8]
Corynosoma hamanni[8]
Corynosoma hannae[8]
Corynosoma pseudohamanni[8]
Diphyllobothrium lashleyi[8]
Diphyllobothrium mobile[8]
Diphyllobothrium pseudowilsoni[8]
Diphyllobothrium quadratum[8]
Diphyllobothrium scoticum[8]
Diphyllobothrium scotti <Unverified Name>[8]
Glandicephalus antarcticus[8]
Nybelinia africana[7]
Nybelinia hemipristis[7]
Parafilaroides hydrurgae <Unverified Name>[8]
Parorchites zederi[8]
Phocascaris hydrurgae <Unverified Name>[7]
Terranova piscium <Unverified Name>[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Taronga Zoo

Range Map

Africa; Antarctica/Southern Ocean; Australia; Croajingolong;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
5Who's Eating Who
6CephBase - Cephalopod (Octopus, Squid, Cuttlefish and Nautilus) Database
7Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
8Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Wikimedia Commons licensed under a Creative Commons License
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access