Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Carnivora > Phocidae > Mirounga > Mirounga leonina
 

Mirounga leonina (Southern Elephant Seal; southern sea elephant)

Synonyms: Mirounga leonina crosetensis; Mirounga leonina falclandica; Mirounga leonina macquariensis

Wikipedia Abstract

The southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) is one of the two extant species of elephant seals. It is both the largest pinniped and member of the order Carnivora living today, as well as the largest Antarctic seal. The seal gets its name from its great size and the large proboscis of the adult males, which is used to make extraordinarily loud roaring noises, especially during the mating season.
View Wikipedia Record: Mirounga leonina

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
5
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
27
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 11.17
EDGE Score: 2.5

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  1.54 tons (1,400.00 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  93.70 lbs (42.50 kg)
Female Maturity [2]  2 years 10 months
Male Maturity [2]  5 years
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Piscivore
Diet - Fish [3]  40 %
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  60 %
Forages - Marine [3]  100 %
Gestation [2]  7 months 10 days
Litter Size [2]  1
Litters / Year [2]  1
Migration [1]  Intercontinental
Nocturnal [1]  Yes
Water Biome [1]  Pelagic, Coastal
Weaning [2]  21 days

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Bañados del Este Wetland Reserve 986054 Uruguay  
Croajingolong National Park II 217067 Victoria, Australia
Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve II 256073 Western Cape, South Africa  
Lavinia Nature Reserve State Reserve II 17390 Tasmania, Australia    
Macquarie Island Nature Reserve Ia 233540 Tasmania, Australia  
Palmer LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   Antarctica    
Parque Nacional Laguna San Rafael National Park II 4560904 Aisén, Chile  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
New Zealand New Zealand No

Prey / Diet

Adelieledone polymorpha[4]
Alluroteuthis antarctica[4]
Antarctomysis maxima[5]
Brachioteuthis linkovskyi[5]
Champsocephalus gunnari (Mackerel icefish)[5]
Channichthys rhinoceratus (Unicorn icefish)[5]
Chiroteuthis veranii (Long-armed Squid)[5]
Dissostichus eleginoides (Patagonsky klykach)[5]
Electrona antarctica (Lanternfish)[5]
Electrona carlsbergi (Electron subantarctic)[5]
Electrona subaspera (Rough lanternfish)[5]
Euphausia crystallorophias (ice krill)[5]
Euphausia superba (Antarctic krill)[6]
Filippovia knipovitchi (Smooth Hooked Squid)[4]
Gobionotothen acuta (Triangular rockcod)[5]
Gobionotothen gibberifrons (Humped rockcod)[5]
Gymnoscopelus braueri (Lanternfish)[5]
Gymnoscopelus nicholsi (Nichol's lanternfish)[5]
Histioteuthis eltaninae[4]
Histioteuthis macrohista[5]
Hyperiella dilatata[5]
Hyperiella macronyx[5]
Illex argentinus (Argentine Shortfin Squid)[4]
Kondakovia longimana (Giant Warty Squid)[4]
Lepidonotothen squamifrons (Grey rockcod)[6]
Lindbergichthys mizops (Toad notie)[5]
Martialia hyadesi (sevenstar flying squid)[5]
Ningaui yvonnae (Southern Ningaui)[5]
Onykia ingens (warty squid)[5]
Pareledone charcoti[4]
Pareledone turqueti (Turquet's Octopus)[5]
Pholidoteuthis massyae[5]
Pleuragramma antarctica (Antarctic silverfish)[5]
Slosarczykovia circumantarctica[5]
Taonius pavo[5]
Themisto gaudichaudii[5]
Todarodes filippovae (Antarctic flying squid)[5]
Trematomus scotti (Crowned rockcod)[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aphrodroma brevirostris (Kerguelen Petrel)1
Aptenodytes forsteri (Emperor Penguin)3
Aptenodytes patagonicus (King Penguin)2
Arctocephalus gazella (Antarctic Fur Seal)4
Arctocephalus tropicalis (Subantarctic Fur Seal)3
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)1
Balaenoptera bonaerensis (Antarctic Minke Whale)1
Bathydraco marri (Deepwater dragon)1
Chaenocephalus aceratus (Scotian icefish)1
Champsocephalus esox (Pike icefish)1
Champsocephalus gunnari (Mackerel icefish)1
Cygnodraco mawsoni (Mawson's dragonfish)2
Daption capense (Cape Petrel)2
Diomedea epomophora (Royal Albatross)1
Diomedea exulans (Wandering Albatross)5
Dissostichus eleginoides (Patagonsky klykach)4
Dissostichus mawsoni (Antarctic blenny)1
Electrona carlsbergi (Electron subantarctic)1
Eudyptes chrysolophus (Macaroni Penguin)1
Fulmarus glacialoides (Southern Fulmar)3
Globicephala melas (Long-finned Pilot Whale)3
Gobionotothen angustifrons (Narrowhead rockcod)1
Gobionotothen gibberifrons (Humped rockcod)1
Gymnodraco acuticeps (Ploughfish)1
Gymnoscopelus braueri (Lanternfish)1
Gymnoscopelus nicholsi (Nichol's lanternfish)1
Gymnoscopelus opisthopterus (Lanternfish)1
Halobaena caerulea (Blue Petrel)1
Hydrurga leptonyx (Leopard seal)2
Hyperoodon planifrons (Southern Bottlenose Whale)4
Lagenorhynchus cruciger (Hourglass Dolphin)1
Lagenorhynchus obscurus (Dusky Dolphin)1
Larus dominicanus (Kelp Gull)1
Lepidonotothen squamifrons (Grey rockcod)1
Leptonychotes weddellii (Weddell Seal)4
Lindbergichthys nudifrons (Yellowfin notie)1
Lobodon carcinophaga (Crabeater Seal)1
Macronectes giganteus (Southern Giant Petrel)4
Macronectes halli (Northern Giant Petrel)1
Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale)2
Nototheniops larseni (Painted notie)1
Oceanites oceanicus (Wilson's Storm-Petrel)1
Ommatophoca rossii (Ross Seal)2
Pachyptila desolata (Antarctic Prion)1
Pachyptila turtur (Fairy Prion)1
Pagodroma nivea (Snow Petrel)3
Parachaenichthys georgianus (Antarctic dragonfish)1
Phoebetria fusca (Sooty Albatross)2
Phoebetria palpebrata (Light-mantled Albatross)5
Physeter macrocephalus (Sperm Whale)3
Pomatomus saltatrix (Tailor run)1
Procellaria aequinoctialis (White-chinned Petrel)1
Pseudochaenichthys georgianus (South Georgia icefish)1
Pterodroma macroptera (Great-winged Petrel)1
Pygoscelis adeliae (Adelie Penguin)2
Pygoscelis antarcticus (Chinstrap Penguin)1
Pygoscelis papua (Gentoo Penguin)3
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)1
Stercorarius maccormicki (South Polar Skua)1
Sterna vittata (Antarctic Tern)1
Thalassarche chrysostoma (Grey-headed Albatross)5
Thalassarche melanophris (Black-browed Albatross)6
Thalassoica antarctica (Antarctic Petrel)3
Trematomus hansoni (Striped rockcod)1
Tursiops truncatus (Bottlenosed Dolphin)1
Vomeridens infuscipinnis (Antarctic dragonfish)1
Ziphius cavirostris (Cuvier's Beaked Whale)1

Predators

Homo sapiens (man)[5]
Hydrurga leptonyx (Leopard seal)[5]
Stercorarius antarcticus (Subantarctic Skua)[5]
Stercorarius maccormicki (South Polar Skua)[5]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Anisakis similis <Unverified Name>[7]
Anisakis simplex[8]
Baylisiella tecta[8]
Conchoderma auritum (rabbit-ear barnacle)[9]
Contracaecum mirounga <Unverified Name>[8]
Contracaecum ogmorhini <Unverified Name>[8]
Contracaecum osculatum[7]
Contracaecum radiatum <Unverified Name>[7]
Corynosoma australe[8]
Corynosoma bullosum[8]
Corynosoma pseudohamanni[8]
Diphyllobothrium lashleyi[8]
Flexobothrium microovatum <Unverified Name>[8]
Heteronybelinia australis[7]
Lepidophthirus macrorhini[9]
Ogmogaster antarcticus[8]
Terranova piscium <Unverified Name>[7]
Uncinaria hamiltoni <Unverified Name>[7]

Range Map

Antarctica/Southern Ocean; Croajingolong;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org
2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4CephBase - Cephalopod (Octopus, Squid, Cuttlefish and Nautilus) Database
5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
6Towards the trophic structure of the Bouvet Island marine ecosystem, U. Jacob, T. Brey, I. Fetzer, S. Kaehler, K. Mintenbeck, K. Dunton, K. Beyer, U. Struck , E.A. Pakhomov and W.E. Arntz, Polar Biology, 29 (2). pp. 106-113 (2006)
7Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
8Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
9Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2.
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access