Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Carnivora > Phocidae > Mirounga > Mirounga angustirostris

Mirounga angustirostris (Northern Elephant Seal; northern sea elephant)

Language: Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) is one of two species of elephant seal (the other is the southern elephant seal). It is a member of the family Phocidae ("true seals"). Elephant seals derive their name from their great size and from the male's large proboscis, which is used in making extraordinarily loud roaring noises, especially during the mating competition.
View Wikipedia Record: Mirounga angustirostris

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 11.17
EDGE Score: 2.5


Adult Weight [2]  1.65 tons (1,500.00 kg)
Birth Weight [3]  82.67 lbs (37.50 kg)
Female Weight [2]  1,543.24 lbs (700.00 kg)
Male Weight [2]  2.54 tons (2,300.00 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [2]  228.6 %
Female Maturity [3]  3 years
Male Maturity [3]  5 years
Diet [4]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Piscivore
Diet - Fish [4]  40 %
Diet - Invertibrates [4]  60 %
Forages - Marine [4]  100 %
Gestation [3]  8 months 12 days
Litter Size [3]  1
Litters / Year [3]  1
Migration [1]  Intracontinental
Nocturnal [1]  Yes
Water Biome [1]  Pelagic, Coastal
Weaning [3]  26 days

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary   California, United States
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Farallon National Wildlife Refuge IV 352 California, United States
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No

Prey / Diet

Anoplopoma fimbria (Skil)[5]
Apristurus brunneus (Brown shark)[2]
Chilara taylori (Spotted cusk-eel)[2]
Citharichthys sordidus (Sanddab)[5]
Doryteuthis opalescens (california market squid)[6]
Engraulis mordax (Californian anchoveta)[2]
Enteroctopus dofleini (North Pacific giant octopus)[7]
Entosphenus tridentatus (Pacific lamprey)[2]
Glyptocephalus zachirus (Witch)[5]
Histioteuthis heteropsis[6]
Hydrolagus colliei (Spotted rattfish)[2]
Icichthys lockingtoni (Brown rudderfish)[5]
Merluccius productus (Whiting)[2]
Octopus bimaculatus (california two-spot octopus)[5]
Octopus bimaculoides (California two-spot octopus)[5]
Octopus rubescens (East Pacific red octopus)[5]
Pasiphaea pacifica (Pacific glass shrimp)[5]
Porichthys notatus (Midshipman)[2]
Prionace glauca (Tribon blou)[7]
Rhacochilus vacca (Pile surfperch)[5]
Sardinops sagax (Australian pilchard)[5]
Sebastes eos (Rockfish)[5]
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)[2]
Stigmatoteuthis dofleini[6]
Taningia danae (Dana Octopus Squid)[6]
Urolophus halleri (Haller's round ray)[2]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alepisaurus ferox (Wolffish)1
Alopias vulpinus (Zorro thresher shark)3
Anoplopoma fimbria (Skil)2
Arctocephalus townsendi (Guadalupe Fur Seal)2
Bathyraja trachura (Roughtail skate)1
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)1
Callorhinus ursinus (Northern Fur Seal)4
Caulolatilus princeps (Bighead tilefish)1
Cerorhinca monocerata (Rhinoceros Auklet)2
Citharichthys sordidus (Sanddab)1
Clupea pallasii pallasii (Pacific herring)1
Delphinus delphis (Short-beaked Saddleback Dolphin)3
Diomedea exulans (Wandering Albatross)2
Enhydra lutris (Sea Otter)1
Eopsetta jordani (Petrale sole)1
Eschrichtius robustus (Gray Whale)1
Eumetopias jubatus (Steller Sea Lion)1
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)1
Fratercula corniculata (Horned Puffin)1
Fregata magnificens (Magnificent Frigatebird)1
Gavia arctica (Black-throated Loon)1
Genyonemus lineatus (White croaker)1
Halichoerus grypus (Gray Seal)1
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)1
Hyperoodon planifrons (Southern Bottlenose Whale)1
Kajikia audax (Stripey)1
Katsuwonus pelamis (White bonito)1
Kogia breviceps (Pygmy Sperm Whale)2
Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific White-sided Dolphin)2
Lamna ditropis (Salmon shark)1
Larus californicus (California Gull)1
Larus canus (Mew Gull)1
Larus glaucescens (Glaucous-winged Gull)1
Larus heermanni (Heermann's Gull)1
Larus occidentalis (Western Gull)2
Leptocottus armatus (Cabezon)1
Lissodelphis borealis (Northern Right Whale Dolphin)2
Lutjanus guttatus (mutton snapper)1
Merluccius productus (Whiting)1
Mesoplodon carlhubbsi (Hubbs's Beaked Whale)1
Ophiodon elongatus (Lingcod)2
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)1
Phalacrocorax penicillatus (Brandt's Cormorant)1
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)1
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)1
Phocoenoides dalli (Dall's Porpoise)4
Phoebastria immutabilis (Laysan Albatross)2
Physeter macrocephalus (Sperm Whale)4
Prionace glauca (Tribon blou)2
Puffinus creatopus (Pink-footed Shearwater)1
Puffinus griseus (Sooty Shearwater)2
Puffinus opisthomelas (Black-vented Shearwater)1
Puffinus tenuirostris (Short-tailed Shearwater)1
Raja rhina (Longnose skate)3
Sarda chiliensis (bonite du pacifique oriental)1
Sebastes caurinus (Copper rockfish)1
Sebastes flavidus (Yellowtail rockfish)1
Sebastes goodei (Rockfish)1
Seriphus politus (Drum)1
Stenella coeruleoalba (Striped Dolphin)2
Thunnus alalunga (longfinned albacore)1
Thunnus thynnus (horse mackerel)2
Tursiops truncatus (Bottlenosed Dolphin)3
Uria aalge (Common Murre)2
Zalophus californianus (California Sealion)3
Zapteryx exasperata (Striped guitarfish)1


Carcharodon carcharias (Maneater shark)[2]
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)[8]


Parasitized by 
Aeromonas hydrophila[9]
Anisakis similis <Unverified Name>[10]
Anisakis simplex[10]
Arcanobacterium phocae[9]
Citrobacter koseri[9]
Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens / Pulpy kidney disease)[9]
Contracaecum osculatum[10]
Corynosoma bullosum[10]
Cryptosporidium parvum[9]
Edwardsiella tarda[9]
Enterobacter cloacae[9]
Escherichia coli (E. coli)[9]
Lepas anatifera (duck barnacle)[9]
Listeria ivanovii[9]
Morganella morganii[9]
Otostrongylus circumlitus <Unverified Name>[10]
Parafilaroides decorus <Unverified Name>[10]
Plesiomonas shigelloides[9]
Pricetrema zalophi <Unverified Name>[10]
Proteus mirabilis[9]
Proteus vulgaris[9]
Providencia stuartii[9]
Pseudomonas fluorescens[9]
Pseudomonas putida[9]
Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus[9]
Serratia liquefaciens[9]
Staphylococcus aureus (Golden staph)[9]
Zalophotrema hepaticum[10]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
San Diego Zoo

Range Map

East Pacific; Middle America; North America;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2Mirounga angustirostris, Brent S. Stewart and Harriet R. Huber, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 449, pp. 1-10 (1993)
3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
4Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
5Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Ecological Informatics 29(1): 45-56. Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Data from: Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Dryad Digital Repository.
6CephBase - Cephalopod (Octopus, Squid, Cuttlefish and Nautilus) Database
7Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
8Food Web Relationships of Northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca : a Synthesis of the Available Knowledge, Charles A. Simenstad, Bruce S. Miller, Carl F. Nyblade, Kathleen Thornburgh, and Lewis J. Bledsoe, EPA-600 7-29-259 September 1979
9Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2.
10Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access