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Mirounga angustirostris (Northern Elephant Seal; northern sea elephant)

Language: Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) is one of two species of elephant seal (the other is the southern elephant seal). It is a member of the family Phocidae. Elephant seals derive their name from their great size and from the male's large proboscis, which is used in making extraordinarily loud roaring noises, especially during the mating competition. Sexual dimorphism in size is great: The males can grow to 14 ft and 5,000 lb, while the females grow to 11 ft and 1,400 lb .
View Wikipedia Record: Mirounga angustirostris

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
5
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
27
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 11.17
EDGE Score: 2.5

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  1.65 tons (1,500.00 kg)
Birth Weight [3]  82.67 lbs (37.50 kg)
Female Weight [2]  1,543.24 lbs (700.00 kg)
Male Weight [2]  2.54 tons (2,300.00 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [2]  228.6 %
Female Maturity [3]  3 years
Male Maturity [3]  5 years
Diet [1]  Carnivore
Gestation [3]  8 months 12 days
Litter Size [3]  1
Litters / Year [3]  1
Migration [1]  Intracontinental
Nocturnal [1]  Yes
Water Biome [1]  Pelagic, Coastal
Weaning [3]  26 days

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary   California, United States
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Farallon National Wildlife Refuge IV 352 California, United States
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No

Prey / Diet

Apristurus brunneus (Brown shark)[2]
Chilara taylori (Spotted cusk-eel)[2]
Doryteuthis opalescens (california market squid)[4]
Engraulis mordax (Californian anchoveta)[2]
Entosphenus tridentatus (Pacific lamprey)[2]
Histioteuthis heteropsis[4]
Histioteuthis hoylei[4]
Hydrolagus colliei (Spotted rattfish)[2]
Merluccius productus (Whiting)[2]
Porichthys notatus (Midshipman)[2]
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)[2]
Taningia danae (Dana Octopus Squid)[4]
Urolophus halleri (Haller's round ray)[2]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alepisaurus ferox (Wolffish)1
Alopias vulpinus (Zorro thresher shark)3
Anoplopoma fimbria (Skil)2
Arctocephalus townsendi (Guadalupe Fur Seal)2
Bathyraja trachura (Roughtail skate)1
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)1
Callorhinus ursinus (Northern Fur Seal)4
Caulolatilus princeps (Bighead tilefish)1
Cerorhinca monocerata (Rhinoceros Auklet)2
Citharichthys sordidus (Sanddab)1
Clupea pallasii pallasii (Pacific herring)1
Delphinus delphis (Short-beaked Saddleback Dolphin)3
Diomedea exulans (Wandering Albatross)2
Enhydra lutris (Sea Otter)1
Eopsetta jordani (Petrale sole)1
Eschrichtius robustus (Gray Whale)1
Eumetopias jubatus (Steller Sea Lion)1
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)1
Fratercula corniculata (Horned Puffin)1
Fregata magnificens (Magnificent Frigatebird)1
Gavia arctica (Black-throated Loon)1
Genyonemus lineatus (White croaker)1
Halichoerus grypus (Gray Seal)1
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)1
Hyperoodon planifrons (Southern Bottlenose Whale)1
Kajikia audax (Stripey)1
Katsuwonus pelamis (White bonito)1
Kogia breviceps (Pygmy Sperm Whale)2
Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific White-sided Dolphin)2
Lamna ditropis (Salmon shark)1
Larus californicus (California Gull)1
Larus canus (Mew Gull)1
Larus glaucescens (Glaucous-winged Gull)1
Larus heermanni (Heermann's Gull)1
Larus occidentalis (Western Gull)2
Leptocottus armatus (Cabezon)1
Lissodelphis borealis (Northern Right Whale Dolphin)2
Lutjanus guttatus (mutton snapper)1
Merluccius productus (Whiting)1
Mesoplodon carlhubbsi (Hubbs's Beaked Whale)1
Ophiodon elongatus (Lingcod)2
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)1
Phalacrocorax penicillatus (Brandt's Cormorant)1
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)1
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)1
Phocoenoides dalli (Dall's Porpoise)4
Phoebastria immutabilis (Laysan Albatross)2
Physeter macrocephalus (Sperm Whale)4
Prionace glauca (Tribon blou)2
Puffinus creatopus (Pink-footed Shearwater)1
Puffinus griseus (Sooty Shearwater)2
Puffinus opisthomelas (Black-vented Shearwater)1
Puffinus tenuirostris (Short-tailed Shearwater)1
Raja rhina (Longnose skate)3
Sebastes caurinus (Copper rockfish)1
Sebastes flavidus (Yellowtail rockfish)1
Sebastes goodei (Rockfish)1
Seriphus politus (Drum)1
Stenella coeruleoalba (Striped Dolphin)2
Thunnus alalunga (longfinned albacore)1
Thunnus thynnus (horse mackerel)2
Tursiops truncatus (Bottlenosed Dolphin)3
Uria aalge (Common Murre)2
Zalophus californianus (California Sealion)3
Zapteryx exasperata (Striped guitarfish)1

Predators

Carcharodon carcharias (Maneater shark)[2]
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)[5]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Aeromonas hydrophila[6]
Anisakis similis <Unverified Name>[7]
Anisakis simplex[7]
Arcanobacterium phocae[6]
Citrobacter diversus[6]
Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens / Pulpy kidney disease)[6]
Contracaecum osculatum[7]
Corynosoma bullosum[7]
Cryptosporidium parvum[6]
Edwardsiella tarda[6]
Enterobacter cloacae[6]
Escherichia coli (E. coli)[6]
Lepas anatifera (duck barnacle)[6]
Listeria ivanovii[6]
Morganella morganii[6]
Otostrongylus circumlitus <Unverified Name>[7]
Parafilaroides decorus <Unverified Name>[7]
Plesiomonas shigelloides[6]
Pricetrema zalophi <Unverified Name>[7]
Proteus mirabilis[6]
Proteus vulgaris[6]
Providencia stuartii[6]
Pseudomonas fluorescens[6]
Pseudomonas putida[6]
Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus[6]
Serratia liquefaciens[6]
Staphylococcus aureus (Golden staph)[6]
Zalophotrema hepaticum[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
San Diego Zoo

Range Map

East Pacific; Middle America; North America;

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Gardner A.L, 2007-08-15, in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 2Mirounga angustirostris, Brent S. Stewart and Harriet R. Huber, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 449, pp. 1-10 (1993) 3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 4CephBase - Cephalopod (Octopus, Squid, Cuttlefish and Nautilus) Database 5Food Web Relationships of Northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca : a Synthesis of the Available Knowledge, Charles A. Simenstad, Bruce S. Miller, Carl F. Nyblade, Kathleen Thornburgh, and Lewis J. Bledsoe, EPA-600 7-29-259 September 1979 6Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2. 7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
EDGE analysis provided by EDGE of Existence programme, Zoological Society of London
Range map provided by IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature), Conservation International & NatureServe.
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011