Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Perissodactyla > Equidae > Equus > Equus caballus

Equus caballus (horse; horse (feral))

Synonyms: Equus caballus caballus; Equus ferus caballus

Wikipedia Abstract

The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of Equus ferus. It is an odd-toed ungulate mammal belonging to the taxonomic family Equidae. The horse has evolved over the past 45 to 55 million years from a small multi-toed creature, Eohippus, into the large, single-toed animal of today. Humans began to domesticate horses around 4000 BC, and their domestication is believed to have been widespread by 3000 BC. Horses in the subspecies caballus are domesticated, although some domesticated populations live in the wild as feral horses. These feral populations are not true wild horses, as this term is used to describe horses that have never been domesticated, such as the endangered Przewalski's horse, a separate subspecies, and the only remaining true wild horse. There is an ext
View Wikipedia Record: Equus caballus

Invasive Species

Equus caballus is a large non-ruminant herbivorous mammal that is not dissimlar in appearance to the domestic horse. E. caballus has an average lifespan of 25 - 30 years, with 20 years of sexual activity. While preferred habitat is open grasslands, E. caballus has been also known to invade desert, semi-desert plains, coastal areas, subalpine regions, tropical savannah grasslands, forests, scrublands and wetlands. In some regions they are protected as they are seen as a valuable asset, but in other places they are considered a pest, as they compete with livestock for resources, degrade plant habitats by grazing and trampling, contaminate water sources, damage fences and decrease native biodiversity.
View ISSG Record: Equus caballus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Not determined do to incomplete vulnerability data.
ED Score: 20.09


Adult Weight [1]  551.16 lbs (250.00 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  174.61 lbs (79.20 kg)
Female Maturity [1]  2 years 6 months
Male Maturity [1]  2 years 8 months
Diet [2]  Herbivore
Diet - Plants [2]  100 %
Forages - Ground [2]  100 %
Gestation [1]  11 months 7 days
Litter Size [1]  1
Litters / Year [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [1]  57 years
Migration [3]  Intracontinental
Weaning [1]  9 months 4 days

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Bandelier National Monument V 8107 New Mexico, United States
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Central Plains Biosphere Reserve 15345 United States  
Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary   California, United States
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Dye Creek Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 38152 California, United States  
Eastern Beskid National Park II 68484 Poland  
Haleakala National Park II   Hawaii, United States
Hawaiian Islands Biosphere Reserve 245981 Hawaii, United States  
Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area V 103172 Washington, United States
Lanín National Park II 536819 Neuquen, Argentina
Los Glaciares National Park II 1329020 Santa Cruz, Argentina
Mojave and Colorado Deserts Biosphere Reserve 5901 California, United States  
Nahuel Huapi National Park II 759703 Argentina  
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Purnululu National Park II 604999 Western Australia, Australia
Shoalwater and Corio Bays Area Ramsar Site   Queensland, Australia
Tierra Del Fuego National Park II 172861 Argentina

Emblem of

New Jersey


Aedes vexans (vexans mosquito)[4]
Anopheles albimanus[4]
Anopheles annulipes[4]
Anopheles crucians[4]
Anopheles maculipennis[4]
Anopheles quadrimaculatus (common malaria mosquito)[4]
Anopheles sinensis[4]
Anopheles stephensi[4]
Culex modestus[4]
Culex tarsalis[4]
Culiseta inornata[4]
Culiseta melanura (black-tailed mosquito)[4]
Gypaetus barbatus (Bearded Vulture)[5]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[4]
Puma concolor (Cougar)[4]
Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly)[4]
Tabanus lineola (striped horse fly)[4]
Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)[4]
Varanus varius (Lace Monitor)[6]


Parasitized by 
Alfortia edentatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Anoplocephala magna <Unverified Name>[7]
Anoplocephala plicata <Unverified Name>[7]
Anoplocephaloides mamillana <Unverified Name>[7]
Ascaris equorum <Unverified Name>[7]
Ascaris megalocephala <Unverified Name>[7]
Babesia bigemina <Unverified Name>[8]
Babesia equi <Unverified Name>[8]
Bidentostomum ivashkini <Unverified Name>[7]
Coronocyclus coronatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Coronocyclus labiatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Coronocyclus labratus <Unverified Name>[7]
Coronocyclus sagittatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Coronocyclus ulambajari <Unverified Name>[7]
Craterostomum acuticaudatum <Unverified Name>[7]
Cyathostomum alveatum <Unverified Name>[7]
Cyathostomum auriculatum <Unverified Name>[7]
Cyathostomum bicoronatum <Unverified Name>[7]
Cyathostomum calicatum <Unverified Name>[7]
Cyathostomum catinatum[7]
Cyathostomum coronatum[7]
Cyathostomum elongatum <Unverified Name>[7]
Cyathostomum labiatum <Unverified Name>[7]
Cyathostomum labratum <Unverified Name>[7]
Cyathostomum longibursatum <Unverified Name>[7]
Cyathostomum nassatum <Unverified Name>[7]
Cyathostomum pateratum <Unverified Name>[7]
Cyathostomum poculatum <Unverified Name>[7]
Cyathostomum radiatum <Unverified Name>[7]
Cyathostomum tetracanthum <Unverified Name>[7]
Cylicocyclus ashworthi <Unverified Name>[7]
Cylicocyclus auriculatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Cylicocyclus brevicapsulatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Cylicocyclus elongatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Cylicocyclus insigne[7]
Cylicocyclus leptostomum <Unverified Name>[8]
Cylicocyclus leptostomus <Unverified Name>[7]
Cylicocyclus matumurai <Unverified Name>[7]
Cylicocyclus nassatus[7]
Cylicocyclus radiatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Cylicocyclus triramosus <Unverified Name>[7]
Cylicocyclus ultrajectinus <Unverified Name>[7]
Cylicodontophorus bicoronatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Cylicodontophorus euproctus <Unverified Name>[7]
Cylicodontophorus mettami <Unverified Name>[7]
Cylicostephanus asymetricus <Unverified Name>[7]
Cylicostephanus bidentatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Cylicostephanus calicatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Cylicostephanus goldi[7]
Cylicostephanus hybridus <Unverified Name>[7]
Cylicostephanus longibursatus[7]
Cylicostephanus minutus[7]
Cylicostephanus poculatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Delafondia vulgaris <Unverified Name>[7]
Draschia megastoma[7]
Echidnophaga gallinacea (sticktight flea)[9]
Echinococcus equinus <Unverified Name>[7]
Echinococcus granulosus[7]
Echinococcus multilocularis[7]
Echinococcus polymorphus <Unverified Name>[7]
Eimeria leuckarti <Unverified Name>[8]
Eustrongylus gigas <Unverified Name>[7]
Fasciola hepatica (common liver fluke)[7]
Filaria papillosa <Unverified Name>[7]
Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus <Unverified Name>[7]
Gastrodiscus secundus <Unverified Name>[7]
Giardia duodenalis <Unverified Name>[8]
Gyalocephalus capitatus[7]
Habronema majus <Unverified Name>[7]
Habronema microstoma <Unverified Name>[7]
Habronema muscae <Unverified Name>[7]
Haematopinus asini (horse sucking louse)[8]
Hippobosca equina (Forest fly)[8]
Klossiella equi <Unverified Name>[8]
Loa loa <Unverified Name>[7]
Oesophagodontus robustus[7]
Onchocerca cervicalis <Unverified Name>[7]
Oxyuris curvula <Unverified Name>[7]
Oxyuris equi[7]
Paranoplocephala mamillana <Unverified Name>[7]
Parapoteriostomum euproctus <Unverified Name>[7]
Parapoteriostomum mettami <Unverified Name>[7]
Parascaris equorum[7]
Petrovinema poculatum <Unverified Name>[7]
Petrovinema skrjabini <Unverified Name>[8]
Poteriostomum imparidentatum <Unverified Name>[7]
Poteriostomum ratzii <Unverified Name>[7]
Probstmayria vivipara[7]
Pseudodiscus collinsi <Unverified Name>[7]
Pulex irritans (human flea)[9]
Ratemia asiatica[4]
Sarcocystis betrami <Unverified Name>[8]
Sarcocystis fayeri <Unverified Name>[8]
Schistosoma japonicum <Unverified Name>[7]
Sclerostoma edentatum <Unverified Name>[7]
Sclerostoma equinum <Unverified Name>[7]
Sclerostoma hypostomum <Unverified Name>[7]
Sclerostoma vulgare <Unverified Name>[7]
Setaria digitata <Unverified Name>[7]
Spiroptera sanguinolenta <Unverified Name>[7]
Strongyloides westeri[7]
Strongylus asini <Unverified Name>[7]
Strongylus edentatus[7]
Strongylus equinus[7]
Strongylus micrurus <Unverified Name>[7]
Strongylus vulgaris (blood worm)[7]
Taenia anoplocephala <Unverified Name>[7]
Toxoplasma gondii <Unverified Name>[8]
Trichinella britovi <Unverified Name>[7]
Trichinella spiralis (pork worm)[7]
Trichomonas equi <Unverified Name>[8]
Trichostrongylus axei[7]
Tridentoinfundibulum gobi <Unverified Name>[7]
Triodontophorus brevicauda[7]
Triodontophorus intermedius <Unverified Name>[7]
Triodontophorus minor <Unverified Name>[7]
Triodontophorus nipponicus <Unverified Name>[7]
Triodontophorus serratus[7]
Triodontophorus tenuicollis[7]
Triodontus minor <Unverified Name>[7]
Triodontus serratus <Unverified Name>[7]
Trypanosoma evansi <Unverified Name>[8]
Vermipsylla alakurt[9]
Vermipsylla yeae[9]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
AB Furuviksparken
Africam Safari (Africam, S. A.)caballus
 caballus pony
Al Ain Zoocaballus shetland
Albuquerque Biological Park
 caballus percheron_draft
Almaty State Zoo of Kazakhstan
Amarillo Zoo
America's Teaching Zoo
Assiniboine Park Zoocaballus american_miniature
Attica Zoological Park S.A.caballus falabella
 caballus shetland
 caballus skyros
Auckland Zoological Parkcaballus
Badoca Safari Park
Banham Zoo Ltd.caballus shire_draft
 caballus suffolk_draft
Binder Park Zoocaballus shetland
Birmingham Nature Centre
Blaavand Zoocaballus fjord
 caballus friesian
 caballus shetland
 caballus shire_draft
Blair Drummond Safari Park
Boras Djurpark Zoo
Bosphorus Zoo (Bogaziçi Hayvanat
Bowmanville Zoological Park
Bronx Children's Zoocaballus
Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservat'n Society
Brookgreen Gardenscaballus thoroughbred
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Gardencaballus haflinger
 caballus hutsul
 caballus shetland
 caballus welsh
Bursa Zoo (Bursa Hayvanat Bahcesi)
Buttonwood Park Zoocaballus exmoor
 caballus pony
 caballus shetland
 caballus suffolk_draft
Calgary Zoo, Garden & Prehistoric Parkprzewalskii
Camperdown Wildlife Centrecaballus clydesdale_draft
 caballus shetland
CERZA Centre d'Etude Rech Zool Augeroncaballus
 caballus falabella
Chahinkapa Zoo
Chattanooga Zoo at Warner Park
Chehaw Wild Animal Parkcaballus american_miniature
Cheyenne Mtn Zoological Parkcaballus
 caballus welsh
Chiangmai Zoological Gardencaballus falabella
Chicago Zoological Parkcaballus american_miniature
Children's Zoo at Celebration Squarecaballus american_miniature
 caballus clydesdale_draft
Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Gardenprzewalskii
City of Belfast Zoocaballus shetland
Cleveland Metroparks Zoocaballus domestic
Colchester Zoocaballus
 caballus arab
 caballus domestic
 caballus pony
 caballus shire_draft
Cologne Zooprzewalskii
Columbian Park Zoocaballus american_miniature
Columbus Zoo and Aquarium
Copenhagen Zoocaballus
Cosley Zoocaballus american_cream_draft
 caballus shetland
Cotswold Wildlife Park and Gardenscaballus shetland
Dakota Zoo
Dallas Zoocaballus haflinger
 caballus pony
 caballus shetland
Denver Zoological Gardensprzewalskii
Dept. of National Zoological Gardens
Detroit Zoological Societycaballus thoroughbred
Drusillas Zoo Parkcaballus shetland
DSI Givskud Zoo
Dusit (Bangkok) Zoological Parkcaballus falabella
El Paso Zooprzewalskii
Erie Zoological Gardenscaballus american_miniature
Faunia (Parque Biologico De Madrid,SA)caballus falabella
Flamingo Land LTDcaballus shetland
Forest Park Zoological Society
Fort Wayne Children's Zoo
Fort Worth Zoological Parkcaballus quarter
Fossil Rim Wildlife Centerprzewalskii
GaiaPark, Kerkrade Zooprzewalskii
Giza Zoological Garden
 caballus pony
 caballus shetland
Gladys Porter Zoo
 caballus american_miniature
Granby Zoo / Zoo de Granbyprzewalskii
Great Plains Zoocaballus american_miniature
Greater Vancouver Zoocaballus american_miniature
Guadalajara Zoo
Hai Park Kiriat Motzkincaballus
 caballus pony
Happy Hollow Zoo
Helsinki Zooprzewalskii
Henson Robinson Zoo
Highland Wildlife Parkprzewalskii
Honolulu Zoo
Hutchinson Zoo
International Animal Exchange, Inc.caballus shetland
Izmir Zoo / Izmir Dogal Yasam Parkicaballus haflinger
Jesperhus Blomsterparkcaballus
Johannesburg Zoological Gardenscaballus domestic
 caballus shetland
 caballus shire_draft
 caballus thoroughbred
Jyllands Park Zoocaballus
 caballus fjord
 caballus pony
Kaliningrad Zoo
Kazan Zoological & Botanical Gardencaballus pony
Kharkiv Zooprzewalskii
Kishinev Zooparkcaballus kisber
 caballus orlov_trotter
 caballus shetland
 caballus trakehner
Knuthenborg Safariparkcaballus shetland
Kristiansand Dyrepark ASAcaballus shetland
Kyiv Zoological Parkcaballus shetland
Lake Superior Zoological Gardens
Leningrad Zoo - St. Petersburgprzewalskii
Lichtenburg Game Breeding Centerprzewalskii
Lincoln Childrens Zoo (former Folsom)
Lincoln Park Zoological Gardenscaballus pony
Little Rock Zoological Gardens
Magnetic Hill Zoo
Manor House Wildlife Parkprzewalskii
Marwell Wildlifeprzewalskii
Münchener Tierpark Hellabrunncaballus shetland
 ferus re-creation
Memphis Zoological Garden & Aquarium
Menagerie du Jardin des Plantesprzewalskii
Mesker Park Zoo
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny w Lodzcaballus shetland
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Warsawcaballus shetland
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Wybrzeza
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny, Plock
Milwaukee County Zoological Gardens
Minnesota Zoological Garden
Miskolc Zoo/Állatkert és Kultúrparkcaballus shetland
Mogo Zoo P/L
Monarto Zoological Parkprzewalskii
Monde Sauvage Safari SPRLcaballus shetland
Moscow Zoological Park
Nagyerdei Kultúrpark KHT.
Nashville Zoo at Grassmere
 caballus percheron_draft
Nat'l Zoological Gardens of S. Africacaballus
Natural Science Center of Greensboro
Neunkircher Zoologischer Garten GmbHcaballus shetland
Niedersächsische Landesforstencaballus sorraia
Nikolaev Zoo of Nikolaev-City Council
Noah's Ark Zoo Farmcaballus shetland
 caballus shire_draft
Nordens Ark
NY State Zoo at Thompson Parkcaballus shetland
Nyíregyházi Állatpark Nonprofit KFTcaballus
 caballus haflinger
 caballus shetland
 caballus welsh
Odense Zoologiske Have
Odsherreds Zoo Dyrepark A/Scaballus pony
 caballus shetland
Oglebay's Good Children's Zoocaballus american_miniature
Ogrod Zoobotaniczny Torun
 caballus shetland
Ogrod Zoologiczny im. Stefana Milera
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Opolu, Opolecaballus shetland
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Poznaniu
 caballus shetland
Olmense Zoocaballus shetland
Opel-Zoo von Opel HessischeZoostiftungcaballus shetland
Orana Wildlife Parkcaballus pony
Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zool. Gdns.caballus noma
Ouwehand Zoocaballus falabella
Palm Beach Zoo at Dreher Park
Pana'ewa Rainforest Zoo & Gardens
Parc Animalier de Sainte Croixprzewalskii
Parc de la Haute Touche (MNHN)przewalskii
Parc Safari / F.A.P.S.
Parc Zoologic de Barcelonacaballus breton_draft
 caballus pony
Parc Zoologique d'Amnevillecaballus andalusian
 caballus lipitsa
 caballus lusitanian
 caballus shetland
Parc Zoologique de Tregomeurprzewalskii
Parc Zoologique Fort Mardyck
Parco Natura Vivaprzewalskii
Park i Ogrod Zoologiczny w Krakowie
Parque De La Naturaleza Selwo (GRPR)
Parque Recreativo y Zool. Piscilago
Parque Zoologico Benito Juarezcaballus shetland
Parque Zoologico Huachipa
Peoria Zoo in Glen Oak Park
Permskii Zoologicheskii Sadcaballus pony
Phoenix Zoo
 caballus belgian_draft
 caballus clydesdale_draft
 caballus percheron_draft
Planete Sauvagecaballus american_mustang
Podkrusnohorsky Zoopark Chomutovcaballus fjord
 caballus shire_draft
Port Lympne Wild Animal Parkprzewalskii
Potter Park Zoological Gardens
Prospect Park Zoocaballus
Pueblo Zoocaballus american_miniature
Queens Zoocaballus fjord
 caballus haflinger
Reaseheath College Animal Centrecaballus shetland
Red River Zoocaballus suffolk_draft
Riga Zoo
 caballus shetland
Riverbanks Zoo and Gardencaballus haflinger
 caballus pony
 caballus shetland
 caballus welsh
Rodbaston Collegecaballus shetland
Rosamond Gifford Zoo at Burnet Park
Rostock Zoologischer Garten
Safari de Peaugresprzewalskii
Safaripark Beekse Bergenprzewalskii
Saitama Children's Zoocaballus
 caballus american_miniature
 caballus shetland
Salzburg Zoo Hellbrunnprzewalskii
San Diego Wild Animal Parkprzewalskii
San Diego Zoo
San Francisco Zoological Gardens
Santa Ana Zoocaballus exmoor
Schoenbrunner Tiergarten GmbHprzewalskii
Sedgwick County Zoocaballus american_cream_draft
 caballus shire_draft
Shepreth Wildlife Parkcaballus dartmoor
 caballus falabella
 caballus shetland
Silesian Zoological Garden
 caballus shetland
Singapore Zoological Gardens
Skansen Foundation, Zool. Dept.
Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute in Front Royalprzewalskii
Smithsonian National Zoological Parkprzewalskii
Szeged Zoo
Taipei Zoo
Tallahassee Museum of History and
Tallinn Zooprzewalskii
Tama Zoological Parkprzewalskii
Tampa's Lowry Park Zoo
Tbilisi Zoo
Terra Natura S.A.caballus
The Hawk Conservancy
The Philadelphia Zoocaballus american_miniature
The Tisch Family Zoological Gardens
The Wildsprzewalskii
Thoiry Zoological Parkprzewalskii
Thuringer Zoopark Erfurtcaballus german_riding
 caballus haflinger
 caballus shire_draft
Tiergarten Bernburgcaballus shetland
Tiergarten der Stadt Nürnbergcaballus shetland
Tiergarten Heidelberg
Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde GmbHcaballus fjord
 caballus mecklenburg_draft
 caballus shetland
Tierpark Dählhölzli
Tierpark Hagenbeck GmbH
Tierwelt Herberstein
Tilgate Nature Centrecaballus shetland
Toronto Zooprzewalskii
Tropical Butterfly Housecaballus shetland
Trotter's World of Animals
Turtle Back Zoo
 caballus belgian_draft
 caballus pony
Ueno Zoological Gardens
Usti nad Labem Zoo
Valley Zoo & John Janzen Nature Center
Washington Park Zoological Gardenscaballus domestic
Welsh Mountain Zooprzewalskii
Werribee Open Range Zooprzewalskii
West Midland Safari & Leisure Park Ltdprzewalskii
Western Plains Zooprzewalskii
Westfalischer Zoologischer Gtn Munster
 caballus dulmen
 caballus mongolian
Whipsnade Wild Animal Parkcaballus shetland
Wild Animal Park Mechelen Planckendaelprzewalskii
Wildlife Safari Inccaballus american_miniature
Wilhelma Zoocaballus poitou_draft
Woburn Safari Parkcaballus pony
Wroclaw Zoo, LLCcaballus haflinger
 caballus polish_konick
 caballus shetland
Xantus János Állatkert Kht.caballus
 caballus shetland
Yokohama Zool. Gardens
 caballus shetland
Zagreb Zoo / Zooloski vrt Zagreb
Zivalski vrt Ljubljana
Zoo and Aqua-Terrarium Ltd. Pécs
Zoo Aquarium de Madrid (GRPR)
Zoo de Santillana y Parque Cuaternariocaballus pony
Zoo Decin - Pastyrska Stena
Zoo Dresden GmbHcaballus shetland
Zoo Dvur Kralove, a.s.
 caballus shetland
Zoo Hannover GmbHcaballus exmoor
Zoo Krefeld GmbH
Zoo Melaka
Zoo New England, Franklin Park Zoocaballus
 caballus american_miniature
 caballus pony_of_americas
Zoo of Acadiana
Zoo Safari Swierkocincaballus american_miniature
 caballus falabella
 caballus shetland
Zoo Santo Inácio Vila Nova de Gaia
Zoo Sauvage de St-Félicien
Zoo Zürich
Zoobotanico de Jerezprzewalskii
Zoological Center Tel Aviv - Ramat Gancaballus
 caballus shetland
Zoological Garden of Polish Fauna
 caballus pony
Zoological Garden Pragueprzewalskii
Zoological Society of Trinidad &Tobago
Zoologicka zahrada Ostravacaballus shetland
Zoologicka zahrada Bojnice
Zoologicka Zahrada Bratislavacaballus fjord
 caballus shetland
Zoologicka Zahrada Jihlava
Zoologicka Zahrada Kosice
Zoologicka zahrada Liberec
Zoologicka Zahrada Mesta Brnacaballus
Zoologicka zahrada Olomouc
Zoologická a botanická zahrada Plzencaballus shetland
Zoologischer Garten Augsburg GmbHcaballus pony
Zoologischer Garten Halle GmbH
Zoologischer Garten Leipzigcaballus shetland
Zoologischer Garten Magdeburgcaballus shetland
Zoologischer Garten Saarbruecken
 caballus ardennes_draft
 caballus pony
ZooWorld Zoological Botanical Conserv.


Australia; Caribbean; Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China); North America; Oceania; South America; Southern Asia;



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
5Assessing the diet of nestling Bearded Vultures: a comparison between direct observation methods, Antoni Margalida, Joan Bertran, and Jennifer Boudet, J. Field Ornithol. 76(1):40–45, 2005
6Diet of the Lace Monitor Lizard (Varanus varius) in south-eastern Australia, Brian W. Weavers, Australian Zoologist, Vol. 25(3) 83-85
7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
8Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
9International Flea Database
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access