Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Artiodactyla > Cervidae > Cervus > Cervus elaphus
 

Cervus elaphus (wapiti or elk; elk; wapiti; Red Deer)

Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The red deer (Cervus elaphus) is one of the largest deer species. The red deer inhabits most of Europe, the Caucasus Mountains region, Asia Minor, parts of western Asia, and central Asia. It also inhabits the Atlas Mountains region between Morocco and Tunisia in northwestern Africa, being the only species of deer to inhabit Africa. Red deer have been introduced to other areas, including Australia, New Zealand and Argentina.
View Wikipedia Record: Cervus elaphus

Infraspecies

Invasive Species

Red deer (Cervus elaphus) were introduced to several countries, including North and South America, New Zealand and Australia. In Argentina they have invaded several National parks, influencing native flora and fauna and possibly disrupting ecological processes. Of particular concern is possible competition with an endangered deer endemic to the southern parts of Chile and Argentina. They also compete with livestock.
View ISSG Record: Cervus elaphus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
2
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
16
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 5.04
EDGE Score: 1.8

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  440.93 lbs (200.00 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  22.27 lbs (10.10 kg)
Female Maturity [1]  2 years 4 months
Male Maturity [1]  2 years
Diet [2]  Herbivore
Gestation [1]  8 months 5 days
Litter Size [1]  1
Litters / Year [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [1]  32 years
Speed [3]  34.00 MPH (15.2 m/s)
Weaning [1]  5 months 6 days

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Alai-Western Tian Shan steppe Kazahkstan, Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Alashan Plateau semi-desert China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Alberta Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Alberta-British Columbia foothills forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai alpine meadow and tundra China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Altai montane forest and forest steppe China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai steppe and semi-desert Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Amur meadow steppe China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests Turkey Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Appenine deciduous montane forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Arizona Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Badghyz and Karabil semi-desert Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Tajikistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Blue Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Bohai Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas  
British Columbia mainland coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
California Central Valley grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Canadian Aspen forests and parklands Canada Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Carpathian montane forests Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Cascade Mountains leeward forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Caspian lowland desert Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Caucasus mixed forests Georgia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Anatolian steppe Turkey Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central and Southern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central Asian northern desert Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Asian riparian woodlands Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Asian southern desert Turkmenistan stretching, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central British Columbia Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central China loess plateau mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Korean deciduous forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Pacific coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Central Persian desert basins Iran, Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Changbai Mountains mixed forests China, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chihuahuan desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Colorado Plateau shrublands United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Colorado Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Crimean Submediterranean forest complex Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Da Hinggan-Dzhagdy Mountains conifer forests China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Daba Mountains evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Daurian forest steppe China, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East European forest steppe Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Iran, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Eastern Gobi desert steppe China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Coniferous Forests
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Edwards Plateau savanna United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Elburz Range forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests    
Euxine-Colchic broadleaf forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Fraser Plateau and Basin complex Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Gissaro-Alai open woodlands Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Great Basin montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Great Lakes Basin desert steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Helanshan montane conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Hengduan Mountains subalpine conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Huang He Plain mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Iberian conifer forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Illyrian deciduous forests Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Junggar Basin semi-desert China, Kazakstan, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kazakh forest steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh semi-desert Kazakhstan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kazakh steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh upland Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Khangai Mountains alpine meadow Mongolia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Khangai Mountains conifer forests Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Klamath-Siskiyou forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Kopet Dag woodlands and forest steppe Iran, Turkmenistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mid-Continental Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Mojave desert United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Nenjiang River grassland China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
North Central Rockies forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
North Tibetan Plateau-Kunlun Mountains alpine desert China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Northeast China Plain deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests China, India, Bhutan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern California coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northwest Iberian montane forests Portugal, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows China, Pakistan, India Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Nujiang Langcang Gorge alpine conifer and mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Okanagan dry forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Ordos Plateau steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Ozark Mountain forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Palouse grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pamir alpine desert and tundra China, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Puget lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Qaidam Basin semi-desert China Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Qilian Mountains conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Qilian Mountains subalpine meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Qin Ling Mountains deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Qionglai-Minshan conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Rodope montane mixed forests Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sayan Alpine meadows and tundra Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sayan Intermontane steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sayan montane conifer forests Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
Selenge-Orkhon forest steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sichuan Basin evergreen broadleaf forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sierra Nevada forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Snake-Columbia shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Central Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
South Iran Nubo-Sindian desert and semi-desert Iran, Iraq, Pakistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Siberian forest steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southeast Tibet shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southern Korea evergreen forests South Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Morocco Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Suiphun-Khanka meadows and forest meadows China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Taklimakan desert China Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tarim Basin deciduous forests and steppe China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tian Shan foothill arid steppe China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tian Shan montane conifer forests China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Tian Shan montane steppe and meadows China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tibetan Plateau alpine shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Trans-Baikal Bald Mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Trans-Baikal conifer forests Russia, Mongolia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Ussuri broadleaf and mixed forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Wasatch and Uinta montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
West Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western short grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Siberian hemiboreal forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Willamette Valley forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Wyoming Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Zagros Mountains forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
ANTICHASIA ORI KAI METEORA 178032 Greece  
Ajar Valley Wildlife Sanctuary Wildlife Reserve IV 158064 Afghanistan  
Altaisky Zapovednik Ia 2177587 Altai, Russia
Amudarya Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 152861 Lebap, Turkmenistan  
Arthur's Pass National Park II 257008 South Island, New Zealand
Baikalo-Lensky Zapovednik Ia 1630896 Irkutsk, Russia
Baikalskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 458883 Russia  
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berezinskiy Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 209113 Belarus  
Bogdhad Mountain Biosphere Reserve 318000 China  
Cairngorms 142543 Scotland, United Kingdom
Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands 354692 Scotland, United Kingdom
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve V 619089 Jilin, China  
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Clayoquot Sound Biosphere Reserve 864738 British Columbia, Canada  
Craters of the Moon National Monument V 690996 Idaho, United States
Daurskiy Biosphere Reserve 562659 Russia  
Dinosaur National Monument III 203307 Colorado, Utah, United States
Dolina Slupi 92595 Poland  
Dolomiti del Cadore e del Comelico 173952 Italy  
El Malpais National Monument III 109980 New Mexico, United States
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Fuentes del Narcea y del Ibias 126128 Spain  
Glacier National Park II 953799 Montana, United States
Grampians National Park II 416373 Victoria, Australia
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Grand Teton National Park II 231724 Wyoming, United States
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
KENTRIKI RODOPI KAI KOILADA NESTOU 261804 Greece  
KERKETIO OROS (KOZIAKAS) 124618 Greece  
Katunsky Biosphere Reserve 393162 Altai, Russia
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Kootenay National Park II 341762 British Columbia, Canada
Krivoklatsko Protected Landscape Area V 155267 Czech Republic  
Krkonose National Park V 95995 Czech Republic  
LOS ALCORNOCALES 414561 Spain  
Lagorai 114140 Italy  
Lake Chelan National Recreation Area II 606367 Washington, United States
Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area V 103172 Washington, United States
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Lanín National Park II 536819 Neuquen, Argentina
Las Sierras de Cazorla y Segura Biosphere Reserve 469500 Spain  
Lasy Janowskie 148846 Poland  
Lazovsky Zapovednik Ia 299030 Primorsky Krai, Russia
Los Alerces National Park II 463045 Chubut, Argentina  
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
Mont Ventoux Biosphere Reserve 198594 France  
Montesinho/Nogueira 266900 Portugal  
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Mount Aspiring National Park II 473907 South Island, New Zealand
Mount Rainier National Park II 235186 Washington, United States
Nahuel Huapi National Park II 759703 Argentina  
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Ostoja Augustowska 264573 Poland  
Ostoja Inska 216738 Poland  
Ostoja Przemyska 97994 Poland  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio National Park V 333737 Italy
Parco Regionale Orobie Bergamasche 121015 Italy  
Pirin 99722 Bulgaria  
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Puszcza Solska 196076 Poland  
Redes 93413 Spain  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Doñana Biosphere Reserve II 123801 Spain
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
SIERRA DE ALCUBIERRE 103846 Spain  
SIERRA DE ARACENA Y PICOS DE AROCHE 461592 Spain  
SIERRA DE HORNACHUELOS 148342 Spain  
SIERRA NORTE 438558 Spain  
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  
Sokhondinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 521363 Chita, Russia
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Sumava Biosphere Reserve 412955 Czech Republic  
Teberdinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 210198 Karachay-Cherkessia, Russia
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Trebon Basin Protected Landscape Area V 173393 Czech Republic  
Ubiña-La Mesa 97094 Spain  
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Ujscie Odry i Zalew Szczecinski 130007 Poland  
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada
Zion National Park II 135667 Utah, United States

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No
Mountains of Central Asia Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan No
Mountains of Southwest China China, Myanmar No

Emblem of

Ireland
Utah

Prey / Diet

Arbutus unedo (strawberry tree)[4]
Chamaerops humilis (European fan palm)[5]
Juniperus oxycedrus (Prickly Juniper)[4]
Phillyrea angustifolia[4]
Phillyrea latifolia[4]
Poa pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass)[6]
Quercus faginea[4]
Quercus ilex (Holly Oak)[4]
Quercus robur (Pedunculate Oak)[6]
Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aegithalos caudatus (Long-tailed Bushtit)2
Attelabus nitens2
Capra pyrenaica (Spanish ibex)4
Capreolus capreolus (western roe deer)2
Carcina quercana2
Coccothraustes coccothraustes (Hawfinch)2
Columba oenas (Stock Dove)2
Columba palumbus (Common Wood Pigeon)2
Curculio glandium (acorn weevil)2
Cyanistes caeruleus (Blue Tit)3
Cyclophora puppillaria (Blair's Mocha)3
Ennomos quercinaria (August Thorn)2
Erithacus rubecula (European Robin)3
Eupithecia dodoneata (Oak-tree Pug)2
Eupithecia irriguata (Marbled Pug)2
Fringilla coelebs (Common Chaffinch)2
Lophophanes cristatus (European Crested Tit)2
Lycia hirtaria (Brindled Beauty Moth)2
Lymantria monacha (Black Arches, Nun Moth)2
Meles meles (European Badger)2
Parus major (Great Tit)2
Phalera bucephala (Buff-tip)2
Phyllonorycter messaniella (Oak leafminer)2
Scolytus intricatus (Oak Bark Beetle)2
Sylvia atricapilla (Eurasian Blackcap)4
Sylvia melanocephala (Sardinian Warbler)3
Synanthedon vespiformis (Yellow-legged Clearwing)2
Tortrix viridana (Green tortrix)3
Turdus iliacus (Redwing)2
Turdus merula (Eurasian Blackbird)4

Predators

Canis lupus (Wolf)[7]
Lynx lynx (Eurasian Lynx)[7]
Lynx pardinus (Iberian Lynx)[8]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Anaplasma marginale[9]
Anaplasma phagocytophilum[9]
Aonchotheca bovis <Unverified Name>[10]
Apteragia quadrispiculata[10]
Arcanobacterium pyogenes[9]
Ashworthius gagarini <Unverified Name>[10]
Ashworthius sidemi <Unverified Name>[10]
Bicaulus marali <Unverified Name>[10]
Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease)[9]
Brucella melitensis (Brucella / Brucellosis)[9]
Bunostomum trigonocephalum[10]
Calicophoron calicophorum[10]
Calicophoron daubneyi <Unverified Name>[10]
Camelostrongylus mentulatus <Unverified Name>[10]
Capillaria bovis[10]
Cephenemyia auribarbis[9]
Cephenemyia jellisoni[9]
Chabertia ovina <Unverified Name>[10]
Chlamydophila psittaci (Psittacosis bacteria / Chlamydiosis bacteria)[9]
Clostridium chauvoei[9]
Clostridium haemolyticum[9]
Clostridium septicum[9]
Clostridium sordellii[9]
Cooperia curticei <Unverified Name>[10]
Cooperia mcmasteri <Unverified Name>[10]
Cooperia oncophora <Unverified Name>[10]
Cooperia pectinata[10]
Cooperia punctata[10]
Cooperia zurnabada <Unverified Name>[10]
Coxiella burnetii[9]
Cutifilaria wenki <Unverified Name>[10]
Cysticercus tenuicollis <Unverified Name>[10]
Cystocaulus nigrescens <Unverified Name>[10]
Dermacentor albipictus (Elk tick)[9]
Dicrocoelium dendriticum (Lancet liver fluke)[10]
Dicrocoelium lanceatum <Unverified Name>[10]
Dictyocaulus eckerti <Unverified Name>[10]
Dictyocaulus filaria[10]
Dictyocaulus nerneri <Unverified Name>[10]
Dictyocaulus noerneri <Unverified Name>[10]
Dictyocaulus viviparus[10]
Diplodinium dentatum[11]
Diplodinium rangiferi[11]
Distomum lanceolatum <Unverified Name>[10]
Dorcadia dorcadia[12]
Echinococcus granulosus[10]
Ehrlichia chaffeensis[9]
Elaeophora elaphi <Unverified Name>[10]
Elaphostrongylus cervi[10]
Elaphostrongylus panticola <Unverified Name>[10]
Elytroplastron bubali <Unverified Name>[11]
Entodinium acutonucleatum <Unverified Name>[11]
Entodinium caudatum <Unverified Name>[11]
Entodinium dubardi <Unverified Name>[11]
Entodinium exiguum <Unverified Name>[11]
Entodinium longinucleatum <Unverified Name>[11]
Entodinium rectangulatum <Unverified Name>[11]
Entodinium simulans <Unverified Name>[11]
Epidinium bicaudatum <Unverified Name>[11]
Epidinium caudatum <Unverified Name>[11]
Epidinium ecaudatum <Unverified Name>[11]
Epidinium parvacaudatum <Unverified Name>[11]
Epidinium quadricaudatum <Unverified Name>[11]
Epidinium tricaudatum <Unverified Name>[11]
Escherichia coli (E. coli)[9]
Eudiplodinium maggii <Unverified Name>[11]
Fasciola gigantica[10]
Fasciola hepatica (common liver fluke)[10]
Fascioloides magna (giant liver fluke)[10]
Filaria terebra <Unverified Name>[10]
Fischoederius skrjabini <Unverified Name>[10]
Francisella tularensis (Tularemia)[9]
Gongylonema pulchrum[10]
Haemaphysalis bancrofti (Wallaby tick)[9]
Haemaphysalis punctata (Red sheep tick)[9]
Haemonchus contortus (red stomach worm)[10]
Haemonchus placei <Unverified Name>[11]
Hypoderma actaeon[9]
Hypoderma diana[9]
Hypoderma tarandi[9]
Isotricha intestinalis <Unverified Name>[11]
Isotricha prostoma <Unverified Name>[11]
Ixodes holocyclus (Australian paralysis tick)[9]
Ixodes ricinus (Deer tick)[9]
Leptospira interrogans[9]
Marshallagia marshalli <Unverified Name>[10]
Mazamastrongylus odocoilei <Unverified Name>[10]
Mazamastrongylus pursglovei <Unverified Name>[10]
Metadinium banksi <Unverified Name>[11]
Moniezia benedeni <Unverified Name>[10]
Moniezia expansa (sheep tapeworm)[10]
Muellerius capillaris (hair lungworm)[10]
Mycobacterium avium (Mycobacterium avium)[9]
Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine tuberculosis)[9]
Nematodirella alcidis <Unverified Name>[10]
Nematodirella longispiculata <Unverified Name>[10]
Nematodirella longissimespiculata <Unverified Name>[10]
Nematodirus abnormalis[9]
Nematodirus antilocaprae <Unverified Name>[10]
Nematodirus filicollis[10]
Nematodirus helvetianus[10]
Nematodirus odocoilei <Unverified Name>[10]
Nematodirus oiratianus <Unverified Name>[10]
Nematodirus roscidus <Unverified Name>[10]
Nematodirus spathiger[10]
Neolipoptena ferrisi (Pacific deer ked)[9]
Oesophagostomum cervi <Unverified Name>[10]
Oesophagostomum radiatum[10]
Oesophagostomum sikae <Unverified Name>[10]
Oesophagostomum venulosum[10]
Onchocerca flexuosa <Unverified Name>[10]
Onchocerca garmsi <Unverified Name>[10]
Onchocerca jakutensis <Unverified Name>[10]
Onchocerca skrjabini <Unverified Name>[10]
Onchocerca tarsicola <Unverified Name>[10]
Onchocerca tubingensis <Unverified Name>[10]
Orthostrongylus macrotis <Unverified Name>[10]
Ostertagia arctica <Unverified Name>[10]
Ostertagia circumcincta[10]
Ostertagia drozdzi <Unverified Name>[10]
Ostertagia gruehneri <Unverified Name>[10]
Ostertagia kolchida[10]
Ostertagia leptospicularis[10]
Ostertagia lyrata[10]
Ostertagia mossi <Unverified Name>[10]
Ostertagia ostertagi[10]
Ostertagia spiculoptera <Unverified Name>[10]
Ostertagia trifurcata[10]
Parafasciolopsis fasciolaemorpha <Unverified Name>[10]
Parafilaria antipini <Unverified Name>[10]
Paramphistomum cervi[10]
Paramphistomum hiberniae <Unverified Name>[10]
Paramphistomum ichikawai <Unverified Name>[10]
Paramphistomum leydeni <Unverified Name>[10]
Parelaphostrongylus tenuis <Unverified Name>[10]
Pasteurella multocida[9]
Pharyngomyia picta[9]
Protostrongylus kochi <Unverified Name>[10]
Psoroptes cuniculi (rabbit ear mite)[9]
Rhipicephalus microplus (Asian blue tick)[9]
Rinadia mathevossiani <Unverified Name>[10]
Salmonella enterica[9]
Sclerostoma hypostomum <Unverified Name>[10]
Setaria cervi <Unverified Name>[10]
Setaria labiatopapillosa <Unverified Name>[10]
Skrjabinagia arctica <Unverified Name>[10]
Skrjabinagia kolchida <Unverified Name>[10]
Skrjabinagia lasensis <Unverified Name>[10]
Skrjabinagia lyrata <Unverified Name>[10]
Spiculopteragia asymmetrica[10]
Spiculopteragia boehmi <Unverified Name>[10]
Spiculopteragia bohmi <Unverified Name>[10]
Spiculopteragia dagestanica <Unverified Name>[10]
Spiculopteragia mathevossiani <Unverified Name>[10]
Spiculopteragia quadrispiculata <Unverified Name>[10]
Spiculopteragia spiculoptera[10]
Strongyloides papillosus[10]
Strongyloides ransomi <Unverified Name>[10]
Strongylus sagittatus <Unverified Name>[10]
Strongylus ventricosus <Unverified Name>[10]
Taenia cervi <Unverified Name>[10]
Taenia hydatigena <Unverified Name>[10]
Taenia krabbei <Unverified Name>[10]
Taenia ovis <Unverified Name>[10]
Taenia parenchymatosa <Unverified Name>[10]
Teladorsagia circumcincta <Unverified Name>[10]
Teladorsagia trifurcata <Unverified Name>[10]
Thelazia rhodesi <Unverified Name>[10]
Thysaniezia giardi <Unverified Name>[10]
Thysanosoma actinioides <Unverified Name>[10]
Trichocephalus affinis <Unverified Name>[10]
Trichocephalus capreoli <Unverified Name>[10]
Trichocephalus globulosa <Unverified Name>[10]
Trichocephalus ovis <Unverified Name>[10]
Trichocephalus skrjabini <Unverified Name>[10]
Trichostrongylus askivali <Unverified Name>[10]
Trichostrongylus axei[10]
Trichostrongylus capricola[10]
Trichostrongylus colubriformis[10]
Trichostrongylus extenuatus <Unverified Name>[10]
Trichostrongylus ostertagiaformis <Unverified Name>[10]
Trichostrongylus vitrinus[10]
Trichuris capreoli <Unverified Name>[10]
Trichuris globulosa[10]
Trichuris guevarai <Unverified Name>[10]
Trichuris ovis[10]
Trichuris skrjabini <Unverified Name>[10]
Varestrongylus capreoli <Unverified Name>[10]
Varestrongylus sagittatus[10]
Vermipsylla alakurt[12]
Vermipsylla quilianensis[12]
Wehrdikmansia flexuosa <Unverified Name>[10]
Yersinia enterocolitica (Y. enterocolitica)[9]
Yersinia kristensenii[9]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Africam Safari (Africam, S. A.)canadensis
Almaty State Zoo of Kazakhstanbactrianus
 sibiricus
Assiniboine Park Zoomanitobensis
Badoca Safari Parkhispanicus
Bergen County Zoological Parkcanadensis
Bosphorus Zoo (Bogaziçi Hayvanathippelaphus
BREC's Baton Rouge Zoonelsoni
Brisbane's Alma Park Zoo
Bursa Zoo (Bursa Hayvanat Bahcesi)
Calgary Zoo, Garden & Prehistoric Parkmanitobensis
Cape May County Park Zoocanadensis
Chahinkapa Zoocanadensis
Chehaw Wild Animal Parkcanadensis
Cologne Zoobactrianus
Dakota Zoonelsoni
Denver Zoological Gardens
Detroit Zoological Societycanadensis
Dierenrijk Europahippelaphus
Domaine Zoologique de Pescheray
DSI Givskud Zoocanadensis
Dunedin Botanic Gardens Aviarycanadensis
 manitobensis
Fossil Rim Wildlife Center
Fundacao Parque Zoologico de Sao Paulo
 hippelaphus
Fundacao Zoo-Botan. de Belo Horizonte
Fundacion Zoologica de Cali
 hippelaphus
GaiaPark, Kerkrade Zoobactrianus
Gladys Porter Zoo
Greater Vancouver Zooroosevelti
Guadalajara Zoocanadensis
Helsinki Zoocanadensis
Highland Wildlife Park
 bactrianus
Izmir Zoo / Izmir Dogal Yasam Parki
Jardim Zoologico / Lisbon Zoocanadensis
Jardin Zoologico de Cdad.Buenos Aires
Jászberény Zool.& Botanical Garden
Kaliningrad Zoohippelaphus
Kazan Zoological & Botanical Gardensibiricus
Kharkiv Zoo
 canadensis
Kolmardens Djurpark ABhippelaphus
Kyiv Zoological Park
Le Pal, Parc Animaliercanadensis
Lee Richardson Zoo
 canadensis
 nelsoni
Living Desert State Park (Carlsbad)canadensis
Longleat Safari Park
Louisiana Purchase Gardens & Zoocanadensis
Magnetic Hill Zoomanitobensis
Memphis Zoological Garden & Aquariumcanadensis
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny w Lodzhippelaphus
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Wybrzeza
Milwaukee County Zoological Gardens
 canadensis
Miskolc Zoo/Állatkert és Kultúrpark
Mogo Zoo P/L
Monde Sauvage Safari SPRLcanadensis
Montgomery Zoo
 canadensis
Mulhouse Zoobactrianus
Natural Science Center of Greensborocanadensis
NEW Zoocanadensis
Niabi Zoocanadensis
Niedersächsische Landesforstenhippelaphus
Noah's Ark Zoo Farmhippelaphus
North Carolina Zoological Parkcanadensis
Northwest Trek Wildlife Park
 roosevelti
Novosibirsk Zoological Parksibiricus
NY State Zoo at Thompson Parkroosevelti
Nyíregyházi Állatpark Nonprofit KFT
Oakland Zoonannodes
Ogrod Zoologiczny im. Stefana Milera
Oklahoma City Zoological Parkcanadensis
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo
 canadensis
Opel-Zoo von Opel HessischeZoostiftung
Paradise Wildlife Park
Parc Animalier de Sainte Croix
Parc de la Haute Touche (MNHN)bactrianus
 canadensis
 hippelaphus
Parc Paysager Et Animalier Du Reynoucanadensis
Parc Safari / F.A.P.S.canadensis
 hippelaphus
Parc Zoologic de Barcelonacanadensis
 hippelaphus
Park i Ogrod Zoologiczny w Krakowie
Parque de la Naturaleza de Cabarceno
Patronato del Parque Zoologico de Leon
 canadensis
Pocatello Zoocanadensis
Podkrusnohorsky Zoopark Chomutov
 bactrianus
Polar Zoo A/Selaphus
Pueblo Zoo
 nelsoni
Queens Zooroosevelti
Red McCombs Ranchcanadensis
Ree Park - Ebeltoft Safari
Riga Zoohippelaphus
Roosevelt Park Zoonelsoni
Safaripark Beekse Bergenhippelaphus
San Diego Wild Animal Parkbarbarus
 canadensis
San Diego Zoobactrianus
 canadensis
 macneilli
Scandinavian Wildlife Parkelaphus
Sedgwick County Zoocanadensis
Silesian Zoological Garden
Slottsskogen Zoo
STB Kanta - Friguia Zoobarbarus
Stichting Landgoed Hoenderdaell
Tallinn Zoobactrianus
Tbilisi Zoo
Terra Natura S.A.
The Wildsbactrianus
Tiergarten Bernburghippelaphus
Tiergarten der Stadt Nürnbergcanadensis
Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde GmbHbactrianus
 barbarus
 manitobensis
 nannodes
Tierpark Dählhölzlihippelaphus
Tierpark Hagenbeck GmbHnelsoni
Tilgate Nature Centre
Toronto Zoocanadensis
Trotter's World of Animalsscoticus
Turtle Back Zoocanadensis
Virginia Safari Park & Preserv Ctr,Inccanadensis
Western Plains Zoocanadensis
Wild Animal Park Mechelen Planckendaelcanadensis
 hippelaphus
Wildlife Prairie State Parkcanadensis
Wildlife Safari Incroosevelti
Willow Park Zoocanadensis
Woburn Safari Park
 affinis
Woodland Park Zoological Gardensroosevelti
Yorkshire Wildlife Park
Yukon Wildlife Preserve
 canadensis
Zagreb Zoo / Zooloski vrt Zagreb
Zivalski vrt Ljubljana
Zoo Aquarium de Madrid (GRPR)hispanicus
Zoo de Santillana y Parque Cuaternario
Zoo Duisburg AGhippelaphus
Zoo Sauvage de St-Féliciennelsoni
ZooAmerica (No. American Wildlife Pk.)canadensis
Zool.Nacional Parque Metro De Santiago
Zoological Garden of Polish Fauna
Zoological Garden Praguemanitobensis
Zoological Society of Trinidad &Tobago
Zoologicka zahrada Ostravasibiricus
Zoologicka Zahrada Kosicecanadensis
 hippelaphus
Zoologicka Zahrada Mesta Brna
 sibiricus
Zoologicka zahrada Olomoucsibiricus
Zoologická a botanická zahrada Plzennannodes

Range Map

Africa; Australia; Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China); Middle America; North America; South America; Southern Asia;

Audio

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Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Gardner A.L, 2004-04-22, in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 3Wikipedia licensed under a Creative Commons License 4Role of Various Woody Species in Spanish Mediterranean Forest and Scrubland as Food Resources for Spanish Ibex (Capra pyrenaica Schinz) and Red Deer (Cervus elaphus L.), T. Martínez, Agroforestry in Europe: Current Status and Future Prospects, pp. 233-253 (2009) 5Dangerous liaisons disperse the Mediterranean dwarf palm: fleshy-pulp defensive role against seed predators, José M. Fedriani and Miguel Delibes, Ecology, 92(2), 2011, pp. 304–315 6Ecology of Commanster 7Foraging by lynx and its role in ungulate mortality: the local (Bia&#322;owie&#380;a Forest) and the Palaearctic viewpoints, Włodzimierz JĘDRZEJEWSKI, Krzysztof SCHMIDT, Lech MIŁKOWSKI, Bogumiła JĘDRZEJEWSKA, Henryk OKARMA, Acta Theriologica 38 (4): 385-403 8Feeding Ecology of the Spanish Lynx in the Coto Doñana, Miguel Delibes, ACTA THERIOLOGICA Vol. 25, 24: 309-324, 1980 9Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2. 10Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 11Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19 12International Flea Database
Invasive Status provided by Global Invasive Species Database Downloaded on 10 May 2011.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955 Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Images provided by Wikimedia Commons licensed under a Creative Commons License
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
EDGE analysis provided by EDGE of Existence programme, Zoological Society of London
Range map provided by IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature), Conservation International & NatureServe.
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011
Audio software provided by SoundManager 2