Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Artiodactyla > Cervidae > Cervus > Cervus nippon

Cervus nippon (Sika deer)

Wikipedia Abstract

The sika deer (Cervus nippon) also known as the spotted deer or the Japanese deer, is a species of deer native to much of East Asia, and introduced to various other parts of the world. Previously found from northern Vietnam in the south to the Russian Far East in the north, it is now uncommon in these areas, excluding Japan, where the species is overabundant.
View Wikipedia Record: Cervus nippon


EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 5.04
EDGE Score: 1.8


Adult Weight [1]  92.59 lbs (42.00 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  12.68 lbs (5.75 kg)
Female Maturity [1]  1 year 4 months
Male Maturity [1]  1 year 4 months
Diet [2]  Herbivore
Diet - Plants [2]  100 %
Forages - Ground [2]  100 %
Gestation [1]  7 months
Litter Size [1]  1
Litters / Year [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [1]  26 years
Nocturnal [3]  Yes
Weaning [1]  5 months 22 days


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Amur meadow steppe China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Bohai Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas  
Central China loess plateau mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Korean deciduous forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Changbai Mountains mixed forests China, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Changjiang Plain evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Hainan Island monsoon rain forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Hokkaido deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Hokkaido montane conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Honshu alpine conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Huang He Plain mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Jian Nan subtropical evergreen forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Nihonkai evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Nihonkai montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Northeast China Plain deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Ordos Plateau steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forests China, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Taiwan monsoon rain forests Taiwan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern Korea evergreen forests South Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Suiphun-Khanka meadows and forest meadows China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Taiheiyo evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiheiyo montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiwan subtropical evergreen forests Taiwan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ussuri broadleaf and mixed forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Yellow Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Ardvar and Loch a`Mhuilinn Woodlands 1992 Scotland, United Kingdom
Beinn Dearg 34221 Scotland, United Kingdom
Beinn Eighe National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Ben Alder and Aonach Beag 16453 Scotland, United Kingdom
Ben Wyvis 13313 Scotland, United Kingdom
Black Wood of Rannoch 2720 Scotland, United Kingdom
Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge VI 19192 Maryland, United States
Burnham Beeches 946 England, United Kingdom  
Cairngorms 142543 Scotland, United Kingdom
Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands 354692 Scotland, United Kingdom
Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve V 619089 Jilin, China  
Codru (Kodry) Zapovednik Scientific Reserve Ia   Moldova  
Creag Meagaidh 15184 Scotland, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes 5491 England, United Kingdom
Firth of Lorn 51830 Scotland, United Kingdom
Foinaven 36684 Scotland, United Kingdom
Glen Tanar 10329 Scotland, United Kingdom
Ingleborough Complex 14256 England, United Kingdom
Inverpolly 29349 Scotland, United Kingdom
Khopersky Zapovednik Ia 47103 Russia  
Killarney National Park II 25482 Ireland
Kinloch and Kyleakin Hills 13015 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Lazovsky Zapovednik Ia 299030 Primorsky Krai, Russia
Lochs Duich, Long and Alsh Reefs 5883 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Mendip Limestone Grasslands 1032 England, United Kingdom
Moffat Hills 7146 Scotland, United Kingdom
Monadhliath 26369 Scotland, United Kingdom
Moorfoot Hills 21001 Scotland, United Kingdom
Mordovsky Zapovednik Ia 79439 Mordovia, Russia
Mount Hakusan National Park V 219319 Toyama, Japan
Mount Odaigahara and Mount Omine Biosphere Reserve 88558 Kyushu, Japan  
Ness Woods 2093 Scotland, United Kingdom
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Palawan Biosphere Reserve 2843689 Philippines  
Prioksko-Terrasny Biosphere Reserve IV 12219 Moscow, Russia
River Moriston 481 Scotland, United Kingdom
River Tay 23469 Scotland, United Kingdom
River Tweed 9380 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
Shiga Highland Biosphere Reserve 32124 Honshu, Japan  
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
Start Point to Plymouth Sound & Eddystone 84204 England, United Kingdom  
Strathglass Complex 58277 Scotland, United Kingdom
Sunart 25320 Scotland, United Kingdom
Taynish National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Teberdinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 210198 Karachay-Cherkessia, Russia
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
Yakushima Island Biosphere Reserve   Japan    
Yancheng Nature Reserve V 711488 China    

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Japan Japan No

Prey / Diet

Coprosma lucida[4]
Fuchsia excorticata[4]
Nothopanax arboreum[4]
Prunus serrulata var. pubescens[5]
Rhododendron kaempferi[4]
Sasa nipponica[4]
Scilla siberica (Siberian squill)[4]
Symphytum officinale (common comfrey)[4]
Viburnum dilatatum (linden arrowwood)[4]
Zoysia japonica (Korean lawngrass)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Abraxas grossulariata (Magpie Moth)1
Capricornis crispus (Japanese serow)1
Diachrysia chrysitis (Burnished Brass Moth)1
Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Greenhouse thrip)1
Leucaspis cordylinidis1
Martes melampus (Japanese Marten)1
Naenia typica (Gothic)1
Paguma larvata (Masked Palm Civet)1
Plusia putnami (Lempke's Gold Spot)1
Syrmaticus soemmerringii (Copper Pheasant)1
Trichosurus vulpecula (Common Brushtail)1
Ursus thibetanus (Asian Black Bear)1


Canis lupus (Wolf)[4]
Homo sapiens (man)[6]
Panthera tigris (Tiger)[6]


Parasitized by 
Amblyomma americanum (Lone Star tick)[7]
Amblyomma testudinarium[7]
Anaplasma marginale[7]
Aonchotheca bovis <Unverified Name>[8]
Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease)[7]
Borrelia garinii[7]
Calicophoron microbothrioides <Unverified Name>[8]
Capillaria bovis[8]
Cardiostrongylus sikae <Unverified Name>[8]
Ceylonocotyle petrowi <Unverified Name>[8]
Coxiella burnetii[7]
Dermacentor albipictus (Elk tick)[7]
Dermacentor reticulatus (Ornate dog tick)[7]
Dicrocoelium lanceatum <Unverified Name>[8]
Dictyocaulus viviparus[8]
Elaphostrongylus cervi[8]
Fasciola hepatica (common liver fluke)[8]
Gongylonema pulchrum[8]
Haemaphysalis kitaokai (Kitaoka's Japanese primitive haemaphysalid)[7]
Haemaphysalis longicornis (Bush tick)[7]
Haemaphysalis megaspinosa[7]
Haemaphysalis yeni[7]
Haematopinus suis (hog louse)[7]
Ixodes ovatus[7]
Ixodes persulcatus (Taiga tick)[7]
Ixodes ricinus (Deer tick)[7]
Liorchis scotiae <Unverified Name>[8]
Lipoptena cervi (deer ked)[7]
Lipoptena fortisetosa[7]
Lipoptena mazamae (Neotropical deer ked)[7]
Nematodirus helvetianus[8]
Oesophagostomum venulosum[8]
Ogmocotyle pygargi <Unverified Name>[8]
Onchocerca skrjabini <Unverified Name>[8]
Ostertagia kolchida[8]
Ostertagia leptospicularis[8]
Ostertagia ostertagi[8]
Paramphistomum ichikawai <Unverified Name>[8]
Paramphistomum leydeni <Unverified Name>[8]
Paramphistomum petrowi <Unverified Name>[8]
Pasteurella multocida[7]
Rinadia andreevae <Unverified Name>[8]
Rinadia japonica <Unverified Name>[8]
Setaria cervi <Unverified Name>[8]
Solenopotes burmeisteri[7]
Spiculopteragia asymmetrica[8]
Spiculopteragia boehmi <Unverified Name>[8]
Spiculopteragia houdemeri <Unverified Name>[8]
Spiculopteragia mathevossiani <Unverified Name>[8]
Spiculopteragia spiculoptera[8]
Spiculopteragia yamashitai <Unverified Name>[8]
Yersinia enterocolitica (Y. enterocolitica)[7]
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Y. pseudotuberculosis)[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Africam Safari (Africam, S. A.)
Akron Zoological Parkpseudaxis
Almaty State Zoo of Kazakhstan
Banham Zoo Ltd.taiouanus
Beale Parknippon
Blair Drummond Safari Park
Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservat'n Societytaivanus
CERZA Centre d'Etude Rech Zool Augeronpseudaxis
Chehaw Wild Animal Park
Chiangmai Zoological Garden
Cougar Mountain Zoological Parktaivanus
Curraghs Wildlife Park
Dallas Zoopseudaxis
Dartmoor Zoological Park
Dept. of National Zoological Gardensdybowskii
Domaine Zoologique de Pescheray
Fossil Rim Wildlife Center
Greater Vancouver Zoo
Guadalajara Zoo
IAE - African Safari Wildlife Parknippon
Inokashira Park Zooyakushimae
Jyllands Park Zoo
Kadoorie Farm & Botanic Garden
Kaliningrad Zoo
Kharkiv Zoo
Knuthenborg Safariparknippon
Kyiv Zoological Park
Le Pal, Parc Animaliernippon
Lichtenburg Game Breeding Centerdybowskii
Magnetic Hill Zoo
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Warsaw
Montgomery Zootaivanus
Moscow Zoological Parkhortulorum
Mulhouse Zoopseudaxis
Municipal Independent Org. Roev Rucheihortulorum
Nakhon Ratchasima Zool. Park
Neunkircher Zoologischer Garten GmbHpseudaxis
Nogeyama Zoological Gardens Yokohamanippon
Novosibirsk Zoological Park
Oakland Zoo
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Poznaniupseudaxis
Oklahoma City Zoological Parkpseudaxis
Opel-Zoo von Opel HessischeZoostiftungpseudaxis
Parc de la Haute Touche (MNHN)dybowskii
Parc de Lunaretpseudaxis
Parc Safari / F.A.P.S.nippon
Parc Zoologique de Tregomeurpseudaxis
Parque Zoologico Nacional, ZOODOM
Patronato del Parque Zoologico de Leon
Permskii Zoologicheskii Sad
Riverview Park & Zoonippon
Rome Zoo-Fondazione Bioparco di Romadybowskii
Roosevelt Park Zoo
Rotterdam Zoopseudaxis
Safari de Peaugrespseudaxis
Safaripark Beekse Bergen
Saitama Children's Zoo
San Diego Wild Animal Parkdybowskii
San Diego Zoomandarinus
Scandinavian Wildlife Park
Silver Springs Park
Taipei Zootaivanus
Tama Zoological Parkyakushimae
Tbilisi Zoo
The Wildspseudaxis
Tiergarten der Stadt Nürnbergdybowskii
Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde GmbHpseudaxis
Tierpark Hagenbeck GmbHpseudaxis
Toronto Zoodybowskii
Trevor Zoo at Millbrook School
Ueno Zoological Gardensyesoensis
Usti nad Labem Zoopseudaxis
Virginia Safari Park & Preserv Ctr,Inc
Washington Park Zoological Gardensgrassianus
West Midland Safari & Leisure Park Ltdnippon
Westfalischer Zoologischer Gtn Munsterpseudaxis
Whipsnade Wild Animal Park
Wild Animal Park Mechelen Planckendaeldybowskii
Wildlife Safari Inc
Wingham Wildlife Park
Woburn Safari Parkmantchuricus
Wroclaw Zoo, LLChortulorum
Zoo Boisemandarinus
Zoo New England, Franklin Park Zootaivanus
Zoo of Antwerpdybowskii
Zoo Osnabrückpseudaxis
Zoo Parc Overloonpseudaxis
Zoologicka zahrada Ostravapseudaxis
Zoologicka zahrada Bojnicedybowskii
Zoologicka Zahrada Bratislava
Zoologicka zahrada Olomouc

Range Map

Australia; Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China); North America; Southern Asia;



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
4Cervus nippon, George A. Feldhamer, Mammalian Species No. 128, pp. 1-7 (1980)
5Shinsuke Koike, Hideto Morimoto, Shinsuke Kasai, Yusuke Goto, Chinatsu Kozakai, Isao Arimoto, and Koji Yamazaki (2012). Relationships Between the Fruiting Phenology of Prunus jamasakura and Timing of Visits by Mammals - Estimation of the Feeding Period Using Camera Traps, Phenology and Climate Change, Xiaoyang Zhang (Ed.)
6Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
7Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2.
8Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access