Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Artiodactyla > Cervidae > Odocoileus > Odocoileus hemionus
 

Odocoileus hemionus (mule deer)

Language: Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) is a deer indigenous to western North America; it is named for its ears, which are large like those of the mule. There are believed to be several subspecies, including the black-tailed deer.Unlike the related white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer are generally more associated with the land west of the Missouri River, and more specifically with the Rocky Mountain region of North America. Mule deer have also been introduced to Argentina.
View Wikipedia Record: Odocoileus hemionus

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
1
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
16
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 4.99
EDGE Score: 1.79

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  125.66 lbs (57.00 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  6.50 lbs (2.95 kg)
Female Maturity [1]  1 year 3 months
Male Maturity [1]  1 year 4 months
Gestation [1]  6 months 27 days
Litter Size [1]  2
Litters / Year [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [1]  22 years
Speed [2]  32.01 MPH (14.31 m/s)
Weaning [1]  4 months 12 days

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Alaska-St. Elias Range tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Alberta Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Alberta-British Columbia foothills forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Arizona Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Baja California desert Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Blue Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
British Columbia mainland coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
California Central Valley grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
California coastal sage and chaparral Mexico, United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California interior chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California montane chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Canadian Aspen forests and parklands Canada Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cascade Mountains leeward forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central British Columbia Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central Mexican matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Pacific coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Central tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Chihuahuan desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Colorado Plateau shrublands United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Colorado Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Eastern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Fraser Plateau and Basin complex Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Gulf of California xeric scrub Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Interior Yukon-Alaska alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Klamath-Siskiyou forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Meseta Central matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Mid-Continental Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Mojave desert United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Muskwa-Slave Lake forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Nebraska Sand Hills mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
North Central Rockies forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern California coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Cordillera forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern Mesoamerican Pacific mangroves Mexico Neotropic Mangroves    
Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Pacific coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern transitional alpine forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Okanagan dry forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Pacific Coastal Mountain icefields and tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Palouse grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Puget lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
San Lucan xeric scrub Mexico Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sierra de la Laguna dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sierra de la Laguna pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Juarez and San Pedro Martir pine-oak forests Mexico Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Occidental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Nevada forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Snake-Columbia shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran-Sinaloan transition subtropical dry forest Mexico Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South Central Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Wasatch and Uinta montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Western short grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Willamette Valley forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Wyoming Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Yukon Interior dry forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Agate Fossil Beds National Monument V 4731 Nebraska, United States
Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, CA III 184543 California, United States
Arches National Park II 76539 Utah, United States
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Bandelier National Monument V 8107 New Mexico, United States
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Beaver Creek Biosphere Reserve 275028 Arizona, United States  
Big Bend Biosphere Reserve National Park II 815561 Texas, United States
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area V 36286 Montana, Wyoming, United States
Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park II 12551 Colorado, United States
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Canyonlands National Park II 335430 Utah, United States
Capital Reef National Park II 243722 Utah, United States
Carlsbad Caverns National Park II 15448 New Mexico, United States
Carrizo Plain Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 7550 California, United States  
Cascade Head Biosphere Reserve 17423 Oregon, United States
Cedar Breaks National Monument III 6111 Utah, United States
Central Plains Biosphere Reserve 15345 United States  
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Colorado National Monument III 20420 Colorado, United States
Coram Biosphere Reserve 7460 Montana, United States
Coronado National Monument National Memorial III 4360 Arizona, United States
Cosumnes River Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 2138 California, United States
Craters of the Moon National Monument V 690996 Idaho, United States
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Dinosaur National Monument III 203307 Colorado, Utah, United States
Dye Creek Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 38152 California, United States  
El Malpais National Monument III 109980 New Mexico, United States
Elk Island National Park II 47171 Alberta, Canada
Fraser Biosphere Reserve 23050 Colorado, United States  
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Glacier National Park II 953799 Montana, United States
Golden Gate National Recreation Area V 26135 California, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Grand Teton National Park II 231724 Wyoming, United States
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Great Basin National Park II 77367 Nevada, United States
Guadalupe Mountains National Park II 46114 Texas, United States
Gulf Islands National Park National Park Reserve II 8785 British Columbia, Canada
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
H.J. Andrews Biosphere Reserve 15815 Oregon, United States
Heath and Marjorie Angelo Coast Range Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 7008 California, United States
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Jornada Biosphere Reserve Ib 30913 New Mexico, United States
Joshua Tree National Park II 305076 California, United States
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Knife River Indian Villages National Hist. Site National Historic Site III 1756 North Dakota, United States
Konza Prairie Biosphere Reserve 8617 Kansas, United States  
Kootenay National Park II 341762 British Columbia, Canada
Lake Chelan National Recreation Area II 606367 Washington, United States
Lake Mead National Recreation Area V 670229 Arizona, Nevada, United States
Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area V 103172 Washington, United States
Lassen Volcanic National Park II 29388 California, United States
Lava Beds National Monument III 20002 California, United States
McCloud River Preserve Conservation Easement 1693 California, United States
Mojave and Colorado Deserts Biosphere Reserve 5901 California, United States  
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Mount Rainier National Park II 235186 Washington, United States
Mount Tamalpais State Park 6365 California, United States
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
Natural Bridges National Monument III 7412 Utah, United States
Nez Perce National Historical Park V 2076 Idaho, United States
Nipomo Dunes Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 3725 California, United States
Niwot Ridge Biosphere Reserve 2965 Colorado, United States  
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Organ Pipe Cactus Biosphere Reserve 327376 Arizona, United States  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Pecos National Historical Park V 6539 New Mexico, United States
Petrified Forest National Park II 44522 Arizona, United States
Philip L. Boyd Deep Canyon Desert Research Center 6101 California, United States
Pinnacles National Monument V 2869 California, United States
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserva Nacional de Fauna Ulla Ulla National Fauna Reserve 559837 Bolivia  
Reserva de Mapimi Biosphere Reserve VI 849819 Chihuahua, Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera El Cielo Biosphere Reserve 353161 Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Rocky Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 239938 Colorado, United States
Saguaro National Park II 11686 Arizona, United States
San Dimas Biosphere Reserve 17161 California, United States  
San Francisco Peninsular Watershed County Wildlife Refuge or Management Area 30320 California, United States  
San Joaquin Biosphere Reserve 4527 California, United States  
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area V 38440 California, United States
Scotts Bluff National Monument V 3185 Nebraska, United States
Sequoia and Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve II 172261 California, United States
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument V 3049 Arizona, United States
Walnut Canyon National Monument V 3386 Arizona, United States
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
Whiskey-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area V 197791 California, United States
White Sands National Monument III 139922 New Mexico, United States
Wind Cave National Park II 29471 South Dakota, United States
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Wupatki National Monument III 36098 Arizona, United States
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada
Yosemite National Park II 95209 California, United States
Zion National Park II 135667 Utah, United States

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No

Prey / Diet

Opuntia engelmannii (cactus apple)[3]
Poa secunda (Sandberg bluegrass)[4]
Prunus virginiana (chokecherry)[4]
Shepherdia canadensis (russet buffalo-berry)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alces alces (moose)2
Ammospermophilus interpres (Texas antelope squirrel)1
Aplodontia rufa californica1
Bison bison (American bison)1
Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse)1
Callospermophilus lateralis (golden-mantled ground squirrel)1
Canis latrans (Coyote)1
Cervus elaphus (wapiti or elk)3
Chaetodipus penicillatus (desert pocket mouse)1
Corvus corax (Northern Raven)1
Lepus alleni (Antelope Jackrabbit)1
Martes americana (American Marten)1
Neotoma cinerea (bushy-tailed woodrat)1
Paonias myops (small-eyed sphinx)1
Papilio glaucus (Eastern tiger swallowtail)1
Pecari tajacu (collared peccary)1
Phenacomys intermedius (western heather vole)1
Phenacomys ungava (eastern heather vole)1
Poliocitellus franklinii (Franklin's ground squirrel)1
Sus scrofa (wild boar)1
Tamias umbrinus (Uinta chipmunk)1
Ursus americanus (black bear)1
Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)1

Predators

Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)[5]
Canis latrans (Coyote)[5]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[6]
Lynx rufus (Bobcat)[5]
Puma concolor (Cougar)[5]
Ursus americanus (black bear)[5]
Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)[4]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Anaplasma marginale[7]
Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease)[7]
Brucella melitensis (Brucella / Brucellosis)[7]
Chabertia ovina <Unverified Name>[8]
Cooperia oncophora <Unverified Name>[8]
Cooperia surnabada <Unverified Name>[8]
Coxiella burnetii[7]
Ctenocephalides canis (Dog flea)[9]
Cysticercus ovis <Unverified Name>[8]
Cysticercus tenuicollis <Unverified Name>[8]
Dermacentor albipictus (Elk tick)[7]
Dermacentor occidentalis (Net tick)[7]
Dicrocoelium dendriticum (Lancet liver fluke)[8]
Dictyocaulus viviparus[8]
Echinococcus granulosus[8]
Ehrlichia chaffeensis[7]
Elaeophora schneideri <Unverified Name>[8]
Fasciola hepatica (common liver fluke)[8]
Fascioloides magna (giant liver fluke)[8]
Francisella tularensis (Tularemia)[7]
Haemonchus contortus (red stomach worm)[8]
Ixodes pacificus (California black-legged tick)[7]
Leptospira interrogans[7]
Lipoptena depressa (Western American deer ked)[7]
Marshallagia marshalli <Unverified Name>[8]
Marshallagia occidentalis <Unverified Name>[8]
Moniezia benedeni <Unverified Name>[8]
Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine tuberculosis)[7]
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Tuberculosis - MTB)[7]
Nematodirella antilocaprae <Unverified Name>[8]
Nematodirella longispiculata <Unverified Name>[8]
Nematodirella longissimespiculata <Unverified Name>[8]
Nematodirus abnormalis[8]
Nematodirus filicollis[8]
Nematodirus helvetianus[8]
Nematodirus odocoilei <Unverified Name>[8]
Nematodirus spathiger[8]
Neolipoptena ferrisi (Pacific deer ked)[7]
Oesophagostomum venulosum[8]
Onchocerca cervipedis <Unverified Name>[8]
Orchopeas sexdentatus sexdentatus[9]
Ornithodoros coriaceus (Pajahuello tick)[7]
Orthostrongylus macrotis <Unverified Name>[8]
Ostertagia bisonis <Unverified Name>[8]
Ostertagia circumcincta[8]
Ostertagia kolchida[8]
Ostertagia leptospicularis[8]
Ostertagia ostertagi[8]
Pantoea agglomerans[7]
Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei <Unverified Name>[8]
Parelaphostrongylus tenuis <Unverified Name>[8]
Pseudostertagia bullosa <Unverified Name>[8]
Pulex irritans (human flea)[9]
Setaria cervi <Unverified Name>[8]
Setaria yehi <Unverified Name>[8]
Solenopotes ferrisi[6]
Taenia hydatigena <Unverified Name>[8]
Taenia krabbei <Unverified Name>[8]
Taenia omissa <Unverified Name>[8]
Taenia ovis <Unverified Name>[8]
Teladorsagia circumcincta <Unverified Name>[8]
Teladorsagia davtiani <Unverified Name>[8]
Teladorsagia trifurcata <Unverified Name>[8]
Thelazia californiensis <Unverified Name>[8]
Thysanosoma actinioides <Unverified Name>[8]
Trichostrongylus axei[8]
Trichostrongylus colubriformis[8]
Trichostrongylus longispicularis[8]
Trichostrongylus vitrinus[8]
Trichuris discolor[7]
Trichuris ovis[8]
Varestrongylus alpenae <Unverified Name>[8]
Yersinia pestis (Bubonic plague)[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Alameda Park Zoo
Amarillo Zoo
Assiniboine Park Zoohemionus
Calgary Zoo, Garden & Prehistoric Parkhemionus
Chahinkapa Zoohemionus
Cougar Mountain Zoological Park
Dakota Zoohemionus
David Traylor Zoo of Emporia
 hemionus
Denver Zoological Gardenshemionus
Greater Vancouver Zoocolumbianus
Hutchinson Zoo
Living Desert State Park (Carlsbad)
Milwaukee County Zoological Gardens
 hemionus
Moonridge Animal Parkcalifornicus
Orange County Zoo
Pocatello Zoo
Red River Zoohemionus
Riverside Zoohemionus
Rolling Hills Wildlife Adventure
San Diego Zoofuliginatus
Southwest Wildlife Conservation Centercalifornicus
Wildlife Safari Inccolumbianus
Yukon Wildlife Preservehemionus
Zoo Sauvage de St-Féliciencolumbianus

Range Map

Middle America; North America; Oceania; South America;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Wikipedia licensed under a Creative Commons License 3Dormancy and endozoochorous dispersal of Opuntia rastrera seeds in the southern Chihuahuan Desert, Maria del Carmen Mandujano, Jordan Golubov & Carlos Montaña, Journal of Arid Environments (1997) 36: 259–266 4National Geographic Magazine - May 2016 - Yellowstone - The Carnivore Comeback 5Odocoileus hemionus, Allen E. Anderson and Olof C. Wallmo, Mammalian Species No. 219, pp. 1-9 (1984) 6Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 7Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2. 8Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 9International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Wikimedia Commons licensed under a Creative Commons License
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access