Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Artiodactyla > Cervidae > Odocoileus > Odocoileus virginianus
 

Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)

Synonyms: Dama virginiana; Dama virginianus
Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), also known as the Virginia deer or simply as the whitetail, is a medium-sized deer native to the United States (all but five of the states), Canada, Mexico, Central America, and South America as far south as Peru. It has also been introduced to New Zealand and some countries in Europe, such as Finland, Czech Republic, and Serbia. In the Americas, it is the most widely distributed wild ungulate.
View Wikipedia Record: Odocoileus virginianus

Infraspecies

Invasive Species

Odocoileus virginianus is a cervid, originating in the Americas, from Canada to Brazil. It has been introduced to many other countries, such as Finland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and New Zealand. It can adapt to many types of vegetation from the forests of North America to the prairies and swamps of Florida. Its diet depends on the type of vegetation and resources available. By consuming plants, Odocoileus virginianus can have a major impact on forest regeneration, especially where population densities are high.
View ISSG Record: Odocoileus virginianus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
1
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
16
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 4.99
EDGE Score: 1.79

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  191.80 lbs (87.00 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  6.61 lbs (3.00 kg)
Female Maturity [1]  10 months 9 days
Male Maturity [1]  1 year 1 month
Diet [2]  Herbivore
Gestation [1]  6 months 18 days
Litter Size [1]  2
Litters / Year [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [1]  22 years
Speed [3]  30.00 MPH (13.41 m/s)
Weaning [1]  4 months 9 days

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Map Climate Land
Use
Alberta Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Alberta-British Columbia foothills forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Allegheny Highlands forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Amazon-Orinoco-Southern Caribbean mangroves Brazil, Columbia, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela Neotropic Mangroves  
Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Apure-Villavicencio dry forests Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Araya and Paria xeric scrub Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Arizona Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Bajío dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Balsas dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Belizean pine forests Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Blue Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Bolivian Yungas Bolivia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
British Columbia mainland coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Canadian Aspen forests and parklands Canada Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Caqueta moist forests Brazil, Columbia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cascade Mountains leeward forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Catatumbo moist forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cauca Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Cauca Valley montane forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American Atlantic moist forests Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American dry forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central American montane forests Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American pine-oak forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Andean puna Argentina, Bolivia, Peru Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Central Andean wet puna Peru, Bolivia Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Central British Columbia Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Central forest-grasslands transition United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Mexican matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Pacific coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Central tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central U.S. hardwood forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chiapas Depression dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chiapas montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chihuahuan desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Chimalapas montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chocó-Darién moist forests Colombia, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Colorado Plateau shrublands United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Colorado Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Cordillera Central páramo Ecuador, Peru Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Cordillera de Merida páramo Venezuela Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Cordillera La Costa montane forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cordillera Oriental montane forests Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Costa Rican seasonal moist forests Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
East Central Texas forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Eastern Cordillera real montane forests Ecuador, Colombia, Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern forest-boreal transition Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Panamanian montane forests Colombia, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Edwards Plateau savanna United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Everglades United States Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Flint Hills tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Florida sand pine scrub United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Fraser Plateau and Basin complex Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Guajira-Barranquilla xeric scrub Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Guianan Freshwater swamp forests Suriname, Guyana, French Guiana Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Guianan Highlands moist forests Venezuela, Brazil, Guyana, Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Guianan moist forests Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Guianan piedmont and lowland moist forests Brazil, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Guianan savanna Brazil, Guyana, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Iquitos varzea Brazil, Peru, Bolivia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Isthmian-Atlantic moist forests Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Isthmian-Pacific moist forests Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Jalisco dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Klamath-Siskiyou forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
La Costa xeric shrublands Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Lara-Falcón dry forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Llanos Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Magdalena Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Magdalena Valley montane forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Magdalena-Urabá moist forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Marañón dry forests Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Maracaibo dry forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Marajó varzea Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Meseta Central matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Mesoamerican Gulf-Caribbean mangroves Bahamas, United Kingdom Neotropic Mangroves
Mid-Continental Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Midwestern Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Miskito pine forests Honduras, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Mississippi lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Motagua Valley thornscrub Guatemala Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Muskwa-Slave Lake forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Nebraska Sand Hills mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Negro-Branco moist forests Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Central Rockies forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern Andean páramo Ecuador, Colombia Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Northern Cordillera forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern Mesoamerican Pacific mangroves Mexico Neotropic Mangroves    
Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern transitional alpine forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northwestern Andean montane forests Colombia, Ecuador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Oaxacan montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Okanagan dry forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Orinoco Delta swamp forests Venezuela, Guyana Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Orinoco wetlands Venezuela Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Ozark Mountain forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Palouse grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Panamanian dry forests Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Pantanos de Centla Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Pantepuis Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Paraguana xeric scrub Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Patía Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Peruvian Yungas Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Petén-Veracruz moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Piney Woods forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Puget lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Rio Negro campinarana Brazil, Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Santa Marta montane forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Santa Marta páramo Colombia Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sechura desert Peru Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sierra de los Tuxtlas Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Sierra Madre de Chiapas moist forest Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sierra Madre de Oaxaca pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre del Sur pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Occidental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Nevada forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sinaloan dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sinú Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Snake-Columbia shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran-Sinaloan transition subtropical dry forest Mexico Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South American Pacific mangroves Colombia, Panama, Ecuador Neotropic Mangroves    
South Central Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
South Florida rocklands United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Hudson Bay taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Southern Mesoamerican Pacific mangroves Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Mangroves    
Southern Pacific dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southwest Amazon moist forests Peru, Brazil, Bolivia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Talamancan montane forests Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tamaulipan matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tehuacán Valley matorral Mexico Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Texas blackland prairies United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Tumbes-Piura dry forests Ecuador, Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Uatuma-Trombetas moist forests Brazil, Guyana, Suriname Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ucayali moist forests Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Venezuelan Andes montane forests Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz moist forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Wasatch and Uinta montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Western Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands  
Western short grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Willamette Valley forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Wyoming Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Yucatán dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Yucatán moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Map Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Beaver Creek Biosphere Reserve 275028 Arizona, United States  
Big Bend Biosphere Reserve National Park II 815561 Texas, United States
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area National Recreation Area V 120283 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Big Thicket Biosphere Reserve National Park II 616880 Texas, United States
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area V 36286 Montana, Wyoming, United States
Bladen Branch Nature Reserve Ia 100225 Belize  
Buffalo National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 59947 Arkansas, United States
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Caratasca Lagoon Wildlife Refuge 795317 Honduras  
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Celaque National Park II 66197 Honduras  
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary IV 122962 Belize
Corcovado National Park 115845 Costa Rica  
Cordillera Volcanica Central Forest Reserve VI 150571 Costa Rica  
Cumberland Island National Seashore II 20629 Georgia, United States
Cusuco National Park II 44047 Honduras  
Cuxtal Ecological Reserve 26687 Yucatan, Mexico  
Cuyahoga Valley National Park II 24907 Ohio, United States
Dzilam de Bravo Wetland Reserve 149170 Yucatan, Mexico    
El Tuparro Natural National Park II 1366853 Colombia  
Elk Island National Park II 47171 Alberta, Canada
Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge VI 66133 Arkansas, United States
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Glacier National Park II 953799 Montana, United States
Grand Teton National Park II 231724 Wyoming, United States
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Guadalupe Mountains National Park II 46114 Texas, United States
Iztaccihuatl-Popocatepetl National Park II 224456 Mexico State, Mexico
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kootenay National Park II 341762 British Columbia, Canada
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
La Amistad International Park National Park II 541617 Panama, Costa Rica  
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
La Muralla National Park II 36946 Honduras  
La Tigra National Park II 21813 Honduras
Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge VI 28351 Louisiana, United States
Lake Chelan National Recreation Area II 606367 Washington, United States
Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area V 103172 Washington, United States
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Madidi National Park II 3194501 Bolivia  
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Maracá Ecological Reserve Ia 257554 Roraima, Brazil  
Maya Multiple Use Area 1156412 Guatemala  
Mount Aspiring National Park II 473907 South Island, New Zealand
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge IV 38256 Florida, United States
Organ Pipe Cactus Biosphere Reserve 327376 Arizona, United States  
Ozark National Scenic Riverways National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 54621 Missouri, United States
Padre Island National Seashore II 42068 Texas, United States
Palo Verde National Park II 46190 Costa Rica  
Parque Nacional Canaima National Park II 7542183 Venezuela  
Patuca National Park II 935848 Honduras  
Pico Bonito National Park II 138952 Honduras    
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Reserva Especial de la Biosfera Ría Celestún Biosphere Reserve VI 202424 Mexico  
Reserva Estatal del Palmar Reserve 122954 Mexico    
Reserva de Huascarán National Park II 844711 Ancash, Peru  
Reserva de la Biosfera El Cielo Biosphere Reserve 353161 Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra Gorda Biosphere Reserve VI 955579 Queretaro, Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra de Manantlan Biosphere Reserve VI 346925 Coahuila, Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve VI 1312618 Mexico  
Reserva de la Michilia Biosphere Reserve VI 23405 Durango, Mexico  
Reserva del Noroeste Biosphere Reserve 571807 Peru  
Ria Lagartos Biosphere Reserve VI 149920 Mexico    
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Río Kruta Biological Reserve 123553 Honduras  
Santee Coastal Reserve and Washo Reserve State Habitat Area IV 20850 South Carolina, United States  
Sarstoon Temash National Park II 42082 Belize  
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
Sierra de Agalta National Park II 128902 Honduras  
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore II 62563 Michigan, United States
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve 3821173 Canada  
Texiguat Wildlife Refuge IV 39364 Honduras  
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Voyageurs National Park II 177960 Minnesota, United States
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge IV 26618 Alabama, United States
Wind Cave National Park II 29471 South Dakota, United States
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website Map
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No
Tropical Andes Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela No
Tumbes-Choco-Magdalena Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru No

Emblem of

Arkansas
Costa Rica
Honduras
Illinois
Mississippi
Nebraska
New Hampshire
Ohio
Pennsylvania
Saskatchewan
South Carolina

Prey / Diet

Armillaria mellea (Honey Fungus)[4]
Betula nigra (river birch)[4]
Carex stricta (upright sedge)[4]
Carpinus caroliniana (American hornbeam)[4]
Carya tomentosa (mockernut hickory)[4]
Cephalanthus tetrandra (Buttonbush)[4]
Chenopodium album (lambsquarters goosefoot)[4]
Cichorium intybus (chicory)[4]
Cirsium vulgare (Spear Thistle)[4]
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood)[4]
Desmodium canadense (Beggar's Lice)[4]
Eupatorium maculatum (Spotted Joe-pye Weed)[4]
Fagus grandifolia (American beech)[4]
Fragaria virginiana (Virginia Strawberry)[4]
Ilex opaca (American holly)[4]
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (American ivy)[4]
Pinus strobus (Eastern white pine)[4]
Pleurotus ostreatus (Oyster Mushroom)[4]
Poa pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass)[4]
Pontederia cordata (Pickerel Weed)[4]
Populus grandidentata (bigtooth aspen)[4]
Potamogeton nodosus (long-leaf pondweed)[4]
Prunus serotina (Black Cherry)[4]
Quercus alba (White Oak)[4]
Quercus phellos (Willow Oak)[4]
Robinia pseudoacacia (Post locust)[4]
Rosa virginiana (Virginia Rose)[4]
Rubus laciniatus (Cutleaf Evergreen Blackberry)[4]
Rudbeckia hirta (Black-eyed Susan)[4]
Sambucus nigra (European black elderberry)[4]
Symphyotrichum dumosum (Small White Aster)[4]
Taraxacum campylodes (Dandelion)[4]
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)[4]
Trifolium pratense (Red Clover)[4]
Utricularia vulgaris subsp. macrorhiza (greater bladderwort)[4]
Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry)[4]
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)[4]
Crataegus viridis (desert hawthorn)[4]
Hamamelis virginiana (American witchhazel)[4]
Juniperus virginiana (Eastern Red-cedar)[4]
Lindera benzoin (northern spicebush)[4]
Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum)[4]
Lonicera japonica (Chinese honeysuckle)[4]
Panicum virgatum (old switch panic grass)[4]
Pinus taeda (Loblolly pine)[4]
Pteridium aquilinum (northern bracken fern)[4]
Quercus velutina (Black Oak)[4]
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)[4]
Salix nigra (black willow)[4]
Smilax rotundifolia (Horse Brier)[4]
Ulmus americana (American elm)[4]
Zizania aquatica (annual wildrice)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acrosternum hilare (Green stinkbug)14
Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird)3
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)17
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)13
Apis mellifera (honey bee)18
Archilochus colubris (Ruby-throated Hummingbird)5
Armadillidium vulgare (pillbug)2
Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse)12
Battus philenor (pipevine swallowtail)2
Bombus fervidus (Golden northern bumble bee)16
Bombus lapidarius (Stone Humble-bee)3
Bombus lucorum (White-tailed bumblebee)3
Bombus pascuorum (Common Carder-bee)3
Bombus pratorum (Early-nesting Humble-bee)2
Branta canadensis (Canada Goose)8
Camponotus pennsylvanicus (black carpenter ant)6
Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal)15
Carduelis carduelis (European Goldfinch)3
Carduelis chloris (European Greenfinch)2
Carduelis flammea (Common Redpoll)3
Carduelis tristis (American Goldfinch)14
Castor canadensis (american beaver)19
Cathartes aura (Turkey Vulture)2
Chelydra serpentina (Common Snapping Turtle)2
Colias philodice (clouded sulphur)9
Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)19
Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow)12
Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay)9
Cyprinus carpio (Common carp)3
Diapheromera femorata (Common American Walkingstick)6
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum)10
Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker)10
Erynnis juvenalis (Juvenal's duskywing skipper)2
Fringilla coelebs (Common Chaffinch)2
Gryllus pennsylvanicus (fall field cricket)3
Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Greenhouse thrip)3
Incisalia henrici (Henry's Elfin)2
Incisalia niphon (Eastern Pine Elfin)3
Lygocoris pabulinus (Common Green Capsid)4
Lymnaea stagnalis (swamp lymnaea)3
Marmota flaviventris (yellow-bellied marmot)2
Marmota monax (woodchuck)8
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)29
Mephitis mephitis (Striped Skunk)9
Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole)18
Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird)13
Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher)6
Nymphalis antiopa (camberwell beauty)6
Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat)12
Papilio glaucus (Eastern tiger swallowtail)11
Papilio polyxenes (Eastern black swallowtail)4
Papilio troilus (spicebush swallowtail)2
Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)3
Passer montanus (Eurasian Tree Sparrow)2
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)21
Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker)8
Pieris napi (Green-veined White Butterfly)2
Pieris rapae (imported cabbageworm)5
Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee)8
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)16
Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle)3
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat)4
Reticulitermes flavipes (eastern subterranean termite)7
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)22
Sciurus griseus (western gray squirrel)2
Sciurus niger (eastern fox squirrel)2
Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)11
Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch)9
Spermophilus columbianus (Columbian ground squirrel)2
Streptopelia decaocto (Eurasian Collared-Dove)3
Streptopelia turtur (European Turtle-Dove)3
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)7
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail)34
Tamias ruficaudus (red-tailed chipmunk)2
Tamias striatus (eastern chipmunk)24
Terrapene carolina (Florida Box Turtle)4
Thryothorus ludovicianus (Carolina Wren)3
Turdus migratorius (American Robin)14
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)11
Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove)9
Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow)11
Zosterops lateralis (Silvereye)2

Predators

Aedes albopictus (forest day mosquito)[4]
Canis lupus rufus (Red Wolf)[5]
Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick)[4]
Macrobdella decora (Freshwater leech)[4]
Puma concolor (Cougar)[6]
Triatoma sanguisuga (Eastern blood-sucking cone)[4]

Providers

Shelter 
Acer rubrum (red maple)[4]
Peltandra virginica (green arrow arum)[4]
Phragmites australis (common reed)[4]
Pinus virginiana (Virginia pine)[4]
Scirpus cyperinus (Woolly Grass Bulrush)[4]
Typha latifolia (Reedmace)[4]
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)[4]
Crataegus viridis (desert hawthorn)[4]
Hamamelis virginiana (American witchhazel)[4]
Juniperus virginiana (Eastern Red-cedar)[4]
Lindera benzoin (northern spicebush)[4]
Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum)[4]
Lonicera japonica (Chinese honeysuckle)[4]
Panicum virgatum (old switch panic grass)[4]
Pinus taeda (Loblolly pine)[4]
Pteridium aquilinum (northern bracken fern)[4]
Quercus velutina (Black Oak)[4]
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)[4]
Salix nigra (black willow)[4]
Smilax rotundifolia (Horse Brier)[4]
Ulmus americana (American elm)[4]
Zizania aquatica (annual wildrice)[4]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Amblyomma americanum (Lone Star tick)[7]
Amblyomma maculatum (Gulf Coast tick)[7]
Amblyomma parvum[7]
Anaplasma marginale[7]
Anaplasma phagocytophilum[7]
Apteragia odocoilei[8]
Arcanobacterium pyogenes[7]
Ashworthius patriciapilittae <Unverified Name>[8]
Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax bacterium)[7]
Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease)[7]
Brucella melitensis (Brucella / Brucellosis)[7]
Capillaria bovis[8]
Cephenemyia jellisoni[7]
Chabertia ovina <Unverified Name>[8]
Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens / Pulpy kidney disease)[7]
Cooperia curticei <Unverified Name>[8]
Cooperia oncophora <Unverified Name>[8]
Cooperia pectinata[8]
Cooperia punctata[8]
Cooperia spatula <Unverified Name>[8]
Cryptosporidium parvum[7]
Cysticercus tenuicollis <Unverified Name>[8]
Dermacentor albipictus (Elk tick)[7]
Dermacentor andersoni (Rocky Mountain wood tick)[7]
Dermacentor nitens (Tropical horse tick)[7]
Dermacentor variabilis[4]
Dicrocoelium dendriticum (Lancet liver fluke)[8]
Dictyocaulus viviparus[8]
Echinococcus granulosus[8]
Ehrlichia canis[7]
Ehrlichia chaffeensis[7]
Ehrlichia ewingii[7]
Ehrlichia ruminantium[7]
Elaphostrongylus odocoilei <Unverified Name>[8]
Escherichia coli (E. coli)[7]
Eucyathostomum webbi <Unverified Name>[8]
Fasciola hepatica (common liver fluke)[8]
Fascioloides magna (giant liver fluke)[8]
Francisella tularensis (Tularemia)[7]
Gongylonema pulchrum[8]
Haemaphysalis juxtakochi[7]
Haemonchus contortus (red stomach worm)[8]
Haemonchus placei <Unverified Name>[8]
Haemonchus similis <Unverified Name>[8]
Heterobilharzia americana[8]
Ixodes affinis[7]
Ixodes scapularis (Black legged tick)[7]
Leptospira interrogans[7]
Lipoptena cervi (deer ked)[7]
Lipoptena mazamae (Neotropical deer ked)[7]
Macrobdella decora[4]
Mazamastrongylus odocoilei <Unverified Name>[8]
Mazamastrongylus pursglovei <Unverified Name>[8]
Monodontus louisianensis <Unverified Name>[8]
Mycobacterium avium (Mycobacterium avium)[7]
Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine tuberculosis)[7]
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Tuberculosis - MTB)[7]
Nematodirus filicollis[8]
Nematodirus odocoilei <Unverified Name>[8]
Obeliscoides cuniculi <Unverified Name>[8]
Oesophagostomum cervi <Unverified Name>[8]
Oesophagostomum columbianum[8]
Oesophagostomum venulosum[8]
Onchocerca cervipedis <Unverified Name>[8]
Ostertagia circumcincta[8]
Ostertagia dikmansi <Unverified Name>[8]
Ostertagia mossi <Unverified Name>[8]
Ostertagia odocoilei <Unverified Name>[8]
Ostertagia ostertagi[8]
Paramphistomum cervi[8]
Paramphistomum liorchis <Unverified Name>[8]
Parelaphostrongylus andersoni <Unverified Name>[8]
Parelaphostrongylus tenuis <Unverified Name>[8]
Pulex porcinus[9]
Rhipicephalus annulatus (Cattle tick)[7]
Rhipicephalus microplus (Asian blue tick)[7]
Setaria transcaucasica <Unverified Name>[8]
Setaria tundra <Unverified Name>[8]
Setaria yehi <Unverified Name>[8]
Skrjabinagia kolchida <Unverified Name>[8]
Solenopotes binipilosus[7]
Spiculopteragia asymmetrica[8]
Spiculopteragia bohmi <Unverified Name>[8]
Spiculopteragia mathevossiani <Unverified Name>[8]
Spiculopteragia odocoilei <Unverified Name>[8]
Spiculopteragia pursglovei <Unverified Name>[8]
Spiculopteragia spiculoptera[8]
Taenia hydatigena <Unverified Name>[8]
Taenia omissa <Unverified Name>[8]
Teladorsagia circumcincta <Unverified Name>[8]
Teladorsagia trifurcata <Unverified Name>[8]
Thelazia skrjabini <Unverified Name>[8]
Tricholipeurus lipeuroides[7]
Tricholipeurus parallelus[7]
Trichostrongylus askivali <Unverified Name>[8]
Trichostrongylus axei[8]
Trichostrongylus calcaratus <Unverified Name>[8]
Trichostrongylus dosteri <Unverified Name>[8]
Trichostrongylus longispicularis[8]
Trichuris discolor[7]
Varestrongylus alpenae <Unverified Name>[8]
Yersinia pestis (Bubonic plague)[7]
Zygocotyle lunata[8]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Africam Safari (Africam, S. A.)sinaloae
 texanus
Alabama Gulf Coast Zoovirginianus
Alexandria Zoological Parkvirginianus
Amarillo Zootexanus
Arizona-Sonora Desert Museumcouesi
Assiniboine Park Zoodacotensis
Barranquilla Zoo
Bay Beach Wildlife Sanctuary
BREC's Baton Rouge Zoovirginianus
Brevard Zoovirginianus
Brookgreen Gardensvirginianus
Buttonwood Park Zoo
Caldwell Zoo
 texanus
Calgary Zoo, Garden & Prehistoric Park
Cameron Park Zootexanus
Cape May County Park Zoovirginianus
Chahinkapa Zoovirginianus
Chattanooga Zoo at Warner Parkvirginianus
Connecticut's Beardsley Zoo
Cosley Zoo
Dakota Zoodacotensis
Denver Zoological Gardens
Dickerson Park Zoo
Ellen Trout Zootexanus
Fort Worth Zoological Parktexanus
Fundacion Zoologica de Cali
Fundacion Zoologico Santacruz
Gladys Porter Zoo
Greater Vancouver Zoo
Guadalajara Zoosinaloae
Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Parkclavium
 seminolus
Houston Zoo, Inc.
Hutchinson Zoomacrourus
Jacksonville Zoo and Gardensseminolus
Lake Superior Zoological Gardensvirginianus
Lion Country Safari Inc - Floridaseminolus
Louisiana Purchase Gardens & Zoomcilhennyi
Magnetic Hill Zoo
Montgomery Zoo
Natural Science Center of Greensboro
NEW Zoovirginianus
Oatland Island Wildlife Center
Oklahoma City Zoological Park
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo
Palm Beach Zoo at Dreher Parkvirginianus
Parc de la Haute Touche (MNHN)
 borealis
Parque Zoologico Huachipa
Parque Zoologico Jaime Duque - Bogota
Parque Zoologico Santa Fe
Patronato del Parque Zoologico de Leon
Pittsburgh Zoo & PPG Aquariumvirginianus
Ranua Wildlife Parkborealis
Red River Zoodacotensis
Rolling Hills Wildlife Adventure
 macrourus
Salisbury Zoological Park
 borealis
 virginianus
San Diego Zooborealis
Scovill Zoo
Sedgwick County Zoo
 dacotensis
 macrourus
Silver Springs Park
 virginianus
Tallahassee Museum of History and
Tampa's Lowry Park Zooclavium
Tulsa Zoo & Living Museum
 virginianus
Turtle Back Zoo
Virginia Living Museum
 virginianus
Western North Carolina Nature Center
Zoo Ahtari (Ähtärin Eläinpuisto Oy)
 borealis
Zoo Sauvage de St-Félicienvirginianus
ZooAmerica (No. American Wildlife Pk.)
 borealis
Zoologico Nacional La Aurora
Zoologico Nacional Simon Bolivar

Range Map

Link to Map
Caribbean; Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China); Middle America; North America; Patfa Valley dry forests; South America; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Gardner A.L, 22-Apr-2004, ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 3Wikipedia licensed under a Creative Commons License 4Study of Northern Virginia Ecology 54.2 Red wolf, Canis rufus, B.T. Kelly, A. Beyer and M.K. Phillips, Sillero-Zubiri, C., Hoffmann, M. and Macdonald, D.W. (eds). 2004. Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. x + 430 pp. 6Food niche of Puma concolor in central Mexico, Octavio Monroy-Vilchis, Yuriana Gómez, Mariusz Janczur & Vicente Urios, Wildlife Biology 15: 97-105 (2009) 7Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2. 8Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 9International Flea Database
Invasive Status provided by Global Invasive Species Database Downloaded on 10 May 2011.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
EDGE analysis provided by EDGE of Existence programme, Zoological Society of London
Range map provided by Patterson, B. D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M. F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B. E. Young. 2007. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 3.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy—Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International—CABS, World Wildlife Fund—US, and Environment Canada—WILDSPACE.
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011