Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Artiodactyla > Bovidae > Bison > Bison bison

Bison bison (American bison; bison)

Synonyms: Bison americanus; Bison americanus pennsylvanicus; Bison bison athabascae; Bison bison bison; Bison bison septemtrionalis; Bison sylvestris; Bos bison
Language: Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The American bison (Bison bison), also commonly known as the American buffalo or simply buffalo, is a North American species of bison that once roamed the grasslands of North America in massive herds. They became nearly extinct by a combination of commercial hunting and slaughter in the 19th century and introduction of bovine diseases from domestic cattle, and have made a recent resurgence largely restricted to a few national parks and reserves. Their historical range roughly comprised a triangle between the Great Bear Lake in Canada's far northwest, south to the Mexican states of Durango and Nuevo León, and east to the Atlantic Seaboard of the United States (nearly to the Atlantic tidewater in some areas) from New York to Georgia and per some sources down to Florida. Bison were seen in No
View Wikipedia Record: Bison bison

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 6.64
EDGE Score: 2.73


Adult Weight [1]  1,388.92 lbs (630.00 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  44.09 lbs (20.00 kg)
Female Maturity [1]  2 years 6 months
Male Maturity [1]  2 years 6 months
Diet [2]  Herbivore
Diet - Plants [2]  100 %
Forages - Ground [2]  100 %
Gestation [1]  9 months 4 days
Litter Size [1]  1
Litters / Year [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [1]  34 years
Migration [3]  Intracontinental
Weaning [1]  8 months 19 days


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
South Central Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Carlsbad Caverns National Park II 15448 New Mexico, United States
Chickasaw National Recreation Area V 7025 Oklahoma, United States
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
Elk Island National Park II 47171 Alberta, Canada
Grand Teton National Park II 231724 Wyoming, United States
Guadalupe Mountains National Park II 46114 Texas, United States
Hot Springs National Park II 5740 Arkansas, United States
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Lake Meredith National Recreation Area V   Texas, United States
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Rocky Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 239938 Colorado, United States
Wind Cave National Park II 29471 South Dakota, United States
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States


Emblem of

United States

Prey / Diet

Bromus ciliatus (fringed brome)[4]
Carex atherodes (wheat sedge)[4]
Cirsium arvense (Creeping Thistle)[4]
Hordeum jubatum (foxtail barley)[4]
Juncus balticus (Baltic rush)[4]
Poa secunda (Sandberg bluegrass)[5]
Scolochloa festucacea (rivergrass)[4]
Sonchus arvensis subsp. uliginosus (Corn Sow Thistle)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Altica carduorum1
Anas acuta (Northern Pintail)2
Apis mellifera (honey bee)1
Carduelis carduelis (European Goldfinch)1
Cassida rubiginosa (Thistle Tortoise Beetle)1
Cepaea nemoralis (grovesnail)1
Cervus elaphus (wapiti or elk)1
Forficula auricularia (European earwig)1
Longitarsus luridus1
Lygocoris pabulinus (Common Green Capsid)1
Mayetiola destructor (hessian fly)1
Odocoileus hemionus (mule deer)1
Oulema melanopus (Cereal leaf beetle)1
Thrips physapus1
Thrips validus1
Thrips vulgatissimus2


Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)[5]


Parasitized by 
Anaplasma marginale[6]
Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax bacterium)[6]
Brucella melitensis (Brucella / Brucellosis)[6]
Calicophoron microbothrioides <Unverified Name>[7]
Campylobacter fetus (C. fetus)[6]
Capillaria bovis[7]
Chabertia ovina <Unverified Name>[7]
Cooperia surnabada <Unverified Name>[7]
Coxiella burnetii[6]
Dermacentor albipictus (Elk tick)[6]
Dictyocaulus filaria[7]
Dictyocaulus hadweni <Unverified Name>[7]
Echinococcus granulosus[7]
Fasciola hepatica (common liver fluke)[7]
Haemonchus contortus (red stomach worm)[7]
Haemonchus ostertagi <Unverified Name>[7]
Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae)[6]
Leptospira interrogans[6]
Mannheimia haemolytica[6]
Moniezia benedeni <Unverified Name>[7]
Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine tuberculosis)[6]
Nematodirus helvetianus[7]
Oesophagostomum radiatum[7]
Onchocerca lienalis <Unverified Name>[7]
Orloffia bisonis <Unverified Name>[7]
Ostertagia bisonis <Unverified Name>[7]
Ostertagia kasakhstanica <Unverified Name>[7]
Ostertagia kazakhstanica <Unverified Name>[7]
Pantoea agglomerans[6]
Pasteurella multocida[6]
Proteus mirabilis[6]
Proteus vulgaris[6]
Setaria labiatopapillosa <Unverified Name>[7]
Staphylococcus epidermidis[6]
Staphylococcus hyicus[6]
Trichostrongylus axei[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Africam Safari (Africam, S. A.)
Amarillo Zoo
Assiniboine Park Zoo
Bergen County Zoological Park
Blair Drummond Safari Park
Bowmanville Zoological Park
Bramble Park Zoo
BREC's Baton Rouge Zoo
Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservat'n Society
Buffalo Zoological Gardens
Buttonwood Park Zoo
Caldwell Zoobison
Calgary Zoo, Garden & Prehistoric Parkathabascae
Cameron Park Zoobison
Cape May County Park Zoo
CERZA Centre d'Etude Rech Zool Augeron
Chahinkapa Zoo
Chehaw Wild Animal Park
Chicago Zoological Park
Cologne Zoo
Columbus Zoo and Aquarium
Connecticut's Beardsley Zoo
Dakota Zoo
David Traylor Zoo of Emporia
Denver Zoological Gardensbison
Detroit Zoological Society
Dierenpark Emmenathabascae
DSI Givskud Zoo
Fossil Rim Wildlife Center
Great Bend Zoo and Raptor Center
Great Plains Zoo
Greater Vancouver Zoobison
Guadalajara Zoo
Hamilton Zoo
Henry Vilas Zoo
Hutchinson Zoobison
IAE - African Safari Wildlife Park
Jardim Zoologico / Lisbon Zoobison
Jardin Zoologico de Cdad.Buenos Airesbison
Kaliningrad Zoo
Kharkiv Zoo
Knowsley Safari Park
Knuthenborg Safaripark
Kyiv Zoological Park
Lee Richardson Zoobison
Lion Country Safari Inc - Florida
Living Desert State Park (Carlsbad)
Louisiana Purchase Gardens & Zoo
Magnetic Hill Zooathabascae
Münchener Tierpark Hellabrunnathabascae
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny w Lodzbison
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Warsaw
Minnesota Zoological Garden
Monarto Zoological Park
Monde Sauvage Safari SPRL
Montgomery Zoo
Moonridge Animal Parkathabascae
Mountain View Conservation & Breedingathabascae
Mulhouse Zoobison
Nagoya Higashiyama Zoo
Natural Science Center of Greensborobison
Nikolaev Zoo of Nikolaev-City Council
Noah's Ark Zoo Farm
North Carolina Zoological Park
Northwest Trek Wildlife Park
Nyíregyházi Állatpark Nonprofit KFT
Oakland Zoo
Oatland Island Wildlife Center
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Poznaniuathabascae
Oklahoma City Zoological Park
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoobison
Parc Animalier de Sainte Croix
Parc Paradisio S.A.
Parc Paysager Et Animalier Du Reynou
Parc Safari / F.A.P.S.
Parc Zoologique d'Amneville
Parc Zoologique de La Palmyre
Parque Zoologico Jaime Duque - Bogota
Parque Zoologico Nacional, ZOODOM
Patronato del Parque Zoologico de Leonbison
Planete Sauvage
Pocatello Zoo
Port Lympne Wild Animal Park
Potawatomi Zoo
Pueblo Zoobison
Queens Zoo
Ree Park - Ebeltoft Safari
Riverside Zoo
Roger Williams Park Zoo
Rolling Hills Wildlife Adventure
Roosevelt Park Zoo
Rotterdam Zoo
Safari de Peaugres
Salisbury Zoological Park
San Diego Zoo
San Francisco Zoological Gardens
Schoenbrunner Tiergarten GmbH
Sedgwick County Zoobison
Silesian Zoological Gardenathabascae
Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute in Front Royal
Sofia Zoological Gardensbison
St. Paul's Como Zoo
Taipei Zoo
Tallinn Zoo
The Wilds
Thoiry Zoological Park
Thuringer Zoopark Erfurt
Tiergarten der Stadt Nürnberg
Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde GmbHathabascae
Tierpark Hagenbeck GmbH
Tierwelt Herberstein
Toronto Zooathabascae
Trotter's World of Animals
Turtle Back Zoo
Ueno Zoological Gardens
Utah's Hogle Zoo
Virginia Safari Park & Preserv Ctr,Inc
Virginia Zoological Park
Werribee Open Range Zoo
Western Plains Zoo
Whipsnade Wild Animal Parkbison
Wild Animal Park Mechelen Planckendael
Wildlife Prairie State Park
Wildlife Safari Inc
Wilhelma Zoo
Woburn Safari Park
Yukon Wildlife Preserveathabascae
Zoo and Aqua-Terrarium Ltd. Pécs
Zoo Aquarium de Madrid (GRPR)
Zoo De Servion
Zoo Hannover GmbH
Zoo Sauvage de St-Félicien
ZooAmerica (No. American Wildlife Pk.)
Zoological Garden Prague
Zoologicka Zahrada Mesta Brna
Zoologischer Garten Basel

Range Map

Middle America; North America;



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
4Foraging ecology of bison at the landscape and plant community levels: the applicability of energy maximization principles, Daniel Fortin, John M. Fryxell, Lloyd O’Brodovich, Dan Frandsen, Oecologia (2003) 134:219–227
5National Geographic Magazine - May 2016 - Yellowstone - The Carnivore Comeback
6Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2.
7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access