Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Artiodactyla > Bovidae > Ovibos > Ovibos moschatus

Ovibos moschatus (muskox; oomingmak)

Language: French

Wikipedia Abstract

The muskox (Ovibos moschatus), also spelled musk ox and musk-ox, in Inuktitut ᐅᒥᖕᒪᒃ, umingmak, is an Arctic mammal of the family Bovidae, noted for its thick coat and for the strong odor emitted during the seasonal rut by males, from which its name derives. This musky odor is used to attract females during mating season. Muskoxen primarily live in the Canadian Arctic and Greenland, with small introduced populations in Sweden, Siberia, Norway, and Alaska.
View Wikipedia Record: Ovibos moschatus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 3.57
EDGE Score: 1.52


Adult Weight [1]  575.00 lbs (260.82 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  25.27 lbs (11.46 kg)
Female Weight [1]  450.00 lbs (204.12 kg)
Male Weight [1]  700.00 lbs (317.51 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [1]  55.6 %
Female Maturity [2]  3 years
Male Maturity [2]  3 years 6 months
Diet [3]  Frugivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [3]  10 %
Diet - Plants [3]  90 %
Forages - Ground [3]  100 %
Gestation [2]  8 months 18 days
Litter Size [2]  1
Litters / Year [2]  1
Maximum Longevity [2]  27 years
Migration [4]  Intracontinental
Weaning [2]  7 months 3 days


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Arctic coastal tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra    
Arctic foothills tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Beringia lowland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Beringia upland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Brooks-British Range tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
High Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Kalaallit Nunaat high arctic tundra Greenland Nearctic Tundra
Low Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Middle Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Northern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northwest Territories taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Aulavik National Park II 3021211 Northwest Territories, Canada
Ivvavik National Park II 2382752 Yukon, Canada
North-east Greenland National Park II 237590314 Greenland
Ostrov Vrangelya (Wrangel Island) Zapovednik Nature Monument III 180 Russia    
Queen Maud Gulf Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird Sanctuary IV 15335601 Nunavut, Canada
Quttinirpaaq (Ellesmere Island) National Park Reserve II 9436606 Nunavut, Canada
Taimyrsky Biosphere Reserve Ia 4403240 Taimyr, Russia
Tuktut Nogait National Park II 5761538 Northwest Territories, Canada
Ukkusiksalik National Park II   Nunavut, Canada
Vuntut National Park II 1076795 Yukon, Canada
Walker Bay Field Station   Nunavut, Canada  


Prey / Diet

Alnus alnobetula subsp. crispa[5]
Arctagrostis latifolia (wideleaf polargrass)[6]
Betula glandulosa (resin birch)[5]
Betula intermedia (dwarf birch)[6]
Carex bigelowii (Bigelow's sedge)[5]
Carex bonanzensis (Yukon sedge)[6]
Dryas octopetala (white dryas)[5]
Empetrum nigrum (black crowberry)[5]
Eriophorum angustifolium subsp. angustifolium[5]
Eriophorum scheuchzeri (white cottongrass)[6]
Lathyrus japonicus subsp. maritimus (Beach Pea)[5]
Salix alaxensis (feltleaf willow)[6]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acanthis flammea (Common Redpoll)3
Alces alces (moose)4
Bombus polaris (Bumblebee)1
Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse)1
Branta hutchinsii (Cackling Goose)4
Branta ruficollis (Red-breasted Goose)1
Calcarius lapponicus (Lapland Longspur)4
Calidris tenuirostris (Great Knot)1
Castor canadensis (american beaver)1
Corvus corax (Northern Raven)1
Erethizon dorsatus (common porcupine)1
Falcipennis canadensis (Spruce Grouse)1
Falcipennis canadensis franklinii (Franklin’s Grouse)1
Lagopus lagopus (Willow Ptarmigan)4
Lagopus leucura (White-tailed Ptarmigan)2
Lagopus muta (Rock Ptarmigan)1
Larus schistisagus (Slaty-backed Gull)1
Lemmus sibiricus (brown lemming)7
Lepus americanus (Snowshoe Hare)1
Lepus othus (Alaskan Hare)2
Limosa haemastica (Hudsonian Godwit)1
Lyrurus tetrix (Eurasian Black Grouse)1
Martes americana (American Marten)1
Myodes rutilus (northern red-backed vole)4
Numenius tahitiensis (Bristle-thighed Curlew)1
Ochotona collaris (Collared Pika)1
Ovis dalli (Dall's sheep)4
Phenacomys intermedius (western heather vole)1
Phenacomys ungava (eastern heather vole)1
Pinicola enucleator (Pine Grosbeak)1
Pluvialis fulva (Pacific Golden-Plover)1
Poecile hudsonicus (Boreal Chickadee)1
Rangifer tarandus (caribou)6
Tetrao urogallus (Western Capercaillie)1
Urocitellus parryii (Arctic ground squirrel)3
Ursus americanus (black bear)1
Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)1


Canis lupus (Wolf)[6]
Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)[1]


Parasitized by 
Brucella melitensis (Brucella / Brucellosis)[7]
Capillaria bovis[8]
Cysticercus tenuicollis <Unverified Name>[8]
Dictyocaulus eckerti <Unverified Name>[8]
Dictyocaulus viviparus[8]
Echinococcus granulosus[8]
Francisella tularensis (Tularemia)[7]
Haemonchus contortus (red stomach worm)[8]
Haemonchus placei <Unverified Name>[8]
Marshallagia marshalli <Unverified Name>[8]
Marshallagia occidentalis <Unverified Name>[8]
Nematodirella alcidis <Unverified Name>[8]
Nematodirella gazelli <Unverified Name>[8]
Nematodirella longispiculata <Unverified Name>[8]
Nematodirella longissimespiculata <Unverified Name>[8]
Nematodirus helvetianus[8]
Nematodirus skrjabini <Unverified Name>[8]
Nematodirus tarandi <Unverified Name>[8]
Ostertagia arctica <Unverified Name>[8]
Ostertagia circumcincta[8]
Ostertagia davtiana <Unverified Name>[8]
Ostertagia gruehneri <Unverified Name>[8]
Ostertagia occidentalis <Unverified Name>[8]
Ostertagia trifurcata[8]
Protostrongylus stilesi <Unverified Name>[8]
Taenia hydatigena <Unverified Name>[8]
Teladorsagia boreoarcticus <Unverified Name>[8]
Teladorsagia circumcincta <Unverified Name>[8]
Teladorsagia davtiani <Unverified Name>[8]
Teladorsagia trifurcata <Unverified Name>[8]
Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis <Unverified Name>[8]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Assiniboine Park Zoo
Calgary Zoo, Garden & Prehistoric Park
Cologne Zoowardi
Copenhagen Zoowardi
Denver Zoological Gardens
GaiaPark, Kerkrade Zoo
Greater Vancouver Zoo
Helsinki Zoowardi
Kolmardens Djurpark ABwardi
Lietuvos Zoologijos Sodas
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Warsawwardi
Minnesota Zoological Garden
Moscow Zoological Park
Municipal Independent Org. Roev Ruchei
Novosibirsk Zoological Park
Podkrusnohorsky Zoopark Chomutovwardi
Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium
Polar Zoo A/S
Ranua Wildlife Parkwardi
Roosevelt Park Zoomoschatus
Tallinn Zoowardi
Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde GmbHmoschatus
Tierpark Dählhölzliwardi
Toronto Zoo
Yukon Wildlife Preserve
Zoo Krefeld GmbHwardi
Zoo Sauvage de St-Félicien
Zoologicka zahrada Liberecwardi
Zoologicka zahrada Olomouc
Zoologická a botanická zahrada Plzenmoschatus

Range Map

Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China); North America;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Alaska Wildlife Notebook Series, Alaska Department of Fish and Game
2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
5Ovibos moschatus, Peter C. Lent, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 302, pp. 1-9 (1988)
6Making The Forest And Tundra Wildlife Connection
7Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2.
8Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Le Saout, S., Hoffmann, M., Shi, Y., Hughes, A., Bernard, C., Brooks, T.M., Bertzky, B., Butchart, S.H.M., Stuart, S.N., Badman, T. & Rodrigues, A.S.L. (2013) Protected areas and effective biodiversity conservation. Science, 342, 803–805
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Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access