Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Carnivora > Canidae > Canis > Canis mesomelas
 

Canis mesomelas (Black-backed Jackal)

Wikipedia Abstract

The black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas) is a canid native to two areas of Africa, separated by roughly 900 km.One region includes the southernmost tip of the continent, including South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe. The other area is along the eastern coastline, including Kenya, Somalia, Djibouti and Ethiopia.
View Wikipedia Record: Canis mesomelas

Infraspecies

Canis mesomelas mesomelas (Black-backed jackal)
Canis mesomelas schmidti (Black-backed jackal)

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
1
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
12
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 3.59
EDGE Score: 1.52

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  17.09 lbs (7.75 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  159 grams
Female Maturity [2]  10 months 9 days
Male Maturity [2]  8 months 11 days
Diet [3]  Omnivore
Gestation [2]  60 days
Litter Size [2]  4
Litters / Year [2]  1
Maximum Longevity [2]  17 years
Nocturnal [3]  Yes
Weaning [2]  60 days

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Albany thickets South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Angolan Mopane woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Zambia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Drakensberg alti-montane grasslands and woodlands South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Drakensberg montane grasslands, woodlands and forests South Africa, Swaziland, Lesotho Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
East Sudanian savanna Chad, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eritrean coastal desert Eritrea Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Etosha Pan halophytics Namibia Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Highveld grasslands South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Hobyo grasslands and shrublands Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Itigi-Sumbu thicket Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kalahari Acacia-Baikiaea woodlands Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kalahari xeric savanna Botswana, Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kaokoveld desert Namibia, Angola Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Lowland fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Maputaland coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Maputaland-Pondoland bushland and thickets South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Masai xeric grasslands and shrublands Kenya Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Montane fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Nama Karoo Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Namibian savanna woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Northern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Serengeti volcanic grasslands Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Somali montane xeric woodlands Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Southern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Africa bushveld Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Miombo woodlands Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Succulent Karoo Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Victoria Basin forest-savanna mosaic Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian and Mopane woodlands South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Namibia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian halophytics Mozambique, Botswana Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Amboseli National Park National Reserve II 99624 Kenya
Bontebok National Park II 8315 Western Cape, South Africa
Cape West Coast Biosphere Reserve 934651 Western Cape, South Africa
Dinder National Park II 2088300 Sudan  
Etosha National Park II 5699141 Namibia  
Golden Gate Highlands National Park II 28689 Free State, South Africa
Itala Game Reserve Provincial Nature Reserve II 72822 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Kalahari Gemsbok National Park II 2382284 Northern Cape, South Africa
Kora National Park II 409762 Kenya
Kruger National Park II 4718115 Mpumalanga, South Africa
Kruger to Canyons Biosphere Reserve   Mpumalanga, South Africa  
Lake Manyara National Park II 78767 Tanzania  
Lake Nakuru National Park II 46472 Kenya  
Mahale Mountains National Park II 398414 Tanzania
Malolotja Nature Reserve IV 42044 Swaziland  
Mlawula Nature Reserve IV 46444 Swaziland  
Moremi Game Reserve IV 1214686 Botswana  
Mount Kenya Biosphere Reserve II 146694 Kenya
Namib-Naukluft National Park II 12585619 Namibia  
National Diamond Coast Recreational Resort V 14514 Namibia  
Nechisar National Park II 256137 Ethiopia  
Radom National Park II   Sudan  
Richtersveld National Park II 399195 Northern Cape, South Africa
Skeleton Coast Game Park II 4168395 Namibia  
South Luangwa National Park II 2220358 Zambia  
Tsavo East National Park II 3232255 Kenya
Weenen Nature Reserve   Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Cape Floristic Region South Africa No
Eastern Afromontane Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe No
Horn of Africa Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Yemen No
Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland No
Succulent Karoo Namibia, South Africa No

Prey / Diet

Aepyceros melampus (impala)[4]
Amblysomus hottentotus (Hottentot Golden Mole)[4]
Antidorcas marsupialis (springbok)[4]
Arctocephalus pusillus (Brown Fur Seal)[5]
Ardeotis kori (Kori Bustard)[6]
Atelerix albiventris (Four-toed Hedgehog)[7]
Bathyergus suillus (Cape dune mole rat)[8]
Cryptomys damarensis (Damaraland mole-rat)[9]
Damaliscus pygargus dorcas (Bontebok)[4]
Eupodotis senegalensis (White-bellied Bustard)[7]
Galeichthys feliceps (White baggar)[4]
Georychus capensis (Cape mole-rat)[10]
Gerbillurus paeba (hairy-footed gerbil)[11]
Gerbillurus tytonis (dune hairy-footed gerbil)[5]
Ichneumia albicauda (White-tailed Mongoose)[4]
Ictonyx striatus (Striped Polecat)[4]
Lepus saxatilis (Scrub Hare)[4]
Lygodactylus capensis (Cape Dwarf Gecko)[7]
Madoqua guentheri (Günther's dik-dik)[12]
Madoqua kirkii (Kirk's dik-dik)[13]
Myosorex varius (Forest Shrew)[4]
Otomys angoniensis (Angoni vlei rat)[14]
Otomys irroratus (vlei rat)[4]
Ourebia ourebi (oribi)[4]
Pelea capreolus (common rhebok)[4]
Phalacrocorax capensis (Cape cormorant)[4]
Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant)[5]
Phrynobatrachus mababiensis (Mababe River Frog)[7]
Procavia capensis (Rock Hyrax)[4]
Pronolagus crassicaudatus (Natal Red Rockhare)[4]
Pronolagus rupestris (Smith's Red Rockhare)[7]
Psammophis angolensis (Dwarf Sand Snake)[7]
Redunca fulvorufula (mountain reedbuck)[4]
Rhabdomys pumilio (Four-striped grass mouse)[4]
Spheniscus demersus (Jackass Penguin)[4]
Steatomys pratensis (fat mouse)[7]
Stigmochelys pardalis (Leopard Tortoise)[7]
Tachybaptus ruficollis (Little Grebe)[7]
Taurotragus oryx (eland)[4]
Thryonomys swinderianus (Cane rat)[4]
Tragelaphus scriptus (bushbuck)[4]
Xenopus muelleri (Mueller's clawed frog)[7]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acinonyx jubatus (Cheetah)6
Aonyx capensis (African Clawless Otter)5
Apalis flavida (Yellow-breasted Apalis)1
Aquila rapax (Tawny Eagle)3
Aquila spilogaster (African Hawk-Eagle)1
Aquila verreauxii (Verreaux's Eagle)3
Ardea cinerea (Grey Heron)2
Ardeotis kori (Kori Bustard)1
Asio capensis (Marsh Owl)9
Atelerix albiventris (Four-toed Hedgehog)1
Atilax paludinosus (Marsh Mongoose)1
Bitis arietans (Puff Adder)2
Bubo africanus (Spotted Eagle-Owl)4
Bubo lacteus (Verreaux's Eagle-Owl)2
Bucorvus leadbeateri (Southern Ground Hornbill)5
Canis adustus (Side-striped Jackal)1
Caracal caracal (Caracal)6
Civettictis civetta (African Civet)1
Crocuta crocuta (Spotted Hyena)5
Dendroaspis polylepis (Black Mamba)5
Elanus caeruleus (Black-winged Kite)2
Eremomela icteropygialis (Yellow-bellied Eremomela)2
Eupodotis senegalensis (White-bellied Bustard)4
Felis silvestris (Wildcat)2
Galerella pulverulenta (Cape Gray Mongoose)2
Galerella sanguinea (Slender Mongoose)1
Genetta tigrina (Cape Genet)2
Glaucidium perlatum (Pearl-spotted Owlet)5
Haliaeetus vocifer (African Fish Eagle)6
Helogale parvula (Common Dwarf Mongoose)7
Hemachatus haemachatus (Rinkhals, Ring-necked Spitting Cobra, Ringhals)1
Herpestes ichneumon (Egyptian Mongoose)2
Hyaena brunnea (Brown Hyena)2
Ictonyx striatus (Striped Polecat)1
Leptailurus serval (Serval)9
Leptoptilos crumeniferus (Marabou Stork)4
Lophaetus occipitalis (Long-crested Eagle)1
Lycaon pictus (African wild dog)9
Mellivora capensis (Honey Badger)2
Naja nivea (Cape Cobra)3
Necrosyrtes monachus (Hooded Vulture)4
Nycteris grandis (large slit-faced bat)1
Otocyon megalotis (Bat-eared Fox)5
Otolemur crassicaudatus (greater galago)3
Panthera leo (Lion)6
Panthera pardus (Leopard)17
Poecilogale albinucha (African Striped Weasel)2
Polemaetus bellicosus (Martial Eagle)4
Potamochoerus porcus (red river hog)1
Psammophis angolensis (Dwarf Sand Snake)2
Pseudaspis cana (Mole Snake)4
Python sebae (African Rock Python)2
Stigmochelys pardalis (Leopard Tortoise)3
Tachybaptus ruficollis (Little Grebe)5
Terathopius ecaudatus (Bateleur)1
Tockus nasutus epirhinus (South African grey hornbill)1
Torgos tracheliotus (lappet-faced vulture)3
Tyto alba (Barn Owl)2
Tyto capensis (Grass Owl)2
Varanus exanthematicus (Savannah Monitor)1
Varanus niloticus (Nile Monitor, Water Leguaan)4
Vulpes chama (Cape Fox)1
Xenopus muelleri (Mueller's clawed frog)1

Predators

Hyaena brunnea (Brown Hyena)[5]
Panthera pardus (Leopard)[4]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Ancylostoma brasiliense[15]
Ancylostoma caninum[15]
Ancylostoma duodenale <Unverified Name>[15]
Ancylostoma martinagliai <Unverified Name>[15]
Ancylostoma somaliense <Unverified Name>[15]
Ancylostoma tubaeforme[15]
Ctenocephalides felis strongylus[16]
Echidnophaga larina[16]
Echinococcus granulosus[15]
Ehrlichia canis[17]
Multiceps brauni <Unverified Name>[15]
Physaloptera canis <Unverified Name>[15]
Pulex irritans (human flea)[16]
Rictularia cahirensis[15]
Spirocerca lupi[15]
Taenia hydatigena <Unverified Name>[15]
Taenia jakhalsi <Unverified Name>[15]
Taenia madoquae <Unverified Name>[15]
Taenia multiceps <Unverified Name>[15]
Taenia pisiformis[15]
Taenia serialis <Unverified Name>[15]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Colchester Zoo
Kansas City Zoo
Nagoya Higashiyama Zoo
Nat'l Zoological Gardens of S. Africa
 mesomelas
Nikolaev Zoo of Nikolaev-City Council
Oasys Parque del Desierto de Tabernas
Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zool. Gdns.
Parc Merveilleux
San Diego Zoomesomelas
Singapore Zoological Gardens
Thuringer Zoopark Erfurt
Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde GmbH
Valencia Bioparc, Rainforest S.A.
Westfalischer Zoologischer Gtn Munster
Zoo Dvur Kralove, a.s.
Zoo Santo Inácio Vila Nova de Gaia
Zoologicka zahrada Olomouc
Zoologická a botanická zahrada Plzen

Range Map

Africa; Tsavo National Park;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 16.3 Black-backed jackal Canis mesomelas, A.J. Loveridge and J.A.J. Nel, Sillero-Zubiri, C., Hoffmann, M. and Macdonald, D.W. (eds). 2004. Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. x + 430 pp. 2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 3Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 4Canis mesomelas, Lyle R. Walton and Damien O. Joly, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 715, pp. 1–9 (2003) 5The Namib: Detritus and Fog Dependence Scott Christy March 1st, 2006 6Kori Bustard Species Survival Plan (Ardeotis kori) Husbandry Manual, Sara Hallager, Jeanette Boylan, September 2004 7The Serengeti food web: empirical quantification and analysis of topological changes under increasing human impact, Sara N. de Visser, Bernd P. Freymann and Han Olff, Journal of Animal Ecology 2011, 80, 484–494 8Bathyergus suillus (Rodentia: Bathyergidae), NIGEL C. BENNETT, CHRIS G. FAULKES, LEANNE HART, AND JENNIFER U. M. JARVIS, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 828:1–7 (2009) 9Cryptomys damarensis, Nigel C. Bennett and Jennifer U. M. Jarvis, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 756, pp. 1–5 (2004) 10Georychus capensis, Nigel C. Bennett, Sarita Maree, and Chris G. Faulkes, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 799, pp. 1-4 (2006) 11Gerbillurus paeba, Michael R. Perrin, Edith R. Dempster, and Colleen T. Downs, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 606, pp. 1-6 (1999) 12Madoqua guentheri, Steven C. Kingswood and Arlene T. Kumamoto, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 539, pp. 1-10 (1996) 13Madoqua kirkii, Steven C. Kingswood and Arlene T. Kumamoto, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 569, pp. 1-10 (1997) 14Otomys angoniensis, G. N. Bronner and J. A. J. Meester, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 306, pp. 1-6 (1988) 15Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 16International Flea Database 17Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access