Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Carnivora > Canidae > Cuon > Cuon alpinus
 

Cuon alpinus (Dhole; red dog; Indian dhole; Asiatic wild dog)

Synonyms: Canis alpinus

Wikipedia Abstract

The dhole (Cuon alpinus) is a canid native to Central, South and Southeast Asia. Other English names for the species include Asiatic wild dog, Indian wild dog, whistling dog, red wolf (not to be confused with Canis rufus), red dog, and mountain wolf. It is genetically close to species within the genus Canis, though its skull is convex rather than concave in profile, it lacks a third lower molar, and the upper molars sport only a single cusp as opposed to 2–4.
View Wikipedia Record: Cuon alpinus

Infraspecies

Endangered Species

Status: Endangered
View IUCN Record: Cuon alpinus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
1
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
44
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 3.57
EDGE Score: 3.6

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  31.97 lbs (14.50 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  275 grams
Female Weight [1]  25.35 lbs (11.50 kg)
Male Weight [1]  38.58 lbs (17.50 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [1]  52.2 %
Female Maturity [2]  1 year
Male Maturity [2]  1 year
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Vertebrates)
Diet - Endothermic [3]  90 %
Diet - Scavenger [3]  10 %
Forages - Ground [3]  100 %
Gestation [2]  61 days
Litter Size [2]  5
Litters / Year [2]  1
Maximum Longevity [2]  16 years
Weaning [2]  58 days

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Alashan Plateau semi-desert China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Altai alpine meadow and tundra China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Altai montane forest and forest steppe China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai steppe and semi-desert Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Amur meadow steppe China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Cardamom Mountains rain forests Cambodia, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central China loess plateau mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central Indochina dry forests Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central Korean deciduous forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Changbai Mountains mixed forests China, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Changjiang Plain evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chao Phraya freshwater swamp forests Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chao Phraya lowland moist deciduous forests Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chhota-Nagpur dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Da Hinggan-Dzhagdy Mountains conifer forests China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Daba Mountains evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Daurian forest steppe China, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Deccan thorn scrub forests India, Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
East Deccan dry-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
East Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Coniferous Forests
Eastern Java-Bali montane rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Java-Bali rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Emin Valley steppe China, Kazakstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Gissaro-Alai open woodlands Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Goadavari-Krishna mangroves India Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Great Lakes Basin desert steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Guizhou Plateau broadleaf and mixed forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Hainan Island monsoon rain forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Hengduan Mountains subalpine conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Huang He Plain mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Indochina mangroves Thailand, Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Irrawaddy dry forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Irrawaddy moist deciduous forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Jian Nan subtropical evergreen forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Junggar Basin semi-desert China, Kazakstan, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kayah-Karen montane rain forests Myanmar, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Kazakh forest steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Luang Prabang montane rain forests Laos, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Malabar Coast moist forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Meghalaya subtropical forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests Myanmar, India, Bangladesh Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Myanmar Coast mangroves India, Myanmar, Malaysia, Thailand Indo-Malayan Mangroves  
Myanmar coastal rain forests Myanmar, Bangladesh Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Narmada Valley dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Nenjiang River grassland China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
North Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northeast China Plain deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests China, India, Bhutan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Annamites rain forests Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Northern Indochina subtropical forests China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Khorat Plateau moist deciduous forests Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Thailand-Laos moist deciduous forests Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Triangle subtropical forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Triangle temperate forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern Vietnam lowland rain forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Nujiang Langcang Gorge alpine conifer and mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Ordos Plateau steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Orissa semi-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Pamir alpine desert and tundra China, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Peninsular Malaysian montane rain forests Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peninsular Malaysian peat swamp forests Malaysia, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peninsular Malaysian rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Qaidam Basin semi-desert China Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Qilian Mountains conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Qilian Mountains subalpine meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Qin Ling Mountains deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Qionglai-Minshan conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Red River freshwater swamp forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sayan Alpine meadows and tundra Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sayan Intermontane steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sayan montane conifer forests Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Selenge-Orkhon forest steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sichuan Basin evergreen broadleaf forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forests China, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South Siberian forest steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeast Tibet shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southeastern Indochina dry evergreen forests Viet Nam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southern Annamites montane rain forests Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern Vietnam lowland dry forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Suiphun-Khanka meadows and forest meadows China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Sumatran freshwater swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran lowland rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran montane rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran peat swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran tropical pine forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sunda Shelf mangroves Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Taklimakan desert China Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tarim Basin deciduous forests and steppe China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tenasserim-South Thailand semi-evergreen rain forests Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tian Shan foothill arid steppe China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tian Shan montane conifer forests China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Tian Shan montane steppe and meadows China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tibetan Plateau alpine shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tonle Sap freshwater swamp forests Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tonle Sap-Mekong peat swamp forests Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Trans-Baikal Bald Mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Trans-Baikal conifer forests Russia, Mongolia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ussuri broadleaf and mixed forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Java montane rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Java rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Yarlung Tsangpo arid steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Yunnan Plateau subtropical evergreen forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Alaungdaw Kathapa National Park II 421336 Myanmar  
Bach Ma National Park II 54733 Viet Nam
Bandhavgarh National Park II 89210 Madhya Pradesh, India  
Bitahai Nature Reserve V 49655 Yunnan, China  
Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park II 836773 Sumatra, Indonesia  
Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve V 619089 Jilin, China  
Cibodas Biosphere Reserve (Gunung Gede-Pangrango) 142165 Java, Indonesia      
Daursky Biosphere Reserve 113150 Chita, Russia
Dinghushan Nature Reserve V 2320 Guangdong, China  
Eravikulam National Park II 39436 Kerala, India
Fanjingshan Nature Reserve V 86145 Guizhou, China  
Gaoligong Mountain National Nature Reserve V 1245925 Yunnan, China  
Gunung Leuser National Park II 2203368 Sumatra, Indonesia
Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary IV 699629 Thailand  
Indravati Tiger Reserve   Chhattishgarh, India      
Kaeng Krachan National Park II 753452 Thailand
Kanha Tiger Reserve National Park II 223971 Madhya Pradesh, India
Kerinci Seblat National Park II 3463483 Sumatra, Indonesia  
Khakassia State Nature Reserve 661168 Khakassia, Russia
Khankaisky State Nature Reserve 97085 Primorsky Krai, Russia
Khao Ang Ru Nai Wildlife Sanctuary IV 248699 Thailand  
Khao Luang National Park II 143331 Thailand
Khao Phanom Bencha National Park II 12840 Thailand
Khao Pra Bang Kram Wildlife Sanctuary IV 30009 Thailand  
Khao Soi Dao Wildlife Sanctuary IV 182353 Thailand  
Khao Sok National Park II 159284 Thailand
Khao Yai National Park II 542694 Thailand
Khaoen Si Nakarin National Park II 459154 Thailand
Khlong Lan National Park II 104466 Thailand
Khlong Saeng Wildlife Sanctuary IV 243425 Thailand  
Krau Wildlife Reserve IV 149823 Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Kudremukh National Park II 202772 Karnataka, India  
Mae Ping National Park II 259897 Thailand
Mae Sa-Kog Ma Reserve   Thailand      
Mae Wong National Park II 221459 Thailand
Mae Yom National Park II 123569 Thailand
Manas National Park II 135025 Assam, India
Nam Ha National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 539941 Laos  
Nam Kading National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 419016 Laos  
Namdapha National Park II   Arunachal Pradesh, India
Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve 1364022 India  
Nujiang Nature Reserve   China      
Palamau Tiger Reserve National Park II 329056 Bihar, India
Pang Sida National Park II 211956 Thailand
Phou Khao Khoay National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 447452 Laos  
Phou Xang He National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 285962 Laos  
Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary IV 391278 Thailand  
Phu Luang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 227671 Thailand  
Rajaji National Park II 196637 Uttaranchal, India  
Rajiv Gandhi (Nagarahole) National Park II 155253 Karnataka, India  
Ranthambore National Park II 137162 Rajasthan, India
Royal Chitwan National Park II 292637 Nepal  
Sai Yok National Park II 235556 Thailand
Salawin National Park II 400497 Thailand
Simlipal Tiger Reserve National Park II 103465 Orissa, India  
Sokhondinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 521363 Chita, Russia
Taman Negara National Park II 1122273 Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Thap Lan National Park II 550979 Thailand
Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary IV 918234 Thailand  
Tianmushan Biosphere Reserve 47993 China  
Tunkinsky National Park 2924892 Buryatia, Russia
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Ujung Kulon National Park II 313466 Java, Indonesia    
Ussuriysky Zapovednik Ia 99910 Primorsky Krai , Russia
Way Kambas National Park II 306926 Sumatra, Indonesia
Wolong Nature Reserve V 826140 Sichuan, China  
Xe Pian National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 645271 Laos  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Mountains of Central Asia Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan No
Mountains of Southwest China China, Myanmar No
Sundaland Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand No
Western Ghats and Sri Lanka India, Sri Lanka No

Prey / Diet

Axis axis (chital)[1]
Bos javanicus (banteng)[1]
Boselaphus tragocamelus (nilgai)[1]
Bubalus bubalis (water buffalo)[1]
Capra falconeri (markhor)[1]
Elaphodus cephalophus (tufted deer)[4]
Hemitragus hylocrius (Nilgiri tahr)[1]
Lepus nigricollis (Indian Hare)[1]
Meles meles (European Badger)[1]
Millardia meltada (soft-furred rat)[1]
Moschiola meminna (Indian spotted chevrotain)[5]
Moschus moschiferus (Siberian musk deer)[1]
Muntiacus vuquangensis (Large-antlered Muntjac)[4]
Naemorhedus goral (goral)[1]
Rangifer tarandus (caribou)[1]
Rucervus duvaucelii (barasingha)[1]
Rucervus eldii (Eld's deer)[1]
Rusa unicolor (sambar)[1]
Tetracerus quadricornis (four-horned antelope)[6]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)1
Athene brama (Spotted Owlet)1
Canis aureus (Golden Jackal)2
Canis lupus (Wolf)1
Felis chaus (Jungle Cat)2
Hyaena hyaena (Striped Hyena)1
Martes zibellina (Sable)1
Panthera pardus (Leopard)4
Panthera tigris (Tiger)1
Panthera tigris tigris (Bengal tiger)3
Uncia uncia (Snow leopard)1
Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)1
Vulpes bengalensis (Bengal Fox)2
Vulpes lagopus (Arctic Fox)1

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Ceylonocotyle cuonum <Unverified Name>[7]
Chaetopsylla globiceps[8]
Ctenocephalides orientis[8]
Dirofilaria immitis (Heartworm)[7]
Paraceras melis flabellum[8]
Pariodontis riggenbachi wernecki[8]
Pseudoparamphistoma cuonum <Unverified Name>[7]
Pulex irritans (human flea)[8]
Vermipsylla alakurt[8]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Almaty State Zoo of Kazakhstan
Arignar Anna Zool. Park, Chennai
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Gardenlepturus
Chiangmai Zoological Garden
Galloway Wildlife Conservation Park
Howletts Wild Animal Park
Kazan Zoological & Botanical Garden
 lepturus
Kolmardens Djurpark ABlepturus
Lietuvos Zoologijos Sodaslepturus
Moscow Zoological Park
 lepturus
Novosibirsk Zoological Parklepturus
Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zool. Gdns.
Parc de la Haute Touche (MNHN)lepturus
Parc Zoologique de Tregomeurlepturus
Permskii Zoologicheskii Sadlepturus
Port Lympne Wild Animal Park
Riga Zoolepturus
Safaripark Beekse Bergenlepturus
San Diego Wild Animal Park
 lepturus
San Diego Zoolepturus
Singapore Zoological Gardens
 infuscus
Sri Chamarajendra Zoo (Mysore Zoo)
Taronga Zooinfuscus
Terra Natura S.A.lepturus
The Wilds
Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde GmbHlepturus
Toronto Zoo
Twycross Zoo
Ueno Zoological Gardens
Yokohama Zool. Gardens
Zoo de Fuengirola (Rain Forest SL)lepturus
Zoo Dresden GmbHlepturus
Zoo Osnabrück
Zoo Taiping & Night Safari
Zoologicka zahrada Olomouclepturus
Zoologischer Garten Magdeburglepturus

Range Map

Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China); Southern Asia;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Cuon alpinus, James A. Cohen, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 100, pp. 1-3 (1978)
2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
5Predation by Forest Eagle-Owl Bubo nipalensis on Mouse Deer Moschiola meminna, Nandini R, Indian Birds Vol. 1 No. 5 (September-October 2005), p. 119-120
6Tetracerus quadricornis (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), DAVID M. LESLIE, JR. AND KOUSTUBH SHARMA, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 843:1–11 (2009)
7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
8International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Specially protected natural territories of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access