Cattle (colloquially cows) are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the genus Bos, and are most commonly classified collectively as Bos primigenius. Cattle are raised as livestock for meat, as dairy animals for milk and other dairy products, and as draft animals (oxen / bullocks). Other products include leather and dung for manure or fuel.
Feral cattle (Bos taurus) are escaped or released domestic animals. Unless well contained by adequate fences, they form feral herds and wander into native vegetation wherever suitable food is available. They can severely modify native vegetation by browsing, crushing and trampling. In native forests they invariably lay bare the forest floor and eliminate nearly all young trees, shrubs and ferns until only a few unpalatable or browse-resistant species remain. In subalpine environments feral cattle open up clearings by breaking down and browsing low-canopied vegetation.