Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Artiodactyla > Bovidae > Bos > Bos grunniens

Bos grunniens (yak; grunting ox)


EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 6.99
EDGE Score: 3.46


Adult Weight [1]  1,470.49 lbs (667.00 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  39.68 lbs (18.00 kg)
Female Maturity [1]  2 years
Male Maturity [1]  2 years
Diet [2]  Herbivore
Diet - Plants [2]  100 %
Forages - Ground [2]  100 %
Gestation [1]  9 months 4 days
Litter Size [1]  1
Litters / Year [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [1]  26 years
Weaning [1]  7 months 18 days


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Central Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
North Tibetan Plateau-Kunlun Mountains alpine desert China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Nujiang Langcang Gorge alpine conifer and mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Qaidam Basin semi-desert China Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Qilian Mountains subalpine meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southeast Tibet shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Taklimakan desert China Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tarim Basin deciduous forests and steppe China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tibetan Plateau alpine shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Yarlung Tsangpo arid steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Aerjinshan Nature Reserve 11119742 China      
Ajar Valley Wildlife Sanctuary Wildlife Reserve IV 158064 Afghanistan  
Kekexili Nature Reserve 11119742 China      
Mount Everest (Sagarmatha) National Park II 275416 Nepal
Qiangtang Nature Reserve 73637404 China      

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Mountains of Southwest China China, Myanmar No


Canis lupus (Wolf)[3]
Homo sapiens (man)[3]
Uncia uncia (Snow leopard)[4]


Parasitized by 
Bunostomum phlebotomum[5]
Capillaria bovis[5]
Cotylophoron cotylophorum <Unverified Name>[5]
Dorcadia ioffi[6]
Echinococcus granulosus[5]
Explanatum explanatum <Unverified Name>[5]
Fischoederius cobboldi <Unverified Name>[5]
Gastrothylax crumenifer <Unverified Name>[5]
Mecistocirrus digitatus <Unverified Name>[5]
Taenia multiceps <Unverified Name>[5]
Trichostrongylus qinghaiensis <Unverified Name>[5]
Trichuris globulosa[5]
Vermipsylla alakurt[6]
Vermipsylla parallela[6]
Vermipsylla parallela parallela[6]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
African Safarigrunniens
Almaty State Zoo of Kazakhstan
Badoca Safari Park
Bowmanville Zoological Park
Denver Zoological Gardensgrunniens
Detroit Zoological Societygrunniens
DSI Givskud Zoogrunniens
Granby Zoo / Zoo de Granbygrunniens
Greater Vancouver Zoogrunniens
Highland Wildlife Park
Himalayan Zoological Park (Sikkim Zoo)grunniens
Joboland Brandesgardshaven
Jyllands Park Zoogrunniens
Kaliningrad Zoo
Kazan Zoological & Botanical Gardengrunniens
Knuthenborg Safaripark
Kolmardens Djurpark AB
Le Pal, Parc Animalier
Lee Richardson Zoogrunniens
Münchener Tierpark Hellabrunngrunniens
Menagerie du Jardin des Plantesgrunniens
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Warsaw
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Wybrzeza
Monde Sauvage Safari SPRL
Moscow Zoological Parkgrunniens
Municipal Independent Org. Roev Rucheimutus
Nikolaev Zoo of Nikolaev-City Council
Noah's Ark Zoo Farmgrunniens
Novosibirsk Zoological Parkmutus
Nyíregyházi Állatpark Nonprofit KFTgrunniens domestic
Ouwehand Zoogrunniens
Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zool. Park
Parc Safari / F.A.P.S.grunniens
Parque de la Naturaleza de Cabarceno
Patronato del Parque Zoologico de Leon
Permskii Zoologicheskii Sadgrunniens
Planete Sauvage
Podkrusnohorsky Zoopark Chomutov
Potter Park Zoological Gardensgrunniens
Riga Zoogrunniens
Riverview Park & Zoogrunniens
Rostock Zoologischer Gartengrunniens
Safaripark Beekse Bergengrunniens
San Diego Zoogrunniens
Sedgwick County Zoogrunniens
Tallinn Zoogrunniens
Tautphaus Park Zoo
Tbilisi Zoo
Terra Natura S.A.
Thuringer Zoopark Erfurtgrunniens domestic
Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde GmbHgrunniens
Toronto Zoogrunniens
Trotter's World of Animalsgrunniens
Turtle Back Zoogrunniens
Utica Zoo
Virginia Safari Park & Preserv Ctr,Inc
West Midland Safari & Leisure Park Ltd
Whipsnade Wild Animal Parkgrunniens
Wild Animal Park Mechelen Planckendaelgrunniens
Wildlife Safari Inc
Zoo Aquarium de Madrid (GRPR)grunniens
Zoo New England, Stone Zoogrunniens
Zoo Safari Swierkocin
Zoo Sauvage de St-Félicien
Zoologicka Zahrada Bratislavamutus
Zoologicka Zahrada Kosicegrunniens
Zoologicka Zahrada Mesta Brnagrunniens
Zoologischer Garten Halle GmbHgrunniens
Zoologischer Garten Saarbrueckengrunniens domestic


Southern Asia;



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
4RUKHSANA KHATOON, (2010) DIET SELECTION OF SNOW LEOPARD (Uncia uncia) IN CHITRAL AREA Master of Philosophy Thesis, Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
5Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
6International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Le Saout, S., Hoffmann, M., Shi, Y., Hughes, A., Bernard, C., Brooks, T.M., Bertzky, B., Butchart, S.H.M., Stuart, S.N., Badman, T. & Rodrigues, A.S.L. (2013) Protected areas and effective biodiversity conservation. Science, 342, 803–805
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access