Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Artiodactyla > Bovidae > Bos frontalis > Bos frontalis gaurus
 

Bos frontalis gaurus (gaur; gayal)

Synonyms: Bos gaurus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
3
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Not determined do to incomplete vulnerability data.
ED Score: 7.59

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  1,818.82 lbs (825.00 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  50.71 lbs (23.00 kg)
Female Maturity [1]  1 year 7 months
Male Maturity [1]  1 year 6 months
Gestation [1]  9 months 5 days
Litter Size [1]  1
Litters / Year [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [1]  26 years
Weaning [1]  4 months 17 days

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cardamom Mountains rain forests Cambodia, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central Indochina dry forests Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chao Phraya lowland moist deciduous forests Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma montane forests Myanmar, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Deccan thorn scrub forests India, Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Indochina mangroves Thailand, Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Irrawaddy dry forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Irrawaddy moist deciduous forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Kayah-Karen montane rain forests Myanmar, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Luang Prabang montane rain forests Laos, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Meghalaya subtropical forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests Myanmar, India, Bangladesh Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Myanmar Coast mangroves India, Myanmar, Malaysia, Thailand Indo-Malayan Mangroves  
Myanmar coastal rain forests Myanmar, Bangladesh Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Narmada Valley dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northeast India-Myanmar pine forests India, Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Northern Annamites rain forests Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Northern Indochina subtropical forests China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Khorat Plateau moist deciduous forests Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Thailand-Laos moist deciduous forests Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Triangle subtropical forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Vietnam lowland rain forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Nujiang Langcang Gorge alpine conifer and mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Peninsular Malaysian montane rain forests Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peninsular Malaysian peat swamp forests Malaysia, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peninsular Malaysian rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Red River freshwater swamp forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forests China, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern Indochina dry evergreen forests Viet Nam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southern Annamites montane rain forests Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern Vietnam lowland dry forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Tenasserim-South Thailand semi-evergreen rain forests Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tonle Sap freshwater swamp forests Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tonle Sap-Mekong peat swamp forests Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Yunnan Plateau subtropical evergreen forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Alaungdaw Kathapa National Park II 421336 Myanmar  
Bandhavgarh National Park II 89210 Madhya Pradesh, India  
Bukit Kutu Wildlife Reserve IV 4602 Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Cat Tien National Park II 188942 Viet Nam
Dong Ampham National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 496673 Laos  
Dong Hua Sao National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 236373 Laos  
Eravikulam National Park II 39436 Kerala, India
Erawan National Park II 131204 Thailand
Hin Namno National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 214373 Laos  
Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary IV 699629 Thailand  
Indravati Tiger Reserve   Chhattishgarh, India      
Kaeng Krachan National Park II 753452 Thailand
Kanha Tiger Reserve National Park II 223971 Madhya Pradesh, India
Khammouane Limestone National Biodiversity Conservation National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 558864 Laos  
Khao Ang Ru Nai Wildlife Sanctuary IV 248699 Thailand  
Khao Soi Dao Wildlife Sanctuary IV 182353 Thailand  
Khao Sok National Park II 159284 Thailand
Khao Yai National Park II 542694 Thailand
Khaoen Si Nakarin National Park II 459154 Thailand
Khlong Lan National Park II 104466 Thailand
Khlong Nakha Wildlife Sanctuary IV 117887 Thailand  
Khlong Saeng Wildlife Sanctuary IV 243425 Thailand  
Krau Wildlife Reserve IV 149823 Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Kudremukh National Park II 202772 Karnataka, India  
Mae Tuen Wildlife Sanctuary IV 307947 Thailand  
Mae Wong National Park II 221459 Thailand
Manas National Park II 135025 Assam, India
Naga Hills Game Reserve   Myanmar      
Nakai-Nam Theun National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 878205 Laos  
Nam Ha National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 539941 Laos  
Nam Kading National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 419016 Laos  
Nam Phoun National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 439874 Laos  
Nam Xam National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 186111 Laos  
Namdapha National Park II   Arunachal Pradesh, India
Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve 1364022 India  
Om Koi Wildlife Sanctuary IV 299357 Thailand  
Palamau Tiger Reserve National Park II 329056 Bihar, India
Pang Sida National Park II 211956 Thailand
Phou Khao Khoay National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 447452 Laos  
Phou Loey National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 376767 Laos  
Phou Xang He National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 285962 Laos  
Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary IV 391278 Thailand  
Phu Luang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 227671 Thailand  
Phu Phan National Park II 176082 Thailand
Pidaung Wildlife Sanctuary III 244241 Myanmar  
Rajiv Gandhi (Nagarahole) National Park II 155253 Karnataka, India  
Royal Chitwan National Park II 292637 Nepal  
Sai Yok National Park II 235556 Thailand
Salawin National Park II 400497 Thailand
Shwe U Daung Reserve Wildlife Sanctuary III 21583 Myanmar  
Simlipal Tiger Reserve National Park II 103465 Orissa, India  
Taman Negara National Park II 1122273 Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Tamor Pingla Sanctuary IV 148780 Chhattishgarh, India  
Thap Lan National Park II 550979 Thailand
Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary IV 918234 Thailand  
Umphang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 619152 Thailand  
Xe Pian National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 645271 Laos  
Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve V 567531 Yunnan, China  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Mountains of Southwest China China, Myanmar No
Sundaland Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand No
Western Ghats and Sri Lanka India, Sri Lanka No

Emblem of

Arunachal Pradesh
Bihar
Goa

Prey / Diet

Anacardium occidentale (cashew)[2]
Arundinella leptochloa[2]
Bauhinia racemosa (Mayila)[2]
Butea monosperma (Bastard Teak)[2]
Cassia fistula (Pudding-pipe Tree)[2]
Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver)[2]
Cordia myxa (Assyrian plum)[2]
Cynodon dactylon (manienie)[2]
Cyperus rotundus (nutgrass)[2]
Dendrocalamus strictus (male bamboo)[2]
Desmodium triflorum (Creeping Tick Trefoil)[2]
Dillenia pentagyna[2]
Gardenia latifolia[2]
Gmelina arborea (gumhar)[2]
Grewia abutifolia[2]
Grewia tiliifolia[2]
Helicteres isora[2]
Mallotus nudiflorus[3]
Phyllanthus emblica (emblic)[2]
Strobilanthes ixiocephalus[2]
Strobilanthes zeylanica[2]
Symplocos racemosa[2]
Tamilnadia uliginosa[2]
Tectona grandis (teak)[2]
Terminalia paniculata[2]
Urena lobata (aramina)[2]
Vitex negundo (negundo chastetree)[2]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acridotheres tristis (Common Myna)1
Alophoixus ochraceus (Ochraceous Bulbul)1
Axis axis (chital)2
Axis porcinus (hog deer)2
Boselaphus tragocamelus (nilgai)2
Canis aureus (Golden Jackal)1
Cinnyris asiaticus (Purple sunbird)1
Cynopterus sphinx (greater short-nosed fruit bat)1
Dicrurus macrocercus (Black Drongo)1
Elephas maximus (Asiatic Elephant)4
Gazella gazella (mountain gazelle)1
Megalaima viridis (White-cheeked Barbet)1
Melursus ursinus (Sloth Bear)1
Muntiacus muntjak (Indian muntjac)1
Nycticebus coucang (slow Loris)1
Pavo cristatus (Indian Peafowl)1
Pteropus giganteus (Indian flying fox)1
Rhinoceros unicornis (Indian rhinoceros)3
Rousettus leschenaultii (Leschenault's rousette)1
Rusa unicolor (sambar)3
Semnopithecus entellus (Hanuman langur)1
Tatera indica (Indian gerbil)1
Trachypithecus pileatus (capped leaf monkey)2
Turdoides striata (Bengal jungle babbler)1

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Fischoederius cobboldi <Unverified Name>[4]
Fischoederius elongatus <Unverified Name>[4]
Homalogaster paloniae <Unverified Name>[4]
Mycobacterium avium (Mycobacterium avium)[5]
Paramphistomum epiclitum <Unverified Name>[4]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Africam Safari (Africam, S. A.)gaurus
Bannerghatta Biological Parkgaurus
Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservat'n Society
Gladys Porter Zoo
 gaurus
International Animal Exchange, Inc.
Khao Kheow Open Zoo
 frontalis
 hubbacki
 readei
Kharkiv Zoo
Lee Richardson Zoo
 gaurus
Lichtenburg Game Breeding Center
Münchener Tierpark Hellabrunngaurus
Menagerie du Jardin des Plantesgaurus
Miami Metrozoogaurus
Nakhon Ratchasima Zool. Park
Nehru Zoological Parkgaurus
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo
 gaurus
Parc de la Haute Touche (MNHN)gaurus
Parc Safari / F.A.P.S.
 gaurus
Rajiv Gandhi Zoological Parkgaurus
San Diego Wild Animal Parkgaurus
Singapore Zoological Gardens
Sri Chamarajendra Zoo (Mysore Zoo)
 gaurus
Tallinn Zoogaurus
Terra Natura S.A.
Thoiry Zoological Parkgaurus
Tiergarten Heidelbergfrontalis
Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde GmbHfrontalis
Toronto Zoo
Westfalischer Zoologischer Gtn Munstergaurus
Whipsnade Wild Animal Parkgaurus
Zoo Dortmundgaurus
Zoo Melakahubbacki

Distribution

Southern Asia;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Studies on the food and feeding habits of Gaur Bos gaurus H. Smith (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Bovidae) in two protected areas of Goa, Suman D. Gad & S.K. Shyama, Journal of Threatened Taxa | 1(2): 128-130 | February 2009
3FRUITS RHINOCEROS EAT: DISPERSAL OF TREWIA NUDIFLORA (EUPHORBIACEAE) IN LOWLAND NEPAL, Eric Dinerstein and Chris M. Wemmer, Ecology, 69(6), 1988, pp. 1768-1774
4Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
5Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access