Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Artiodactyla > Bovidae > Syncerus > Syncerus caffer
 

Syncerus caffer (African buffalo; Cape buffalo)

Wikipedia Abstract

The African buffalo or Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer), is a large African bovine. It is not closely related to the slightly larger wild Asian water buffalo, and its ancestry remains unclear. Syncerus caffer caffer, the Cape buffalo, is the typical subspecies, and the largest one, found in South and East Africa. S. c. nanus (forest buffalo) is the smallest subspecies, common in forest areas of Central and West Africa while S. c. brachyceros is in West Africa and S. c.
View Wikipedia Record: Syncerus caffer

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
6
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
30
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 13.96
EDGE Score: 2.71

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  1,543.24 lbs (700.00 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  97.00 lbs (44.00 kg)
Female Maturity [1]  4 years
Male Maturity [1]  4 years 7 months
Gestation [1]  11 months 1 day
Litter Size [1]  1
Litters / Year [1]  0
Maximum Longevity [1]  30 years
Weaning [1]  9 months 19 days

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Albertine Rift montane forests Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi,Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Angolan Miombo woodlands Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Angolan montane forest-grassland mosaic Angola Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Angolan Scarp savanna and woodlands Angola Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Atlantic Equatorial coastal forests Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central Congolian lowland forests Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Zambia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Drakensberg montane grasslands, woodlands and forests South Africa, Swaziland, Lesotho Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
East African halophytics Tanzania Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
East African montane forests Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
East Sudanian savanna Chad, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Arc forests Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Congolian swamp forests Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Guinean forests Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Togo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Mozambique Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Guinean forest-savanna mosaic Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Guinea-Bissau, Gambia, Senegal Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Guinean montane forests Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Itigi-Sumbu thicket Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Maputaland-Pondoland bushland and thickets South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Northeastern Congolian lowland forests Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gabon, Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Central African Republic, Cameroon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northwestern Congolian lowland forests Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Rwenzori-Virunga montane moorlands Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Rwanda Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Saharan flooded grasslands Sudan Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Serengeti volcanic grasslands Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
South Malawi montane forest-grassland mosaic Malawi, Mozambique Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Miombo woodlands Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Rift montane forest-grassland mosaic Malawi, Tanzania Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Victoria Basin forest-savanna mosaic Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
West Sudanian savanna Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Niger, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Gabon, Congo, Democratic Rep of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Congolian swamp forests Democratic Republic of the Congo, Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Guinean lowland forests Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Zambezian grasslands Angola, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian and Mopane woodlands South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Namibia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian Baikiaea woodlands Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian coastal flooded savanna Mozambique Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Zambezian Cryptosepalum dry forests Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Zambezian flooded grasslands Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Addo Elephant National Park II 348463 Eastern Cape, South Africa
Amboseli National Park National Reserve II 99624 Kenya
Bamingui-Bangoran Conservation Area National Park II 2783298 Central African Republic  
Bia National Park II 76804 Ghana    
Dinder National Park II 2088300 Sudan  
East Usambara Biosphere Reserve 222395 Tanzania  
Gombe National Park II 8799 Tanzania
Kahuzi-Biéga National Park II 1647768 Democratic Republic of the Congo  
Kibale National Park II 196202 Uganda
Kora National Park II 409762 Kenya
Kruger National Park II 4718115 Mpumalanga, South Africa
Kruger to Canyons Biosphere Reserve   Mpumalanga, South Africa  
Lake Manyara National Park II 78767 Tanzania  
Lake Nakuru National Park II 46472 Kenya  
Mahale Mountains National Park II 398414 Tanzania
Mamili National Park II 83904 Namibia  
Moremi Game Reserve IV 1214686 Botswana  
Mount Elgon National Park II 276135 Uganda
Mount Kenya Biosphere Reserve II 146694 Kenya
Nouabalï-Ndoki National Park II 1013529 Congo  
Parc National d'Odzala National Park II 3423581 Congo  
Parc National de la Benoue National Park II 414262 Cameroon  
Parc National de la Comoe National Park II 2902593 Côte d'Ivoire  
Parc National de Tai National Park II 1085310 Côte d'Ivoire  
Parc National des Volcans National Park II 45380 Rwanda  
Parc National du Niokolo-Koba National Park II 2046878 Senegal  
Queen Elizabeth National Park II 522052 Uganda
Radom National Park II   Sudan  
Reserve de la Biosphere de la Pendjari Biosphere Reserve 217453 Benin  
Reserve de la Biosphere des Monts Nimba Biosphere Reserve 358797 Guinea  
Reserve Forestiere et de Faune du Dja Wildlife Reserve IV 1551322 Cameroon  
Reserve Naturelle Integrale d'Ipassa-Makokou Biosphere Reserve 37066 Gabon  
Serengeti-Ngorongoro Biosphere Reserve 5696026 Tanzania  
South Luangwa National Park II 2220358 Zambia  
Takamanda National Park II 167041 Cameroon  
Tsavo East National Park II 3232255 Kenya

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania No
Eastern Afromontane Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe No
Guinean Forests of West Africa Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Togo No
Horn of Africa Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Yemen No
Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland No

Prey / Diet

Cenchrus ciliaris (Buffel Grass)[2]
Chloris virgata (feather windmill grass)[2]
Cymbopogon caesius[2]
Cymbopogon pospischilii[2]
Digitaria eriantha (pangolagrass)[2]
Eragrostis ciliaris (gophertail lovegrass)[2]
Eragrostis cylindriflora (cylinderflower lovegrass)[2]
Eragrostis superba (Wilman lovegrass)[2]
Gilbertiodendron dewevrei[3]
Heteropogon contortus (tangelhead)[2]
Ischaemum koenigii[2]
Panicum coloratum (klinegrass)[2]
Panicum maximum (Guinea Grass)[2]
Pogonarthria squarrosa[2]
Schmidtia pappophoroides[2]
Sporobolus ioclados (pan dropseed)[2]
Themeda triandra (red grass)[2]
Tricholaena monachne[2]
Urochloa mosambicensis (African liverseed grass)[2]
Urochloa oligotricha[2]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aepyceros melampus (impala)2
Antidorcas marsupialis (springbok)6
Camelus dromedarius (dromedary)1
Cephalophus natalensis (Natal duiker)2
Connochaetes taurinus (blue wildebeest)5
Equus grevyi (Grevy's zebra)1
Equus quagga (quagga)2
Equus quagga burchellii (Burchell's zebra)1
Equus zebra (mountain zebra)4
Kobus ellipsiprymnus (waterbuck)3
Neotragus moschatus (suni)2
Ourebia ourebi (oribi)2
Papio hamadryas (hamadryas baboon)2
Phacochoerus africanus (warthog)1
Redunca arundinum (southern reedbuck)1
Redunca redunca (Bohar reedbuck)3
Stigmochelys pardalis (Leopard Tortoise)1
Sylvicapra grimmia (bush duiker)2

Predators

Crocuta crocuta (Spotted Hyena)[3]
Panthera leo (Lion)[4]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Agriostomum gorgonis <Unverified Name>[5]
Amblyomma hebraeum (Bont tick)[6]
Ashworthius lerouxi <Unverified Name>[5]
Avitellina centripunctata[5]
Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax bacterium)[6]
Bothriophoron bothriophoron <Unverified Name>[5]
Brucella melitensis (Brucella / Brucellosis)[6]
Calicophoron bothriophoron <Unverified Name>[5]
Calicophoron calicophorum[5]
Calicophoron clavula <Unverified Name>[5]
Calicophoron microbothrium <Unverified Name>[5]
Calicophoron phillerouxi <Unverified Name>[5]
Calicophoron raja <Unverified Name>[5]
Calicophoron sukari <Unverified Name>[5]
Calicophoron sukumum <Unverified Name>[5]
Carmyerius endopapillatus <Unverified Name>[5]
Carmyerius exoporus <Unverified Name>[5]
Carmyerius graberi <Unverified Name>[5]
Carmyerius gregarius <Unverified Name>[5]
Carmyerius mancupatus <Unverified Name>[5]
Carmyerius papillatus <Unverified Name>[5]
Carmyerius parvipapillatus <Unverified Name>[5]
Carmyerius schoutedeni <Unverified Name>[5]
Carmyerius spatiosus <Unverified Name>[5]
Cooperia fuelleborni <Unverified Name>[5]
Cooperia hungi <Unverified Name>[5]
Cooperia pectinata[5]
Cooperia punctata[5]
Cotylophoron cotylophorum <Unverified Name>[5]
Cotylophoron fuelleborni <Unverified Name>[5]
Cotylophoron macrosphinctris <Unverified Name>[5]
Echinococcus granulosus[5]
Ehrlichia ruminantium[6]
Elaeophora poeli <Unverified Name>[5]
Elaeophora sagittus <Unverified Name>[5]
Gastrothylax crumenifer <Unverified Name>[5]
Gigantocotyle gigantocotyle <Unverified Name>[5]
Gigantocotyle symmeri <Unverified Name>[5]
Gongylonema pulchrum[5]
Haematopinus bufali[3]
Haemonchus bedfordi[5]
Haemonchus contortus (red stomach worm)[5]
Impalaia tuberculata <Unverified Name>[5]
Leiperocotyle gretillati <Unverified Name>[5]
Leptospira interrogans[6]
Longistrongylus meyeri <Unverified Name>[5]
Moniezia benedeni <Unverified Name>[5]
Moniezia expansa (sheep tapeworm)[5]
Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine tuberculosis)[6]
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Tuberculosis - MTB)[6]
Orthocoelium scoliocoelium <Unverified Name>[5]
Paramphistomum cervi[5]
Paramphistomum clavula <Unverified Name>[5]
Paramphistomum microbothrium[5]
Paramphistomum phillerouxi <Unverified Name>[5]
Rhipicephalus glabroscutatum (Smooth brown tick)[6]
Setaria africana <Unverified Name>[5]
Setaria bicoronata <Unverified Name>[5]
Setaria labiatopapillosa <Unverified Name>[5]
Stephanopharynx coilos <Unverified Name>[5]
Stephanopharynx compactus <Unverified Name>[5]
Stilesia hepatica <Unverified Name>[5]
Taenia acinonyxi <Unverified Name>[5]
Taenia crocutae <Unverified Name>[5]
Taenia gonyamai <Unverified Name>[5]
Taenia hyaenae <Unverified Name>[5]
Toxocara manzadiensis <Unverified Name>[5]
Trichuris barbertonensis <Unverified Name>[5]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Africa Alive!nanus
Africam Safari (Africam, S. A.)
Al Bustan Zoological Center
Badoca Safari Parknanus
Boras Djurpark Zoocaffer
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Gardennanus
CERZA Centre d'Etude Rech Zool Augeronnanus
Chicago Zoological Parknanus
Denver Zoological Gardens
 caffer
Dept. of National Zoological Gardens
DSI Givskud Zoocaffer
Emerald Safari Resortcaffer
 nanus
Greater Vancouver Zoo
 caffer
Guadalajara Zoo
International Animal Exchange, Inc.
 caffer
Jardim Zoologico / Lisbon Zoocaffer
 nanus
Johannesburg Zoological Gardenscaffer
Knowsley Safari Park
 nanus
Marwell Wildlifenanus
Mokopane Biodiversity Conservation Centrecaffer
Nakhon Ratchasima Zool. Park
Nat'l Zoological Gardens of S. Africacaffer
 nanus
North of England Zoological Societynanus
Oasys Parque del Desierto de Tabernas
Parc Zoologic de Barcelonananus
Patronato del Parque Zoologico de Leon
Reserve Africaine de Sigeannanus
Safari West
 caffer
Safaripark Beekse Bergencaffer
 nanus
San Diego Wild Animal Park
 caffer
San Diego Zoonanus
Singapore Zoological Gardenscaffer
Tiergarten der Stadt Nürnberg
Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde GmbHcaffer
 nanus
Tulsa Zoo & Living Museumcaffer
Valencia Bioparc, Rainforest S.A.nanus
Werribee Open Range Zoonanus
West Midland Safari & Leisure Park Ltdcaffer
Western Plains Zoonanus
Woburn Safari Parknanus
Zoo Aquarium de Madrid (GRPR)nanus
Zoo Dresden GmbHnanus
Zoo Dvur Kralove, a.s.caffer
 nanus
Zoo of Antwerpcaffer
Zoologischer Garten Augsburg GmbHnanus
Zoologischer Garten Magdeburgnanus

Range Map

Africa; Takamanda Forest Reserve; Tsavo National Park;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Forage selection by African buffalo in the late dry season in two landscapes, Valerio A. Macandza, Norman Owen-Smith & Paul C. Cross, South African Journal of Wildlife Research 34(2): 113–121 (October 2004) 3Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 4Predator–prey size relationships in an African large-mammal food web, Norman Owen-Smith and M. G. L. Mills, Journal of Animal Ecology Volume 77, Issue 1, Pages 173-183 5Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 6Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access