Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Artiodactyla > Bovidae > Sylvicapra > Sylvicapra grimmia
 

Sylvicapra grimmia (bush duiker; gray duiker)

Wikipedia Abstract

The common duiker, Sylvicapra grimmia, also known as the grey or bush duiker, is a small antelope with small horns found in west, central, east, and southern Africa- essentially everywhere in Africa south of the Sahara, excluding the Horn of Africa and the rainforests of the central and western parts of the continent. Generally, they are found in habitats with sufficient vegetation cover to allow them to hide—savanna and hilly areas, including the fringes of human settlements.
View Wikipedia Record: Sylvicapra grimmia

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
2
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
20
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 6.88
EDGE Score: 2.06

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  40.79 lbs (18.50 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  3.55 lbs (1.61 kg)
Female Maturity [1]  8 months 15 days
Male Maturity [1]  8 months 15 days
Diet [2]  Carnivore (Vertebrates), Frugivore, Herbivore
Diet - Endothermic [2]  10 %
Diet - Fruit [2]  20 %
Diet - Plants [2]  70 %
Forages - Ground [2]  100 %
Gestation [1]  5 months 15 days
Litter Size [1]  1
Litters / Year [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [1]  15 years
Nocturnal [2]  Yes
Weaning [1]  6 months 11 days

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Albany thickets South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Angolan Miombo woodlands Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Angolan montane forest-grassland mosaic Angola Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Angolan Mopane woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Angolan Scarp savanna and woodlands Angola Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Zambia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Drakensberg alti-montane grasslands and woodlands South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Drakensberg montane grasslands, woodlands and forests South Africa, Swaziland, Lesotho Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
East African halophytics Tanzania Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
East Sudanian savanna Chad, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Mozambique Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Zimbabwe montane forest-grassland mosaic Zimbabwe, Mozambique Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Ethiopian montane forests Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Etosha Pan halophytics Namibia Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Guinean forest-savanna mosaic Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Guinea-Bissau, Gambia, Senegal Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Highveld grasslands South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Inner Niger Delta flooded savanna Mali Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Itigi-Sumbu thicket Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kalahari Acacia-Baikiaea woodlands Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kalahari xeric savanna Botswana, Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
KwaZulu-Cape coastal forest mosaic South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Lake Chad flooded savanna Nigeria, Chad, Niger Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Lowland fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mandara Plateau mosaic Cameroon, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Maputaland coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Maputaland-Pondoland bushland and thickets South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Montane fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Nama Karoo Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Namibian savanna woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Northern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Central African Republic, Cameroon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Rwenzori-Virunga montane moorlands Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Rwanda Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Saharan flooded grasslands Sudan Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Sahelian Acacia savanna Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Serengeti volcanic grasslands Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
South Malawi montane forest-grassland mosaic Malawi, Mozambique Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Africa bushveld Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Miombo woodlands Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Rift montane forest-grassland mosaic Malawi, Tanzania Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Succulent Karoo Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Victoria Basin forest-savanna mosaic Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
West Sudanian savanna Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Niger, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Gabon, Congo, Democratic Rep of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Zambezian grasslands Angola, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian and Mopane woodlands South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Namibia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian Baikiaea woodlands Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian coastal flooded savanna Mozambique Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Zambezian Cryptosepalum dry forests Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Zambezian flooded grasslands Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Zambezian halophytics Mozambique, Botswana Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Amboseli National Park National Reserve II 99624 Kenya
Bamingui-Bangoran Conservation Area National Park II 2783298 Central African Republic  
Bontebok National Park II 8315 Western Cape, South Africa
Cape West Coast Biosphere Reserve 934651 Western Cape, South Africa
Etosha National Park II 5699141 Namibia  
Foret Classee de la Mare Aux Hippopotames Bird Reserve IV 37906 Burkina Faso  
Garamba National Park II 1237963 Democratic Republic of the Congo  
Golden Gate Highlands National Park II 28689 Free State, South Africa
Itala Game Reserve Provincial Nature Reserve II 72822 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Kalahari Gemsbok National Park II 2382284 Northern Cape, South Africa
Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve II 256073 Western Cape, South Africa  
Kruger National Park II 4718115 Mpumalanga, South Africa
Kruger to Canyons Biosphere Reserve   Mpumalanga, South Africa  
Lake Manyara National Park II 78767 Tanzania  
Mahale Mountains National Park II 398414 Tanzania
Malolotja Nature Reserve IV 42044 Swaziland  
Mamili National Park II 83904 Namibia  
Mkhaya Game Reserve   Swaziland  
Mlawula Nature Reserve IV 46444 Swaziland  
Mount Kenya Biosphere Reserve II 146694 Kenya
Namib-Naukluft National Park II 12585619 Namibia  
Naute Dam Recreational Resort V 58352 Namibia  
Nechisar National Park II 256137 Ethiopia  
Omo Strict Natural Reserve Forest Reserve 328086 Nigeria  
Parc National d'Odzala National Park II 3423581 Congo  
Parc National de la Benoue National Park II 414262 Cameroon  
Parc National de la Comoe National Park II 2902593 Côte d'Ivoire  
Parc National du Niokolo-Koba National Park II 2046878 Senegal  
Queen Elizabeth National Park II 522052 Uganda
Reserve de la Biosphere de la Pendjari Biosphere Reserve 217453 Benin  
Richtersveld National Park II 399195 Northern Cape, South Africa
Skeleton Coast Game Park II 4168395 Namibia  
Tsavo East National Park II 3232255 Kenya
Weenen Nature Reserve   Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Cape Floristic Region South Africa No
Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania No
Eastern Afromontane Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe No
Horn of Africa Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Yemen No
Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland No
Succulent Karoo Namibia, South Africa No

Prey / Diet

Afzelia quanzensis (Mahogany Bean)[3]
Albizia adianthifolia (West African albizzia)[3]
Aloidendron barberae (Tree aloe)[3]
Andropogon eucomus[3]
Apodytes dimidiata (White Pear)[3]
Artabotrys brachypetalus[3]
Balanites maughamii (manduro)[3]
Bridelia micrantha (Coastal Golden-leaf)[3]
Capparis tomentosa (Woolly Caper Bush)[3]
Commiphora neglecta (Sweet-root Corkwood)[3]
Cymbopogon caesius[3]
Dichrostachys cinerea (aroma)[3]
Digitaria longiflora (Indian crabgrass)[3]
Echinochloa pyramidalis (antelope grass)[3]
Euclea natalensis[3]
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indiantree spurge)[3]
Ficus sycomorus (sycamore fig)[3]
Manihot esculenta (cassava)[3]
Mimusops caffra[3]
Salacia kraussii[3]
Scutia myrtina (Cat-thorn)[3]
Sesuvium portulacastrum (shoreline seapurslane)[3]
Setaria incrassata[3]
Shirakiopsis elliptica[3]
Strychnos innocua[3]
Terminalia argentea[3]
Themeda triandra (red grass)[3]
Vachellia karroo (karroothorn)[3]
Vachellia nilotica (Gum Arabic Tree)[4]
Vachellia tortilis (umbrella thorn)[4]
Ziziphus mucronata (Buffalo Thorn)[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aepyceros melampus (impala)1
Afropavo congensis (Congo Peafowl)1
Amblyospiza albifrons (Thick-billed Weaver)1
Antidorcas marsupialis (springbok)2
Arizelocichla masukuensis (Shelley's Greenbul)1
Baeopogon indicator (Honeyguide Greenbul)1
Buccanodon duchaillui (Yellow-spotted Barbet)1
Bycanistes bucinator (Trumpeter Hornbill)1
Bycanistes subcylindricus (Grey-cheeked Hornbill)1
Cephalophus natalensis (Natal duiker)22
Cercopithecus ascanius (black-cheeked white-nosed monkey)1
Cercopithecus mitis (blue monkey)1
Cheirogaleus major (greater dwarf lemur)1
Cheirogaleus medius (fat-tailed dwarf lemur)1
Chlorocebus aethiops (vervet monkey)1
Chlorocichla laetissima (Joyful Greenbul)1
Cinnyricinclus leucogaster (Violet-backed Starling)2
Civettictis civetta (African Civet)1
Colobus guereza (Guereza)1
Connochaetes taurinus (blue wildebeest)2
Corythaeola cristata (Great Blue Turaco)1
Corythaixoides concolor (Grey Go-away-bird)1
Cossypha humeralis (White-throated Robin-Chat)1
Crithagra mozambica (Yellow-fronted Canary)2
Crithagra sulphurata (Brimstone Canary)1
Cyanomitra veroxii (Mouse-coloured sunbird)1
Dendrohyrax arboreus (Southern Tree Hyrax)1
Epomophorus wahlbergi (Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat)1
Equus quagga (quagga)1
Equus quagga burchellii (Burchell's zebra)1
Equus zebra (mountain zebra)2
Eulemur fulvus (brown lemur)2
Euplectes jacksoni (Jackson's Widowbird)1
Euplectes progne (Long-tailed Widowbird)1
Eurillas latirostris (Yellow-whiskered Greenbul)1
Galago senegalensis (Senegal galago)1
Guttera pucherani (Crested Guineafowl)1
Gymnobucco bonapartei (Grey-throated Barbet)1
Heliosciurus rufobrachium (red-legged sun squirrel)1
Hippopotamus amphibius (hippopotamus)2
Kobus ellipsiprymnus (waterbuck)1
Lamprotornis bicolor (Pied Starling)1
Lamprotornis hildebrandti (Hildebrandt's Starling)1
Lamprotornis nitens (Cape Starling)1
Lamprotornis purpuroptera (Ruppell's long-tailed starling)1
Lamprotornis superbus (Superb Starling)1
Lemur catta (ring-tailed lemur)1
Loxodonta africana (African Bush Elephant)9
Lybius bidentatus (Double-toothed Barbet)1
Lybius torquatus (Black-collared Barbet)1
Microcebus rufus (brown mouse lemur)1
Musophaga rossae (Ross's Turaco)1
Neotragus moschatus (suni)25
Notopholia corrusca (Black-bellied Starling)2
Onychognathus morio (Red-winged Starling)1
Onychognathus tenuirostris (Slender-billed Starling)1
Onychognathus walleri (Waller's Starling)2
Oriolus brachyrynchus (Western Oriole)1
Otolemur crassicaudatus (greater galago)2
Ourebia ourebi (oribi)1
Papio hamadryas (hamadryas baboon)1
Parus niger (Southern Black Tit)1
Phyllastrephus cabanisi (Cabanis's Greenbul)1
Phyllastrephus hypochloris (Toro Olive Greenbul)1
Ploceus bicolor (Dark-backed Weaver)1
Ploceus subaureus (African Golden Weaver)1
Pogoniulus bilineatus (Yellow-rumped Tinkerbird)1
Poicephalus meyeri (Meyer's Parrot)1
Poicephalus robustus (Cape Parrot)1
Propithecus verreauxi (Verreaux's sifaka)1
Pycnonotus barbatus (Common Bulbul)1
Quelea quelea (Red-billed Quelea)1
Redunca redunca (Bohar reedbuck)1
Rousettus aegyptiacus (Egyptian rousette)1
Stactolaema leucotis (White-eared Barbet)1
Stelgidillas gracilirostris (Slender-billed Greenbul)1
Stigmochelys pardalis (Leopard Tortoise)1
Sylvia atricapilla (Eurasian Blackcap)1
Syncerus caffer (African buffalo)2
Tauraco corythaix (Knysna Turaco)1
Tauraco porphyreolophus (Purple-crested Turaco)1
Taurotragus oryx (eland)1
Trachylaemus purpuratus (yellow-billed barbet)1
Tragelaphus strepsiceros (greater kudu)1
Treron australis (Madagascar Green Pigeon)1
Treron calvus (African Green Pigeon)2
Turdoides sharpei (Black-lored Babbler)1
Turdus pelios (African Thrush)1
Turtur tympanistria (Tambourine Dove)1
Zosterops senegalensis (African Yellow White-eye)1

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Amblyomma hebraeum (Bont tick)[5]
Avitellina aegyptiaca <Unverified Name>[6]
Avitellina centripunctata[6]
Cooperia fuelleborni <Unverified Name>[6]
Cooperia hungi <Unverified Name>[6]
Cooperia rotundispiculum <Unverified Name>[6]
Cooperioides hamiltoni <Unverified Name>[6]
Cotylophoron cotylophorum <Unverified Name>[6]
Ctenocephalides felis (Cat flea)[5]
Dukerostrongylus kenyae <Unverified Name>[6]
Echinococcus granulosus[6]
Haemaphysalis aciculifer (East African eyeless tick)[5]
Haemonchus contortus (red stomach worm)[6]
Haemonchus vegliai <Unverified Name>[6]
Hyalomma truncatum (Shiny Hyalomma)[5]
Impalaia nudicollis <Unverified Name>[6]
Impalaia tuberculata <Unverified Name>[6]
Ixodes pilosus (Bush tick)[5]
Linognathus breviceps[5]
Linognathus zumpti[5]
Lipoptena paradoxa[5]
Longistrongylus sabie[6]
Nematodirus abnormalis[6]
Nematodirus spathiger[6]
Oesophagostomum columbianum[6]
Oesophagostomum multifoliatum <Unverified Name>[6]
Pygarginema africana <Unverified Name>[6]
Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Brown ear tick)[5]
Rhipicephalus decoloratus (African blue tick)[5]
Rhipicephalus glabroscutatum (Smooth brown tick)[5]
Rhipicephalus lunulatus[5]
Rhipicephalus microplus (Asian blue tick)[5]
Rhipicephalus muehlensi (Nyala tick)[5]
Setaria africana <Unverified Name>[6]
Setaria gaillardi <Unverified Name>[6]
Setaria hornbyi <Unverified Name>[6]
Setaria saegeri <Unverified Name>[6]
Setaria scalprum <Unverified Name>[6]
Skrjabinodera kuelzii <Unverified Name>[6]
Stilesia globipunctata <Unverified Name>[6]
Stilesia hepatica <Unverified Name>[6]
Strongyloides papillosus[6]
Taenia acinonyxi <Unverified Name>[6]
Taenia crocutae <Unverified Name>[6]
Taenia hyaenae <Unverified Name>[6]
Teladorsagia circumcincta <Unverified Name>[6]
Trichostrongylus axei[6]
Trichostrongylus colubriformis[6]
Trichostrongylus deflexus[6]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Al Bustan Zoological Centercaffra
Emerald Safari Resort
Johannesburg Zoological Gardens
Lichtenburg Game Breeding Center
Marwell Zimbabwe Trust
Mokopane Biodiversity Conservation Centre
Montecasino Bird Gardens
San Diego Zoo
 caffra
Tampa's Lowry Park Zoocaffra
Tygerberg Zooparkcaffra

Range Map

Africa; Tsavo National Park;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Co-existence and niche segregation of three small bovid species in southern Mozambique, Herbert H.T. Prins, Willem F. de Boer, Herman van Oeveren, Augusto Correia, Jorge Mafuca and Han Olff, 2006 East African Wild Life Society, Afr. J. Ecol., 44, 186–198
4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
5Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2.
6Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access