Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Rosales > Moraceae > Morus > Morus alba

Morus alba (mulberry; white mulberry)

Synonyms: Morus alba f. nigrobacca; Morus alba f. tatarica; Morus alba var. atropurpurea; Morus alba var. tatarica; Morus arabica; Morus atropurpurea; Morus bullata; Morus byzantina; Morus chinensis; Morus colombassa; Morus constantinopolitana; Morus cucullata; Morus dulcis; Morus fastigiata; Morus furcata; Morus guzziola; Morus heterophylla; Morus hispanica; Morus intermedia; Morus italica; Morus japonica; Morus kaki; Morus laciniata; Morus latifolia; Morus levasseurei; Morus lhou; Morus lucida; Morus macrophylla; Morus mariettii; Morus membranacea; Morus moretti; Morus morettiana; Morus nana; Morus nervosa; Morus nigriformis; Morus patavia; Morus patavina; Morus pumila; Morus romana; Morus rubra; Morus serotina; Morus serrata; Morus sinensis; Morus stylosa; Morus subalba; Morus tatarica; Morus tokwa; Morus tortuosa; Morus venassaini; Morus venosa

Wikipedia Abstract

Morus alba, known as white mulberry, is a short-lived, fast-growing, small to medium-sized mulberry tree, which grows to 10–20 m tall. The species is native to northern China, and is widely cultivated and naturalized elsewhere (United States, Mexico, Australia, Kyrgyzstan, Argentina, etc.).
View Wikipedia Record: Morus alba


Invasive Species

Morus alba, or white mulberry, is native to China and has become invasive in the United States, Canada, South America, and South Africa. It hybridizes with and replaces red mulberry (Morus rubra) in Ontario where it is endangered, and in the United States. M. alba is also known to displace native vegetation and problematic in urban and disturbed environments.
View ISSG Record: Morus alba


Height [3]  59 feet (18 m)
Width [3]  33 feet (10 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  High
Carbon Capture [1]  Low
Screening - Summer [2]  Moderate
Screening - Winter [2]  Porous
Shade Percentage [1]  86 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 5 Low Temperature: -20 F° (-28.9 C°) → -10 F° (-23.3 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 9 Low Temperature: 20 F° (-6.7 C°) → 30 F° (-1.1 C°)
Light Preference [2]  Mixed Sun/Shade
Soil Acidity [2]  Moderate Acid
Soil Fertility [2]  Infertile
Water Use [1]  Moderate
Flower Color [2]  Green
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Purple
Fruit Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Bloom Period [2]  Early Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  Medium
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  Low
Flower Type [3]  Monoecious
Frost Free Days [2]  4 months 10 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Spring
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Summer
Growth Form [2]  Single Stem
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Moderate
Hazards [3]  One report suggests that the raw fruit contains hallucinogens; This fruit is frequently eaten in various parts of the world, there are even some named varieties, and no such effects have been mentioned elsewhere, nor observed by the writer when he has eaten the fruit. Possibly the unripe fruit was being referred to in the report, though even this would be surprising;
Janka Hardness [4]  1540 lbf (699 kgf) Medium
Leaf Type [3]  Deciduous
Lifespan [2]  Perennial
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Cutting, Seed
Root Depth [2]  24 inches (61 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Moderate
Seed Vigor [2]  High
Seeds Per [2]  235000 / lb (518086 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Rounded
Specific Gravity [5]  0.58
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  A fibre is obtained from the bark of one-year old stems, it is used in weaving; The stem bark is fibrous and is used in China and Europe for paper making; The twigs are used as binding material and for making baskets; A brown dye is obtained from the trunk; The leaves contain 10% tannin; This tree can be grown as a part of a shelterbelt. The cultivar 'Tartarica' has been especially mentioned; The wood of the mulberry is a potentially excellent source of ethanol, with yields of up to 6% from sawdust treated with acid and then given four days incubation; Wood - light to moderately heavy, hard, durable, fine and close-grained, though it shows a tendency to warp. Due to its elasticity and flexibility when steamed, it is valued for making sports equipment such as tennis rackets and cricket bats, being considered as good as ash (Fraxinus excelsior); It is also used for boat building, furniture, agricultural implements etc; It furnishes a medium grade fuel wood;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Morus alba

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Arches National Park II 76539 Utah, United States
Assateague Island National Seashore II 8621 Maryland, United States
Blue Ridge Parkway National Parkway V 73611 North Carolina, Virginia, United States
Canaveral National Seashore II 9090 Florida, United States
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
El Palmar National Park II   Entre Rios, Argentina  
Fort Donelson National Battlefield III 560 Tennessee, United States
Fort Larned National Historic Site III 706 Kansas, United States
Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania Nat'l Military Park National Military Park V 10384 Virginia, United States
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge VI 3161 New Jersey, United States
Herbert Hoover National Historic Site   Iowa, United States
Homestead National Monument of America V 850 Nebraska, United States
Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site III 861 Pennsylvania, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Khopersky Zapovednik Ia 47103 Russia  
Morristown National Historical Park VI 1677 New Jersey, United States
Nez Perce National Historical Park V 2076 Idaho, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Oconee National Forest Botanical Reserve 306 Georgia, United States  
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Parco Del Somma-Vesuvio e Miglio D'Oro National Park II 33648 Italy
Petersburg National Battlefield III 3338 Virginia, United States
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Richmond National Battlefield Park III 1517 Virginia, United States
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Roosevelt Vanderbilt National Historic Site   New York, United States      
Saratoga National Historical Park   New York, United States
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Ukrainskii Stepnoi Zapovednik Nature Zapovednik Ia 2920 Ukraine  
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Valley Forge National Historical Park VI 3509 Pennsylvania, United States
Western Michigan University's Asylum Lake Preserve 274 Michigan, United States
Zion National Park II 135667 Utah, United States


Aceria mori <Unverified Name>[6]
Acria emarginella[7]
Adoxophyes orana (Summer Fruit Tortrix)[7]
Aleurodicus dugesii[8]
Aonidiella aurantii (California red scale)[9]
Aonidiella orientalis (Oriental Scale)[9]
Arna bipunctapex[7]
Aspidiotus nerii (ivy scale)[6]
Atrococcus fuscus[9]
Automeris cinctistriga[7]
Bombyx mori (silk moth)[7]
Boselaphus tragocamelus (nilgai)[10]
Cadra figulilella (Raisin Moth)[7]
Calinaga buddha (Freak)[8]
Carales astur[7]
Ceroplastes ceriferus (Indian wax scale)[9]
Ceroplastes pseudoceriferus (Indian wax scale)[9]
Ceroplastes rubens (pink wax scale)[9]
Ceroplastes rusci (barnacle wax scale)[9]
Cervus elaphus hanglu (Kashmir stag)[11]
Cletus bipunctatus[8]
Coccidohystrix insolita (eggplant mealybug)[9]
Coccus longulus (long brown scale)[9]
Crisicoccus matsumotoi[9]
Crisicoccus moricola[9]
Ctenopseustis obliquana[12]
Drosicha maskelli[9]
Drosicha turkestanica[9]
Dysmicoccus brevipes (pineapple mealybug)[9]
Euproctis sulphurescens[7]
Euzophera semifuneralis[7]
Ferrisia virgata (grey mealybug)[9]
Halysidota interlineata[7]
Heliococcus destructor[9]
Hemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale)[9]
Hemiberlesia rapax (greedy scale)[9]
Icerya aegyptiaca[9]
Icerya purchasi (cottony cushion scale)[9]
Imbrasia dione[7]
Labdia semicoccinea[7]
Lepidosaphes conchiformis (fig oystershell scale)[9]
Lepidosaphes kuwacola[9]
Lepidosaphes tubulorum (tube scale)[9]
Lepidosaphes ulmi (apple oystershell scale)[6]
Lepidosaphes yanagicola (firebush scale)[9]
Maconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug)[9]
Marpesia chiron (Daggerwing)[7]
Martes foina (Beech Marten)[13]
Megapulvinaria maxima[9]
Neonectria coccinea[8]
Nipaecoccus viridis (karoo thorn mealybug)[9]
Olethreutes hemiplaca[7]
Olethreutes mori[7]
Olethreutes morivora[7]
Parabemisia myricae (bayberry whitefly)[14]
Parasaissetia nigra (nigra scale)[6]
Parlatoria crypta (mango white scale)[9]
Parlatoria oleae (olive parlatoria scale)[9]
Peliococcus kimmericus[9]
Penicillaria nugatrix[7]
Phenacoccus solenopsis (solenopsis mealybug)[9]
Planococcus kraunhiae (Japanese mealybug)[9]
Planococcus minor (Pacific mealybug)[9]
Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli (false oleander scale)[9]
Pseudaulacaspis kiushiuensis[9]
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale)[9]
Pseudococcus comstocki (Comstock mealybug)[9]
Pulvinaria hydrangeae (cottony hydrangea scale)[9]
Pulvinaria kuwacola[9]
Pulvinaria psidii (green shield scale)[9]
Rhinopithecus roxellana (Golden Snub-nosed Monkey)[15]
Riptortus linearis[8]
Rothschildia aurota[7]
Saharaspis ceardi[9]
Spilococcus mori[9]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Kew Millennium Seed Bank Partnership


North America; Oceania; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
5Jérôme Chave, Helene C. Muller-Landau, Timothy R. Baker, Tomás A. Easdale, Hans ter Steege, Campbell O. Webb, 2006. Regional and phylogenetic variation of wood density across 2,456 neotropical tree species. Ecological Applications 16(6), 2356 - 2367
6Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
7HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
8Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
9Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
10Boselaphus tragocamelus, DAVID M. LESLIE, JR., MAMMALIAN SPECIES 813:1–16 (2008)
11Diets of Hangul Deer Cervus elaphus hanglu (Cetartiodactyla: Cervidae) in Dachigam National Park, Kashmir, India, G. Mustafa Shah, Ulfat Jan, Bilal A. Bhat & Fayaz A. Ahangar, Journal of Threatened Taxa | July 2009 | 1(7): 398-400
12New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
13Dimitrios E. Bakaloudis, Christos G. Vlachos, Malamati A. Papakosta, Vasileios A. Bontzorlos, and Evangelos N. Chatzinikos, Diet Composition and Feeding Strategies of the Stone Marten (Martes foina) in a Typical Mediterranean Ecosystem The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2012, Article ID 163920, 11 pages, 2012
14Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana) (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae: Aleyrodinae), Avas B. Hamon, Ru Nguyen, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, and Harold Browning, University of Florida, June 2000. Latest revision: August 2014
15Seasonal Variation of Diet and Food Availability in a Group of Sichuan Snub-Nosed Monkeys in Shennongjia Nature Reserve, China; Li Yiming; American Journal of Primatology 68:217–233 (2006)
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Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access