Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Fagales > Juglandaceae > Carya > Carya cordiformis
 

Carya cordiformis (bitternut hickory)

Synonyms: Carya amara; Carya cordiformis var. latifolia; Carya minima; Hicorius amara; Hicorius cordiformis; Hicorius minima; Hicorius minimus; Scoria minima

Wikipedia Abstract

Carya cordiformis, the Bitternut Hickory, also called bitternut or swamp hickory, is a large pecan hickory with commercial stands located mostly north of the other pecan hickories. Bitternut hickory is cut and sold in mixture with the true hickories. It is the shortest lived of the hickories, living to about 200 years.
View Wikipedia Record: Carya cordiformis

Attributes

Height [3]  82 feet (25 m)
Width [3]  49 feet (15 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  High
Carbon Capture [1]  Medium-High
Screening - Summer [2]  Dense
Screening - Winter [2]  Porous
Shade Percentage [1]  77 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 4 Low Temperature: -30 F° (-34.4 C°) → -20 F° (-28.9 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 9 Low Temperature: 20 F° (-6.7 C°) → 30 F° (-1.1 C°)
Light Preference [2]  Full Sun
Soil Acidity [2]  Neutral
Soil Fertility [2]  Intermediate
Water Use [1]  Moderate
Flower Color [2]  Green
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Fall Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Fruit Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Bloom Period [2]  Mid Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  High
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  Medium
Flower Type [3]  Monoecious
Frost Free Days [2]  4 months
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  Medium
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Fall
Growth Form [2]  Single Stem
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Slow
Leaf Type [3]  Deciduous
Lifespan [2]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Seed
Root Depth [2]  4.2 feet (127 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Slow
Seed Vigor [2]  Low
Seeds Per [2]  156 / lb (344 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Erect
Specific Gravity [4]  0.66
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  An oil expressed from the seeds has been used as an illuminant in oil lamps; Often used as a potted stock for grafting varieties of pecans (C. illinoensis); Wood - heavy, very hard, strong, elastic, tough, close grained; It weighs 47lb per cubic foot; Although the wood tends to be brittle, it has an amazing quality of shock-resistance and is used for hoops, tool handles etc, though it is considered to be inferior to other hickories; A very good fuel, burning well and giving off a lot of heat;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Carya cordiformis

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Allegheny Portage Railroad Nat'l Hist. Site National Historic Site III 1152 Pennsylvania, United States
Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area National Recreation Area V 120283 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Blue Ridge Parkway National Parkway V 73611 North Carolina, Virginia, United States
Bluestone National Scenic River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 3517 West Virginia, United States
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Catoctin Mountain Park National Park II 5994 Maryland, United States
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 19586 Maryland, District of Columbia, United States
Chickamauga & Chattanooga Nat'l Military Park National Military Park V 8248 Georgia, Tennessee, United States
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Cumberland Gap National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 24282 Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, United States
Desecheo National Wildlife Refuge   Puerto Rico, United States
Fort Donelson National Battlefield III 560 Tennessee, United States
Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania Nat'l Military Park National Military Park V 10384 Virginia, United States
Friendship Hill National Historic Site III 697 Pennsylvania, United States
Gauley River National Recreation Area V 10157 West Virginia, United States
George Washington Birthplace National Monument V 435 Virginia, United States
George Washington Memorial Parkway V   Virginia, United States
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Harpers Ferry National Historical Park VI 715 West Virginia, United States
Hobcaw Barony (North Inlet) National Estuarine Research Reserve 7585 South Carolina, United States
Horseshoe Bend National Military Park V 1926 Alabama, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
National Capital Parks - Central National Park   District of Columbia, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Obed Wild and Scenic River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 5268 Tennessee, United States
Oconee National Forest Botanical Reserve 306 Georgia, United States  
Petersburg National Battlefield III 3338 Virginia, United States
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Prince William Forest Park 19378 District of Columbia, United States
Rock Creek Park   District of Columbia, United States
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Roosevelt Vanderbilt National Historic Site   New York, United States      
Saint Lawrence Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
Shiloh National Military Park III 4061 Tennessee, United States
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Tennessee River Gorge   Tennessee, United States
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Valley Forge National Historical Park VI 3509 Pennsylvania, United States
Western Michigan University's Asylum Lake Preserve 274 Michigan, United States

Predators

Acrobasis angusella[5]
Acrobasis caryae[5]
Acrobasis caryivorella[5]
Acrobasis juglandis (Pecan leaf casebearer)[5]
Acrobasis kearfottella[5]
Amorpha juglandis (Walnut Sphinx)[5]
Amphipyra pyramidoides (copper underwing)[5]
Argyrotaenia juglandana[5]
Cameraria caryaefoliella[5]
Castor canadensis (american beaver)[6]
Coleophora ostryae[5]
Datana integerrima (walnut caterpillar)[5]
Datana ministra (yellownecked caterpillar)[5]
Dysmicoccus morrisoni (Morrison mealybug)[7]
Euclea delphinii (spiny oak slug)[5]
Eurycoccus blanchardii (variable mealybug)[7]
Lithophane bethunei[5]
Lophocampa caryae (hickory tussock moth)[5]
Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)[8]
Malacosoma americana (Eastern tent caterpillar)[5]
Toumeyella liriodendri (tuliptree scale)[7]
Xanthotype sospeta[5]

Range Map

North America; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database. 2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture 3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License 4Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service 5HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández 6Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 7Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009 8Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access