Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Fagales > Juglandaceae > Juglans > Juglans cinerea
 

Juglans cinerea (butternut)

Synonyms: Juglans cathartica; Juglans oblonga; Nux cinerea; Wallia cinerea

Wikipedia Abstract

Juglans cinerea, commonly known as butternut or white walnut, is a species of walnut native to the eastern United States and southeast Canada.
View Wikipedia Record: Juglans cinerea

Attributes

Height [3]  82 feet (25 m)
Width [3]  66 feet (20 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  High
Carbon Capture [1]  Medium
Screening - Summer [2]  Moderate
Screening - Winter [2]  Porous
Shade Percentage [1]  91 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 4 Low Temperature: -30 F° (-34.4 C°) → -20 F° (-28.9 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 7 Low Temperature: 0 F° (-17.8 C°) → 10 F° (-12.2 C°)
Light Preference [2]  Full Sun
Soil Acidity [2]  Neutral
Soil Fertility [2]  Intermediate
Water Use [1]  Moderate
Flower Color [2]  Green
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Fall Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Fruit Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Bloom Period [2]  Late Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  Low
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  Low
Flower Type [3]  Monoecious
Frost Free Days [2]  3 months 15 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  Medium
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Fall
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Winter
Growth Form [2]  Single Stem
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Rapid
Hazards [2]  Slight Toxicity
Janka Hardness [4]  490 lbf (222 kgf) Very Soft
Leaf Type [3]  Deciduous
Lifespan [2]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Seed
Root Depth [2]  3.3 feet (102 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Slow
Seed Vigor [2]  High
Seeds Per [2]  30 / lb (66 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Erect
Specific Gravity [5]  0.38
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  A yellow to orange dye is obtained from the seed husks; It is dark brown; It does not require a mordant; The seed husks can be dried and stored for later use; A light brown dye is obtained from the young twigs, leaves, buds and unripe fruit; It does not require a mordant; The leaves can also be dried and stored for later use; A black dye is obtained from the young roots; Plants produce chemicals which can inhibit the growth of other plants. These chemicals are dissolved out of the leaves when it rains and are washed down to the ground below, reducing the growth of plants under the tree; The roots of this species produce substances that are toxic to many plant species, especially apples (Malus species), members of the Ericaceae, Potentilla spp and the white pines (certain Pinus spp.); Wood - coarse-grained, light, soft, not strong, very attractive; It weighs 25lb per cubic foot; It is not as valuable a crop as the black walnut (J. nigra), but is used indoors for furniture, doors etc;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Juglans cinerea

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Allegheny Portage Railroad Nat'l Hist. Site National Historic Site III 1152 Pennsylvania, United States
Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area National Recreation Area V 120283 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area V 36286 Montana, Wyoming, United States
Blue Ridge Parkway National Parkway V 73611 North Carolina, Virginia, United States
Bluestone National Scenic River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 3517 West Virginia, United States
Bruce Peninsula National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Calvin College Ecosystem Preserve 90 Michigan, United States
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Catoctin Mountain Park National Park II 5994 Maryland, United States
Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 19586 Maryland, District of Columbia, United States
Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   North Carolina, United States
Cumberland Gap National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 24282 Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, United States
Friendship Hill National Historic Site III 697 Pennsylvania, United States
Gauley River National Recreation Area V 10157 West Virginia, United States
Georgian Bay Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Grand Rapids Audubon Club Maher Sanctuary 80 Michigan, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Harpers Ferry National Historical Park VI 715 West Virginia, United States
Horseshoe Bend National Military Park V 1926 Alabama, United States
Hubbard Brook Biosphere Reserve 7809 New Hampshire, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Johnstown Flood National Memorial VI 175 Pennsylvania, United States
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Morristown National Historical Park VI 1677 New Jersey, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Obed Wild and Scenic River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 5268 Tennessee, United States
Oconee National Forest Botanical Reserve 306 Georgia, United States  
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Prince William Forest Park 19378 District of Columbia, United States
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Saint Lawrence Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Saratoga National Historical Park   New York, United States
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Tennessee River Gorge   Tennessee, United States
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States

Predators

Achatia distincta (Distinct Quaker)[6]
Acrobasis juglandis (Pecan leaf casebearer)[6]
Acrobasis kearfottella[6]
Actias luna (luna moth)[6]
Alsophila pometaria (fall cankerworm)[6]
Amorpha juglandis (Walnut Sphinx)[6]
Amphipyra pyramidoides (copper underwing)[6]
Baileya dormitans[6]
Baileya ophthalmica[6]
Cameraria caryaefoliella[6]
Chionaspis furfura (Harris's bark-louse)[7]
Chionaspis lintneri (Lintner scale)[7]
Citheronia regalis (Regal moth/hickory horned devil)[6]
Citheronia splendens (Splendid Royal Moth)[6]
Crocigrapha normani[6]
Datana angusii[6]
Datana integerrima (walnut caterpillar)[6]
Dryocampa rubicunda (Rosy Maple Moth)[6]
Eupsilia tristigmata[6]
Gluphisia septentrionis[6]
Gretchena bolliana (Pecan Bud Moth)[6]
Lepidosaphes ulmi (apple oystershell scale)[7]
Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)[8]
Machimia tentoriferella (Gold-striped Leaftier Moth)[6]
Phigalia titea (Spiny Looper)[6]
Satyrium calanus (Banded hairstreak)[6]
Schizura concinna (redhumped caterpillar)[6]
Schizura leptinoides[6]
Tetracis cachexiata (White Slant-line)[6]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum[9]

Range Map

North America;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
5Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service
6HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
7Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
8Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
9Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access