Plantae > Tracheophyta > Liliopsida > Poales > Poaceae > Dactylis > Dactylis glomerata

Dactylis glomerata (orchardgrass; orchard grass; cocksfoot)

Synonyms: Bromus glomeratus; Festuca glomerata; Koeleria dactylis; Limnetis glomerata; Phalaris glomerata; Trachypoa vulgaris

Wikipedia Abstract

Dactylis glomerata, also known as cock's-foot, orchard grass, or cat grass (due to its popularity for use with domestic cats) is a common species of grass in the genus Dactylis. It is a cool-season perennial C3 bunchgrass native throughout most of Europe, temperate Asia, and northern Africa.
View Wikipedia Record: Dactylis glomerata



Height [3]  39 inches (1 m)
Width [3]  10 inches (0.25 m)
Allergen Potential [1]  High
Screening - Summer [2]  Dense
Screening - Winter [2]  Porous
Hardiness Zone Minimum [2]  USDA Zone: 3 Low Temperature: -40 F° (-40 C°) → -30 F° (-34.4 C°)
Light Preference [4]  Mostly Sunny
Soil Acidity [4]  Neutral
Soil Fertility [4]  Intermediate
Soil Moisture [4]  Moist
Water Use [2]  Moderate
Flower Color [2]  Yellow
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Bloom Period [2]  Mid Spring
Dispersal Mode [5]  Anemochory, Zoochory
Drought Tolerance [2]  Medium
Fire Tolerance [2]  Medium
Flower Type [3]  Hermaphrodite
Frost Free Days [2]  4 months
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Spring
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Summer
Growth Form [2]  Bunch
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Fall
Growth Rate [2]  Moderate
Hazards [3]  This plant is an important cause of hayfever;
Leaf Type [3]  Evergreen
Lifespan [3]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Seed
Regrowth Rate [2]  Moderate
Root Depth [2]  12 inches (30 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Slow
Seed Vigor [2]  High
Seeds Per [2]  427199 / lb (941814 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Erect
Structure [6]  Grass
Usage [3]  Plants form impenetrably dense clumps and when planted close together in drifts make an excellent ground cover; Having a deep root system, the plant is also useful for checking soil erosion; The plant can be grown for biomass, annual productivity ranges from 2 to 37 tonnes per hectare; If soil fertility is low, a large portion of the total production occurs in the spring, but if the soil is highly fertile, production is well distributed throughout the growing season;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Dactylis glomerata

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Agate Fossil Beds National Monument V 4731 Nebraska, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Arches National Park II 76539 Utah, United States
Assateague Island National Seashore II 8621 Maryland, United States
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Basegi Zapovednik Ia 93739 Perm, Russia
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berchtesgaden Alps National Park II 51433 Germany
Berwyn a Mynyddoedd de Clwyd/ Berwyn and South Clwyd Mountains 67265 Wales, United Kingdom
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area National Recreation Area V 120283 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area V 36286 Montana, Wyoming, United States
Blue Ridge Parkway National Parkway V 73611 North Carolina, Virginia, United States
Bolshekhekhtsirsky Zapovednik Ia 112282 Khabarovsk, Russia
Bosco Cupolicchio (Tricarico) 4280 Italy  
Cairnsmore of Fleet, Silver Flowe, and Merrick Kells Biosphere Reserve 8794 Scotland, United Kingdom
Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands 354692 Scotland, United Kingdom
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Cedar Breaks National Monument III 6111 Utah, United States
Central Plains Biosphere Reserve 15345 United States  
Chickamauga & Chattanooga Nat'l Military Park National Military Park V 8248 Georgia, Tennessee, United States
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Coram Biosphere Reserve 7460 Montana, United States
Crater Lake National Park II 180091 Oregon, United States
Cumberland Gap National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 24282 Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, United States
Desert Biosphere Reserve 68236 Utah, United States
Dorset Heaths 14161 England, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes 5491 England, United Kingdom
Fire Island National Seashore V 9433 New York, United States
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fraser Biosphere Reserve 23050 Colorado, United States  
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Glacier National Park II 953799 Montana, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge VI 3161 New Jersey, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
H.J. Andrews Biosphere Reserve 15815 Oregon, United States
Ilmensky Zapovednik Ia 84955 Chelyabinsk, Russia
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Isles of Scilly Complex 66350 England, United Kingdom    
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Katunsky Biosphere Reserve 393162 Altai, Russia
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Kedrovaya Pad Zapovednik Ia 44224 Primorsky Krai , Russia
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kenfig/ Cynffig 2945 Wales, United Kingdom
Khopersky Zapovednik Ia 47103 Russia  
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Lago Puelo National Park II 47607 Chubut, Argentina
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Lands End and Cape Bank 74557 England, United Kingdom  
Lanín National Park II 536819 Neuquen, Argentina
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Limestone Coast of South West Wales/ Arfordir Calchfaen de Orllewin Cymru 3940 Wales, United Kingdom  
Lizard Point 34565 England, United Kingdom    
Lochs Duich, Long and Alsh Reefs 5883 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Los Alerces National Park II 463045 Chubut, Argentina  
Los Glaciares National Park II 1329020 Santa Cruz, Argentina
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
Lyme Bay and Torbay 77215 England, United Kingdom
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Merrick Kells 21494 Scotland, United Kingdom
Moor House – Upper Teesdale 95867 England, United Kingdom
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Nahuel Huapi National Park II 759703 Argentina  
Natural Bridges National Monument III 7412 Utah, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
North Pennine Moors 254789 England, United Kingdom
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
Obed Wild and Scenic River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 5268 Tennessee, United States
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Parco Del Somma-Vesuvio e Miglio D'Oro National Park II 33648 Italy
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Salisbury Plain 52975 England, United Kingdom
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Shiloh National Military Park III 4061 Tennessee, United States
South Wight Maritime 49082 England, United Kingdom
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
Tsentral'no-Chernozemny Biosphere Reserve Ia 13064 Kursk, Russia
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Valley Forge National Historical Park VI 3509 Pennsylvania, United States
Volcán Irazú National Park II 4954 Costa Rica
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada
Zhuvintas Zapovednik 18223 Lithuania  
Zion National Park II 135667 Utah, United States



Abacarus hystrix (cereal rust mite)[7]
Adarrus ocellaris <Unverified Name>[7]
Agromyza cinerascens[7]
Agromyza nigrella[7]
Agromyza rondensis[7]
Alternaria infectoria[8]
Amphipoea oculea (Ear Moth)[7]
Ancylolomia tentaculella[7]
Anoecia krizusi[7]
Anser albifrons (Greater White-fronted Goose)[8]
Anthomyza elbergi[8]
Antonina graminis (felted grass coccid)[9]
Apamea anceps (Large Nutmeg)[7]
Apamea crenata (Clouded-bordered Brindle)[7]
Apamea epomidion[7]
Apamea monoglypha (Dark Arches)[7]
Apamea sordens[7]
Aphantopus hyperantus (Ringlet Butterfly)[10]
Aphidura pannonica cretacea[7]
Arethusana arethusa (False Grayling)[8]
Arthaldeus pascuellus <Unverified Name>[7]
Arthrinium arundinis[8]
Ascochyta graminea[8]
Balanococcus danthoniae[11]
Balanococcus poae[11]
Blumeria graminis[10]
Calamia tridens (Burren Green)[7]
Callistege mi (Mother Shipton Moth)[7]
Cercopis vulnerata (Black & Red Froghopper)[10]
Cerodontha flavocingulata[7]
Cerodontha incisa[7]
Cerodontha pygmaea[7]
Chaetocnema hortensis <Unverified Name>[7]
Chloephaga picta (Upland Goose)[8]
Chlorops hypostigma[7]
Cintococcus cinti[9]
Claviceps purpurea[10]
Clytra quadripunctata <Unverified Name>[7]
Coleophora lixella[7]
Contarinia dactylidis[7]
Contarinia geniculati[7]
Cosmiotes freyerella[7]
Costelytra zealandica[11]
Creontiades dilutus[8]
Cygnus columbianus (Tundra Swan)[8]
Dasineura dactylidis[7]
Deltocephalus pulicaris[7]
Dicranotropis hamata[7]
Dolerus niger <Unverified Name>[10]
Doratura stylata <Unverified Name>[7]
Dysmicoccus walkeri (Walker's mealybug)[9]
Elachista albifrontella <Unverified Name>[7]
Elachista apicipunctella[7]
Elachista argentella[7]
Elachista atricomella[7]
Elachista gangabella[7]
Elachista luticomella[7]
Elachista megerlella[7]
Elachista monosemiella <Unverified Name>[7]
Elachista unifasciella[7]
Elymana sulphurella[7]
Erebia aethiops (Scotch Argus)[7]
Eremobia ochroleuca (Dusky Sallow)[7]
Eriococcus acutus[9]
Eriococcus insignis (remarkable felt scale)[9]
Eriopeltis festucae (cottony grass scale)[9]
Eriophyes tenuis <Unverified Name>[7]
Euciodes suturalis[11]
Euptychia cymela (Little wood satyr)[12]
Eurycoccus antiscius[9]
Euscelis incisus <Unverified Name>[7]
Euscelis lineolatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Euthrix potatoria (Drinker Moth)[10]
Exaeretopus formiceticola (woodrush soft scale)[9]
Fonscolombia graminis[9]
Fonscolombia tomlinii <Unverified Name>[9]
Forda pawlowae[7]
Glyphipterix achlyoessa <Unverified Name>[11]
Glyphipterix simpliciella (Cocksfoot Moth)[10]
Haplodiplosis marginata[7]
Helcystogramma lutatella[7]
Helcystogramma rufescens[7]
Heliophobus reticulata (Bordered Gothic)[7]
Heterococcopsis opertus[9]
Heterococcus nudus (naked grass-mealybug)[9]
Hilberina dactylina[8]
Hipparchia fidia (Striped Grayling)[8]
Hipparchia semele (Grayling)[8]
Hipparchia statilinus (Tree Grayling)[8]
Hyalopteroides humilis[10]
Hybolasioptera cerealis <Unverified Name>[7]
Hybolasioptera fasciata[7]
Jacksonia papillata[7]
Javesella pellucida[7]
Laingia psammae[7]
Lasiommata megera <Unverified Name>[10]
Lasioptera calamagrostidis[7]
Lecanopsis subterranea (Borchsenius' grass scale)[9]
Lecanopsis turcica[9]
Leptopterna dolabrata (meadow plant bug)[10]
Lepus granatensis (Granada Hare)[13]
Liriomyza flaveola[7]
Listronotus bonariensis <Unverified Name>[11]
Luzulaspis dactylis (Green's soft scale)[9]
Luzulaspis scotica (scottish soft scale)[9]
Macrosteles laevis[7]
Macrosteles variatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Maniola jurtina (Meadow Brown Butterfly)[7]
Mayetiola dactylidis[7]
Melanaphis pyraria[7]
Melanargia galathea (Marbled White)[7]
Melanargia lachesis (Iberian Marbled White)[8]
Melitaea cinxia (Glanville Fritillary)[7]
Meromyza femorata[7]
Meromyza variegata[7]
Mesapamea didyma (Lesser Common Rustic Moth)[7]
Mesapamea secalis (Common Rustic)[7]
Mesoligia literosa[7]
Metopolophium fasciatum[10]
Metopolophium festucae[7]
Mocydiopsis parvicauda[7]
Mycosphaerella recutita[8]
Mythimna albipuncta <Unverified Name>[7]
Mythimna comma <Unverified Name>[7]
Mythimna conigera <Unverified Name>[7]
Mythimna favicolor <Unverified Name>[7]
Mythimna impura <Unverified Name>[7]
Mythimna loreyi <Unverified Name>[7]
Mythimna pallens <Unverified Name>[10]
Mythimna pudorina <Unverified Name>[7]
Mythimna putrescens <Unverified Name>[7]
Mythimna turca (Double Line)[7]
Mythimna unipuncta <Unverified Name>[7]
Mythimna vitellina <Unverified Name>[7]
Neophilaenus lineatus[10]
Noctua orbona (Lunar Yellow Underwing)[7]
Ochlodes venata[7]
Ochsenheimeria mediopectinellus[7]
Odontria striata[11]
Oligia latruncula (Tawny Marbled Minor)[7]
Oligia strigilis (Marbled Minor)[7]
Oligia versicolor (Rufous Minor)[7]
Omphaloscelis lunosa (Lunar Underwing Moth)[7]
Orocrambus flexuosellus[11]
Ortheziola vejdovskyi (moss ensign scale)[9]
Oscinella maura[10]
Oscinella nitidissima[7]
Pachetra sagittigera (Feathered Ear)[7]
Paradiarsia glareosa (Autumnal Rustic)[7]
Pararge aegeria (Speckled Wood Butterfly)[10]
Parasyrphus annulatus[10]
Peliococcus balteatus (girdled mealybug)[9]
Phenacoccus interruptus (Green's mealybug)[9]
Philudoria potatoria <Unverified Name>[7]
Photedes extrema (Concolorous)[7]
Phyllobius vespertinus[7]
Phytomyza nigra[7]
Poanes zabulon (Zabulon Skipper)[8]
Poaspis intermedia[9]
Polydrusus cervinus[10]
Proteuxoa comma[11]
Psammotettix confinis[7]
Puto pilosellae (hairy mealybug)[9]
Puto superbus (superb mealybug)[9]
Pyronia tithonus (Gatekeeper)[7]
Rhizoecus distinctus[9]
Rhopalomyzus poae[7]
Rhopalus parumpunctatus[7]
Ribautodelphax angulosus[7]
Satyrus actaea (Black Satyr)[8]
Sitobion avenae (English grain aphid)[8]
Sitobion miscanthi (Grain aphid)[11]
Sitodiplosis dactylidis[7]
Stagonospora subseriata[8]
Steingelia gorodetskia[7]
Stenocranus sapporensis[7]
Stenodema laevigatum <Unverified Name>[7]
Stenotus binotatus (Two-spotted Grass Bug)[7]
Stiphrosoma laetum[8]
Stiphrosoma sabulosum[8]
Streptanus sordidus <Unverified Name>[7]
Taiwanaphis niuginii[7]
Tenthredo maculata <Unverified Name>[7]
Tenthredopsis litterata <Unverified Name>[10]
Tenthredopsis nassata <Unverified Name>[10]
Tetramesa longula[7]
Thricops semicinerea <Unverified Name>[7]
Thymelicus lineola (European skipper)[10]
Thymelicus sylvestris (Small Skipper)[7]
Trichoderma spinulosum[8]
Trionymus dactylis[9]
Trionymus pietranerae[9]
Trionymus tangi <Unverified Name>[9]
Typhula incarnata[8]
Urocitellus columbianus (Columbian ground squirrel)[14]
Utamphorophora humboldti[7]
Vittacoccus longicornis (long-horned scale)[9]
Wiseana cervinata[11]
Zyginidia scutellaris[7]


Pollinated by 
Parasyrphus annulatus[10]


Parasitized by 
Blumeria graminis[10]
Claviceps purpurea (Ergot)[10]
Limonomyces culmigenus[8]
Oscinella maura[10]
Puccinia graminis[8]
Uromyces dactylidis[8]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Kew Millennium Seed Bank Partnership
Svalbard Global Seed Vault


Bassegi Zapovednik; Caribbean; Europe, Temp. Asia; North America; Oceania; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Derived from Allergy-Free Gardening OPALS™, Thomas Leo Ogren (2000)
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999)
5Paula S, Arianoutsou M, Kazanis D, Tavsanoglu Ç, Lloret F, Buhk C, Ojeda F, Luna B, Moreno JM, Rodrigo A, Espelta JM, Palacio S, Fernández-Santos B, Fernandes PM, and Pausas JG. 2009. Fire-related traits for plant species of the Mediterranean Basin. Ecology 90: 1420.
Paula S. & Pausas J.G. 2013. BROT: a plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species. Version 2013.06.
6Kattge, J. et al. (2011b) TRY - a global database of plant traits Global Change Biology 17:2905-2935
7Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
8Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
9Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
10Ecology of Commanster
11New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
12Butterflies of Canada, Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility
13Diet of the Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis) in a mountain ecosystem, Joana Paupério & Paulo Célio Alves, Eur J Wildl Res (2008) 54:571–579
14Individual variation in the ability of Columbian ground squirrels to select an optimal diet, MARK E. RITCHIE, Evolutionary Ecology, 1988, 2, 232-252
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access