Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Caryophyllales > Amaranthaceae > Spinacia > Spinacia oleracea

Spinacia oleracea (spinach)

Synonyms: Chenopodium oleraceum; Obione stocksii; Spinacia domestica; Spinacia glabra; Spinacia inermis; Spinacia oleracea subsp. glabra; Spinacia sessiliflora; Spinacia spinosa; Spinacia tetrandra

Wikipedia Abstract

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is an edible flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae native to central and western Asia. It is an annual plant (rarely biennial), which grows up to 30 cm tall. Spinach may survive over winter in temperate regions. The leaves are alternate, simple, ovate to triangular, and very variable in size from about 2–30 cm long and 1–15 cm broad, with larger leaves at the base of the plant and small leaves higher on the flowering stem. The flowers are inconspicuous, yellow-green, 3–4 mm in diameter, maturing into a small, hard, dry, lumpy fruit cluster 5–10 mm across containing several seeds.
View Wikipedia Record: Spinacia oleracea


Height [2]  12 inches (0.3 m)
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium
Edible [2]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Flower Type [2]  Dioecious
Hazards [2]  The leaves of most varieties of spinach are high in oxalic acid; Although not toxic, this substance does lock up certain minerals in a meal, especially calcium, making them unavailable to the body. Therefore mineral deficiencies can result from eating too much of any leaf that contains oxalic acid. However, the mineral content of spinach leaves is quite high so the disbenifits are to a large extent outweighed by the benefits. There are also special low-oxalic varieties of spinach that have been developed. Cooking the leaves will also reduce the content of oxalic acid. People with a tendency to rheumatism, arthritis, gout, kidney stones or hyperacidity should take especial caution if including this plant in their diet since it can aggravate their condition;
Lifespan [2]  Annual
Pollinators [2]  Wind
Structure [3]  Herb
Usage [2]  A yellow dye is obtained from the leaves;
View Plants For A Future Record : Spinacia oleracea

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Archipelago de Colon Biosphere Reserve 34336011 Galapagos Islands, Ecuador  
Essex Estuaries 114016 England, United Kingdom
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada


Agrotis clavis (Heart and Club)[4]
Agrotis exclamationis (Heart and Dart)[4]
Agrotis vetusta (Old Man Dart)[4]
Amauromyza flavifrons[5]
Arctia villica (Cream-spot Tiger)[5]
Atomaria linearis[5]
Cassida vittata[5]
Delia florilega (bean seed maggot)[5]
Delia platura (seedcorn maggot)[5]
Heterotrioza chenopodii[5]
Hymenia recurvalis <Unverified Name>[5]
Lacanobia oleracea (Bright-line Brown-Eye Moth)[6]
Loxostege sticticalis[6]
Mamestra curialis[4]
Muscina assimilis <Unverified Name>[5]
Naenia typica (Gothic)[4]
Pegomya betae (beet leafminer)[5]
Pegomya hyoscyami (spinach leafminer)[5]
Peridroma saucia (variegated cutworm)[6]
Phlogophora meticulosa (Angle Shades Moth)[4]
Piesma maculatum <Unverified Name>[5]
Rachiplusia nu[4]
Saissetia coffeae (brown scale)[7]
Scaptomyza pallida[5]
Scopula fibulata[4]
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm)[6]
Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper)[6]
Xylena exsoleta (Sword-grass)[4]
Zizeeria knysna[4]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Svalbard Global Seed Vault


North America;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Derived from Allergy-Free Gardening OPALS™, Thomas Leo Ogren (2000)
2Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
3Kattge, J. et al. (2011b) TRY - a global database of plant traits Global Change Biology 17:2905-2935
4HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
5Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
6Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
7Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access