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Viola arvensis (European field pansy; field violet; wild pansy)

Wikipedia Abstract

Viola arvensis is a species of violet known by the common name field pansy. It is native to Europe, western Asia, and North Africa, and it is known on other continents as an introduced species and a weed of disturbed and cultivated areas. Viola arvensis was shown to contain cyclotides, a class of peptides found in plants. The peptide cycloviolacin O2 in particular has shown to possess cytotoxic activity against human cancer cells and is therefore looked at as a potential drug lead.
View Wikipedia Record: Viola arvensis

Infraspecies

Attributes

Height [2]  16 inches (.4 m)
Allergen Potential [1]  Low
Light Preference [3]  Mostly Sunny
Soil Acidity [3]  Moderate Acid
Soil Fertility [3]  Intermediate
Soil Moisture [3]  Mostly Dry
Lifespan [2]  Annual
Structure [4]  Herb

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Blue Ridge Parkway National Parkway V 73611 North Carolina, Virginia, United States
Caenlochan 12860 Scotland, United Kingdom
Cardigan Bay/ Bae Ceredigion 236876 Wales, United Kingdom
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Dornoch Firth and Morrich More 21499 Scotland, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths 14161 England, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes 5491 England, United Kingdom
Essex Estuaries 114016 England, United Kingdom
Exmoor Heaths 26455 England, United Kingdom
Galichia Gora Zapovednik Ia 568 Lipetsk, Russia
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Isles of Scilly Complex 66350 England, United Kingdom    
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Khopersky Zapovednik Ia 47103 Russia  
Los Glaciares National Park II 1329020 Santa Cruz, Argentina
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Parco Del Somma-Vesuvio e Miglio D'Oro National Park II 33648 Italy
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Solent Maritime 27985 England, United Kingdom
South Wight Maritime 49082 England, United Kingdom
The Broads 14554 England, United Kingdom  
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
Tsentral'no-Chernozemny Biosphere Reserve Ia 13064 Kursk, Russia
Tsentral'no-Lesnoy Biosphere Reserve Ia 62630 Russia  
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Zhuvintas Zapovednik 18223 Lithuania  

Ecosystems

Predators

Anthocharis cardamines (Orange Tip Butterfly)[5]
Chloris chloris (European Greenfinch)[6]
Columba oenas (Stock Dove)[6]
Columba palumbus (Common Wood Pigeon)[6]
Dasineura violae[5]
Fringilla coelebs (Common Chaffinch)[6]
Issoria lathonia (Queen of Spain Fritillary)[7]
Myzus certus[5]
Parus major (Great Tit)[6]
Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)[6]
Streptopelia turtur (European Turtle-Dove)[6]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Golovinomyces orontii[8]
Peronospora violae[8]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Svalbard Global Seed Vault

Distribution

North America;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Derived from Allergy-Free Gardening OPALS™, Thomas Leo Ogren (2000)
2PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish Plants: Status, Size, Life History, Geography and Habitats, M. O. Hill, C. D. Preston & D. B. Roy, Biological Records Centre, NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (2004)
3ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999)
4Kattge, J. et al. (2011b) TRY - a global database of plant traits Global Change Biology 17:2905-2935
5Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
6Ecology of Commanster
7HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
8Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access