Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Malpighiales > Salicaceae > Salix > Salix nigra

Salix nigra (black willow)

Synonyms: Amerina houstoniana; Amerina nigra; Nectolis ambigua; Nestylix falcata; Pleiarina nigra; Salix ambigua; Salix denudata; Salix dubia; Salix falcata; Salix flavovirens; Salix gongylocarpa; Salix houstoniana; Salix ligustrina; Salix ludoviciana; Salix nigra var. altissima; Salix nigra var. brevifolia; Salix nigra var. brevijulis; Salix nigra var. falcata; Salix nigra var. lindheimeri; Salix nigra var. longifolia; Salix pentandra; Salix purshiana; Salix testacea; Salix tristis; Salix vulgaris

Wikipedia Abstract

Salix nigra (black willow) is a species of willow native to eastern North America, from New Brunswick and southern Ontario west to Minnesota, and south to northern Florida and Texas.
View Wikipedia Record: Salix nigra


Height [3]  39 feet (12 m)
Width [1]  17 feet (5.3 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  None
Allergen Potential [1]  High
Carbon Capture [1]  Low
Screening - Summer [2]  Moderate
Screening - Winter [2]  Porous
Shade Percentage [1]  80 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Low
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 4 Low Temperature: -30 F° (-34.4 C°) → -20 F° (-28.9 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 8 Low Temperature: 10 F° (-12.2 C°) → 20 F° (-6.7 C°)
Light Preference [2]  Full Sun
Soil Acidity [2]  Neutral
Soil Fertility [2]  Intermediate
Water Use [1]  High to Moderate
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Bloom Period [2]  Early Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  Low
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  Low
Flower Type [3]  Dioecious
Frost Free Days [2]  4 months
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Spring
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Summer
Growth Form [2]  Multiple Stem
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Rapid
Janka Hardness [4]  360 lbf (163 kgf) Very Soft
Leaf Type [3]  Deciduous
Lifespan [2]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Bees
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Cutting
Root Depth [2]  32 inches (81 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Slow
Seed Vigor [2]  Low
Seeds Per [2]  2499995 / lb (5511550 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Erect
Specific Gravity [5]  0.39
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  The young stems are very flexible and are used in basket and furniture making; The twigs can be split in half lengthways, sun-dried and used as the foundation of coiled basketry; The plant is usually coppiced annually when grown for basket making, though it is possible to coppice it every two years if thick poles are required as uprights. A fibre obtained from the stems is used in making paper; The stems are harvested in spring or summer, the leaves are removed and the stems steamed until the fibres can be stripped. The fibres are cooked for 2 hours with lye and then beaten with mallets or put through a blender. The paper is red/brown in colour; The trees are often used in erosion control, their roots forming dense networks that stabilize stream banks; The bark is a good source of tannin; A decoction or infusion of the bark can be used as a hair wash to make the hair grow; Wood - not durable, light, soft and weak but does not splinter, warp or check; The wood is tough and fairly strong according to another report; It weighs 27lb per cubic foot; Used where strength is not important, for artificial limbs, barn floors etc; A good charcoal is also obtained from the wood;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  Slow
View Plants For A Future Record : Salix nigra

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Assateague Island National Seashore II 8621 Maryland, United States
Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area National Recreation Area V 120283 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Blue Ridge Parkway National Parkway V 73611 North Carolina, Virginia, United States
Bluestone National Scenic River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 3517 West Virginia, United States
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Calvin College Ecosystem Preserve 90 Michigan, United States
Cape Lookout National Seashore II 18379 North Carolina, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Catoctin Mountain Park National Park II 5994 Maryland, United States
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 19586 Maryland, District of Columbia, United States
Chickamauga & Chattanooga Nat'l Military Park National Military Park V 8248 Georgia, Tennessee, United States
Chippewa Nature Center   Michigan, United States    
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   North Carolina, United States
Cumberland Gap National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 24282 Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, United States
Desecheo National Wildlife Refuge   Puerto Rico, United States
Edwin S. George Reserve 1297 Michigan, United States
Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge VI 66133 Arkansas, United States
Fort Donelson National Battlefield III 560 Tennessee, United States
Fort Larned National Historic Site III 706 Kansas, United States
Fort Pulaski National Monument V 4213 Georgia, United States
Friendship Hill National Historic Site III 697 Pennsylvania, United States
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
Gauley River National Recreation Area V 10157 West Virginia, United States
George Washington Birthplace National Monument V 435 Virginia, United States
George Washington Memorial Parkway V   Virginia, United States
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Harpers Ferry National Historical Park VI 715 West Virginia, United States
Hobcaw Barony (North Inlet) National Estuarine Research Reserve 7585 South Carolina, United States
Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site III 861 Pennsylvania, United States
Horseshoe Bend National Military Park V 1926 Alabama, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park III 2897 Georgia, United States
Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge VI 28351 Louisiana, United States
Little River National Wildlife Refuge   Oklahoma, United States
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Moores Creek National Battlefield III 100 North Carolina, United States
Morristown National Historical Park VI 1677 New Jersey, United States
National Capital Region - East National Park   District of Columbia, United States
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Obed Wild and Scenic River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 5268 Tennessee, United States
Ocmulgee National Monument V 693 Georgia, United States
Oconee National Forest Botanical Reserve 306 Georgia, United States  
Pipestone National Monument V 326 Minnesota, United States
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Prince William Forest Park 19378 District of Columbia, United States
Richmond National Battlefield Park III 1517 Virginia, United States
Rock Creek Park   District of Columbia, United States
Roosevelt Vanderbilt National Historic Site   New York, United States      
Saint Lawrence Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Saratoga National Historical Park   New York, United States
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
Shiloh National Military Park III 4061 Tennessee, United States
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Tennessee River Gorge   Tennessee, United States
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Valley Forge National Historical Park VI 3509 Pennsylvania, United States
Western Michigan University's Asylum Lake Preserve 274 Michigan, United States



Aceria salicina <Unverified Name>[6]
Ammotragus lervia (aoudad)[7]
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)[8]
Antheraea polyphemus (polyphemus moth)[8]
Bombus fervidus (Golden northern bumble bee)[8]
Catocala cara (Darling underwing)[9]
Catocala parta (Mother Underwing)[9]
Chionaspis hamoni (Florida willow scale)[10]
Chionaspis longiloba (longiloba scale)[10]
Chionaspis salicis (black willow bark louse)[10]
Helicomyia saliciperda <Unverified Name>[6]
Hemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale)[10]
Malacosoma americana (Eastern tent caterpillar)[8]
Melanaspis tenebricosa (gloomy scale)[10]
Phytoptus laevis <Unverified Name>[6]
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale)[10]
Rabdophaga nervorum[6]
Rabdophaga saliciperda[6]
Reticulitermes flavipes (eastern subterranean termite)[8]
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail)[8]
Tuberolachnus salignus[8]
Actias luna (luna moth)[8]
Apis mellifera (honey bee)[8]
Castor canadensis (american beaver)[8]
Lepidosaphes ulmi[8]
Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)[8]
Nymphalis antiopa[8]
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)[8]
Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat)[8]
Papilio glaucus (Eastern tiger swallowtail)[8]


Pollinated by 
Agapostemon radiatus <Unverified Name>[11]
Allograpta obliqua[11]
Ancistrocerus tigris <Unverified Name>[11]
Andrena carlini (Mining bee)[11]
Andrena dunningi[11]
Andrena erythrogastra <Unverified Name>[11]
Andrena illinoensis <Unverified Name>[11]
Andrena macoupinensis[11]
Andrena mandibularis[11]
Andrena nigrae[11]
Andrena salicis <Unverified Name>[11]
Andrena salictaria[11]
Andrena sayi[11]
Apis mellifera (honey bee)[8]
Archytas analis[11]
Augochlora viridula <Unverified Name>[11]
Bibio albipennis (March fly)[11]
Bibio pallipes[11]
Bombias separatus <Unverified Name>[11]
Bombus americanorum[11]
Bombus fervidus (Golden northern bumble bee)[8]
Bombylius major (Bee fly)[11]
Ceratina dupla (Little carpenter bee)[11]
Ceratosmia lignaria <Unverified Name>[11]
Cheilosia capillata[11]
Cheilosia punctulata[11]
Chloralictus pilosus <Unverified Name>[11]
Chloralictus pruinosus <Unverified Name>[11]
Chloralictus sparsus <Unverified Name>[11]
Chloralictus tegularis <Unverified Name>[11]
Chloralictus versatus <Unverified Name>[11]
Chloralictus zephyrus <Unverified Name>[11]
Chrysogaster antitheus[11]
Colletes inaequalis[11]
Curtisapis forbesii <Unverified Name>[11]
Cynomyia cadaverina <Unverified Name>[11]
Diabrotica vittata <Unverified Name>[11]
Ellychnia corrusca[11]
Eristalis aeneus <Unverified Name>[11]
Eristalis dimidiatus[11]
Eupeodes americanus (American hover fly)[11]
Eurymus philodice <Unverified Name>[11]
Evylaeus arcuatus <Unverified Name>[11]
Evylaeus foxii <Unverified Name>[11]
Evylaeus pectoralis <Unverified Name>[11]
Gnathias cuneatus <Unverified Name>[11]
Gnathias ovatus <Unverified Name>[11]
Gymnosoma fuliginosa <Unverified Name>[11]
Halictus lerouxii[11]
Helophilus fasciatus[11]
Heminomada obliterata <Unverified Name>[11]
Holochrysis hilaris <Unverified Name>[11]
Hypostena dunningii <Unverified Name>[11]
Linnaemyia compta <Unverified Name>[11]
Lucilia sylvarum <Unverified Name>[11]
Machaeris stygia <Unverified Name>[11]
Mesogramma marginata[11]
Microdus simillimus <Unverified Name>[11]
Molorchus bimaculatus[11]
Myopa vesiculosa[11]
Myopa vicaria[11]
Nomada cressonii[11]
Nomada denticulata[11]
Nomada illinoensis[11]
Nomada sayi[11]
Odontalictus ligatus <Unverified Name>[11]
Opandrena cressonii <Unverified Name>[11]
Opandrena dubia <Unverified Name>[11]
Opandrena miserabilis <Unverified Name>[11]
Opandrena personata <Unverified Name>[11]
Oxystoglossa confusa <Unverified Name>[11]
Oxystoglossa similis <Unverified Name>[11]
Paralictus cephalicus <Unverified Name>[11]
Parandrena andrenoides <Unverified Name>[11]
Phor integer <Unverified Name>[11]
Phorbia platura <Unverified Name>[11]
Pseudopyrellia cornicina <Unverified Name>[11]
Psilota buccata[11]
Rhamphomyia limbata[11]
Rhamphomyia priapulus[11]
Rhamphomyia sordida[11]
Scatophaga furcata <Unverified Name>[11]
Seladonia fasciata <Unverified Name>[11]
Siphona geniculata[11]
Sphaerophoria cylindrica[11]
Syritta pipiens (thick-legged hoverfly)[11]
Syrphus ribesii (Summer Fly)[11]
Trachandrena claytoniae <Unverified Name>[11]
Trachandrena crataegi <Unverified Name>[11]
Trachandrena forbesii <Unverified Name>[11]
Trachandrena heraclei <Unverified Name>[11]
Trachandrena hippotes <Unverified Name>[11]
Trachandrena nuda <Unverified Name>[11]
Trachandrena rugosa <Unverified Name>[11]
Vanessa huntera <Unverified Name>[11]
Zaodontomerus calcaratus <Unverified Name>[11]
Zodion fulvifrons[11]


Parasitized by 
Ampelocissus latifolia (American ivy)[8]
Ganoderma applanatum (Artist’s Bracket)[8]
Lepidosaphes ulmi (apple oystershell scale)[8]
Nymphalis antiopa (camberwell beauty)[8]
Pleurotus ostreatus (Oyster Mushroom)[8]
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)[8]
Shelter for 
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)[8]
Anax junius (green darner)[8]
Anguilla rostrata (American eel)[8]
Aquarius remigis (Common water strider)[8]
Ardea herodias (Great Blue Heron)[8]
Branta canadensis (Canada Goose)[8]
Calopteryx maculata (Ebony jewelwing)[8]
Camponotus pennsylvanicus (black carpenter ant)[8]
Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)[8]
Corydalus cornutus (dobsonfly)[8]
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum)[8]
Dolomedes triton (Six-spottedfishingspider)[8]
Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker)[8]
Dynastes tityus (Eastern hercules beetle)[8]
Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat)[8]
Eurycea guttolineata (Three-lined Salamander)[8]
Gambusia holbrooki (Bore-drain fish)[8]
Geothlypis trichas (Common Yellowthroat)[8]
Ictalurus punctatus (Channel catfish)[8]
Ischnura posita (Fragile forktail)[8]
Libellula lydia (Common whitetail)[8]
Megaceryle alcyon (Belted Kingfisher)[8]
Micropterus salmoides (Northern largemouth bass)[8]
Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird)[8]
Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher)[8]
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)[8]
Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee)[8]
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)[8]
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat)[8]
Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)[8]
Strix varia (Barred Owl)[8]
Vespula maculifrons (eastern yellowjacket)[8]
Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove)[8]
Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow)[8]
Actias luna (luna moth)[8]
Apis mellifera (honey bee)[8]
Castor canadensis (american beaver)[8]
Lepidosaphes ulmi[8]
Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)[8]
Nymphalis antiopa[8]
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)[8]
Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat)[8]
Papilio glaucus (Eastern tiger swallowtail)[8]

Range Map

North America; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
5Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service
6Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
7Ammotragus lervia, Gary G. Gray and C. David Simpson, Mammalian Species No. 144, pp. 1-7 (1980)
8Study of Northern Virginia Ecology
9HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
10Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
11Robertson, C. Flowers and insects lists of visitors of four hundred and fifty three flowers. 1929. The Science Press Printing Company Lancaster, PA.
Images provided by Wikimedia Commons licensed under a Creative Commons License
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access