Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Ericales > Ericaceae > Calluna > Calluna vulgaris

Calluna vulgaris (heather)

Synonyms: Calluna atlantica; Calluna beleziana; Calluna ciliaris; Calluna elegantissima; Calluna erica; Calluna sagittifolia; Calluna vulgaris subsp. elegantissima; Erica ciliaris; Erica glabra; Erica herbacea; Erica lutescens; Erica nana; Erica prostrata; Erica reginae; Erica sagittifolia; Erica vulgaris; Ericoides vulgaris

Wikipedia Abstract

Calluna vulgaris (known as common heather, ling, or simply heather) is the sole species in the genus Calluna in the family Ericaceae. It is a low-growing perennial shrub growing to 20 to 50 centimetres (7.9 to 19.7 in) tall, or rarely to 1 metre (39 in) and taller, and is found widely in Europe and Asia Minor on acidic soils in open sunny situations and in moderate shade. It is the dominant plant in most heathland and moorland in Europe, and in some bog vegetation and acidic pine and oak woodland. It is tolerant of grazing and regenerates following occasional burning, and is often managed in nature reserves and grouse moors by sheep or cattle grazing, and also by light burning.
View Wikipedia Record: Calluna vulgaris

Invasive Species

Heather, Calluna vulgaris native to Africa, temperate Asia and Europe is an invasive weed in its introduced range in Australia, the United States, Canada and New Zealand. It has also been reported in the sub-Antarctic islands of Falklands and the Crozet Archipelago. Impacts include displacement of native species both plants and insects, and disruption of natural processes of plant regeneration and succession in tussock and shrub lands. Its seeds are known to remain viable in the soil for over 33 years.
View ISSG Record: Calluna vulgaris


Height [2]  24 inches (0.6 m)
Width [2]  20 inches (0.5 m)
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium
Light Preference [4]  Mostly Sunny
Soil Acidity [4]  Very Acid
Soil Fertility [4]  Infertile
Soil Moisture [4]  Moist
Dispersal Mode [5]  Anemochory
Edible [2]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Flower Type [2]  Hermaphrodite
Leaf Type [2]  Evergreen
Lifespan [3]  Perennial
Pollinators [2]  Bees, Flies, Lepidoptera, Wind
Structure [2]  Shrub
Usage [2]  The branches have many uses, including in thatching, as a bedding or a stuffing for mattresses, for insulation, basketry, rope making and for making brooms; The dried branches are a good fuel; The rootstock can be made into musical pipes; A yellow dye is obtained from the plant; The bark is a source of tannin; Heather can be grown as a low hedge and is quite useful as an edging to beds. It is fairly amenable to trimming; A useful ground cover plant for covering dry banks; The cultivar 'White Lawn' has been recommended; All except the very dwarf cultivars will need trimming each spring in order to keep them compact;
View Plants For A Future Record : Calluna vulgaris

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Andakill Protected Habitat Area 7626 Iceland      
Asby Complex 7715 England, United Kingdom
Bäckan 5 Sweden  
Beinn Eighe National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Ben Wyvis 13313 Scotland, United Kingdom
Berchtesgaden Alps National Park II 51433 Germany
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Black Wood of Rannoch 2720 Scotland, United Kingdom
Border Mires, Kielder – Butterburn 29286 England, United Kingdom
Buschschleuse 3063 Germany  
Cadair Idris 9353 Wales, United Kingdom
Cairngorms 142543 Scotland, United Kingdom
Cairnsmore of Fleet, Silver Flowe, and Merrick Kells Biosphere Reserve 8794 Scotland, United Kingdom
Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands 354692 Scotland, United Kingdom
Cardigan Bay/ Bae Ceredigion 236876 Wales, United Kingdom
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Corsydd Môn/ Anglesey Fens 1154 Wales, United Kingdom  
Costa del Pallio 729 Italy  
Culbin Bar 1514 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Dahlberg 22 Germany  
Dorset Heaths 14161 England, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes 5491 England, United Kingdom
Drumochter Hills 23340 Scotland, United Kingdom
Eryri/ Snowdonia 48773 Wales, United Kingdom  
Exmoor Heaths 26455 England, United Kingdom
Fenn`s, Whixall, Bettisfield, Wem and Cadney Mosses 2346 England/Wales, United Kingdom  
Glen Coe 7329 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Glen Tanar 10329 Scotland, United Kingdom
Gohrische Heide 581 Germany  
Great Orme`s Head/ Pen y Gogarth 748 Wales, United Kingdom  
Gweunydd Blaencleddau 371 Wales, United Kingdom  
Halkyn Mountain/ Mynydd Helygain 1508 Wales, United Kingdom
Inverpolly 29349 Scotland, United Kingdom
Isle of Rum National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Isles of Scilly Complex 66350 England, United Kingdom    
Lands End and Cape Bank 74557 England, United Kingdom  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Lewis Peatlands 69055 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Limestone Coast of South West Wales/ Arfordir Calchfaen de Orllewin Cymru 3940 Wales, United Kingdom  
Lizard Point 34565 England, United Kingdom    
Lochs Duich, Long and Alsh Reefs 5883 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
Luce Bay and Sands 120487 Scotland, United Kingdom
Migneint–Arenig–Dduallt 49343 Wales, United Kingdom
Milaseen 289 Germany  
Moffat Hills 7146 Scotland, United Kingdom
Monte Rufeno 5780 Italy  
Moor House – Upper Teesdale 95867 England, United Kingdom
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
North Pennine Moors 254789 England, United Kingdom
North West Pembrokeshire Commons/ Comins Gogledd Orllewin Sir Benfro 615 Wales, United Kingdom  
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Reserva de la Biosfera de Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve V 1777 Spain  
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Rhos Llawr-cwrt 114 Wales, United Kingdom  
River Moriston 481 Scotland, United Kingdom
Roman Wall Loughs 1691 England, United Kingdom  
Ronas Hill – North Roe 12110 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Salisbury Plain 52975 England, United Kingdom
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Selva del Lamone e Monti di Castro 14097 Italy  
Serre del Burano 8972 Italy  
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Solway Firth 107829 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
Storbeck 827 Germany  
Strathglass Complex 58277 Scotland, United Kingdom
Streganzer Berg 394 Germany  
Streganzsee-Dahme und Bürgerheide 4097 Germany  
Sunart 25320 Scotland, United Kingdom
Taynish National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
Thorne Moor 4718 England, United Kingdom
Tingon 1407 Scotland, United Kingdom    
Tsentral'no-Lesnoy Biosphere Reserve Ia 62630 Russia  
Val Caffaro 3059 Italy  
Val Codera 2021 Italy  
Val Grigna 7099 Italy  
Vietmannsdorfer Heide 663 Germany  
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Wittstock-Ruppiner Heide 23095 Germany  
Woolmer Forest 1647 England, United Kingdom
Wormley Hoddesdonpark Woods 829 England, United Kingdom
Y Fenai a Bae Conwy/ Menai Strait and Conwy Bay 65440 Wales, United Kingdom  
Zhuvintas Zapovednik 18223 Lithuania  



Abraxas grossulariata (Magpie Moth)[6]
Acalles ptinoides[6]
Acanthopsyche atra[7]
Acleris hyemana[7]
Acronicta euphorbiae (Sweet Gale Moth)[7]
Acronicta menyanthidis (Light Knot Grass)[6]
Acronicta rumicis (Knot Grass)[6]
Actebia praecox (Portland Moth)[6]
Aglais io <Unverified Name>[8]
Aglais urticae (Small Tortoiseshell)[8]
Agonum impressum[6]
Agriopis marginaria <Unverified Name>[6]
Agrochola circellaris (Brick)[6]
Agrochola helvola (Flounced Chestnut)[6]
Agrochola macilenta (Yellow-line Quaker)[6]
Agrotis vestigialis (Archer's Dart)[6]
Alcis repandata (Mottled Beauty)[7]
Altica britteni <Unverified Name>[6]
Altica ericeti <Unverified Name>[6]
Altica longicollis <Unverified Name>[6]
Altica oleracea <Unverified Name>[8]
Altica palustris <Unverified Name>[6]
Amara lunicollis[6]
Amblyptilia acanthadactyla[6]
Ampedus sanguinolentus <Unverified Name>[6]
Amphipoea crinanensis (Crinan Ear)[6]
Amphipoea lucens (Large Ear Moth)[6]
Amphisbatis incongruella[6]
Anarta myrtilli (Beautiful Yellow Underwing Moth)[7]
Ancylis unguicella[6]
Angerona prunaria[7]
Aphis callunae[6]
Apis mellifera (honey bee)[8]
Aporophyla lueneburgensis (Northern Deep-brown Dart)[6]
Aporophyla lutulenta (Deep Brown Dart)[6]
Aporophyla nigra (Black Rustic)[6]
Argyrotaenia ljungiana[7]
Aristotelia ericinella[6]
Autographa gamma (Silver Y Moth)[8]
Berytinus clavipes[6]
Bison bonasus (European bison)[9]
Blepharita adusta[6]
Bombus jonellus (Heath Humble-bee)[8]
Bombus lapidarius (Stone Humble-bee)[8]
Bombus lucorum (White-tailed bumblebee)[8]
Bombus pratorum (Early-nesting Humble-bee)[8]
Bombus terrestris (Large Earth Humble-bee)[8]
Bradycellus caucasicus[6]
Bradycellus harpalinus[6]
Bradycellus ruficollis[6]
Calathus melanocephalus[6]
Callistege mi (Mother Shipton Moth)[7]
Callophrys rubi (Green Hairstreak Butterfly)[7]
Calomicrus circumfusus <Unverified Name>[6]
Celastrina argiolus (Holly Blue Butterfly)[8]
Ceramica pisi <Unverified Name>[6]
Ceratothrips ericae[10]
Charissa obscurata (Scotch Annulet)[6]
Chlorissa viridata[7]
Chloroclysta citrata <Unverified Name>[6]
Chloroclysta concinnata <Unverified Name>[6]
Chloroclysta truncata <Unverified Name>[6]
Coenonympha pamphilus (Small Heath Butterfly)[8]
Coenophila subrosea (Rosy Marsh Moth)[7]
Coleophora juncicolella[6]
Coleophora pyrrhulipennella[6]
Coniocleonus hollbergi <Unverified Name>[6]
Coniocleonus nebulosus[6]
Coscinia cribraria (Speckled Footman)[7]
Crocallis elinguaria (Scalloped Oak Moth)[7]
Cucullococcus arrabidensis[11]
Cybosia mesomella (Four-dotted Footman Moth)[8]
Dama dama (fallow deer)[12]
Diacrisia sannio <Unverified Name>[8]
Diarsia brunnea (Purple Clay)[6]
Diarsia dahlii (Barred Chestnut)[6]
Diarsia mendica (Ingrailed Clay)[6]
Diarsia rubi (Small Square-spot)[6]
Diaspidiotus bavaricus[11]
Diaspidiotus ostreaeformis (European fruit scale)[11]
Dicallomera fascelina <Unverified Name>[6]
Dilophus febrilis (Fever Fly)[8]
Dyschirius globosus[6]
Dyscia fagaria (Grey Scalloped Bar)[6]
Dysstroma truncata (Common Marbled Carpet Moth)[8]
Ectropis crepuscularia (small engrailed)[7]
Eilema sericea[6]
Ematurga atomaria (Common Heath Moth)[7]
Emmelina monodactyla (T-Moth)[7]
Enargia paleacea (Angle-striped Sallow)[6]
Entephria caesiata (Grey Mountain Carpet)[6]
Entoloma cetratum (Honey Pinkgill)[10]
Epinotia mercuriana[6]
Epirrita autumnata <Unverified Name>[6]
Epirrita filigrammaria <Unverified Name>[6]
Episyrphus balteatus (Marmelade Fly)[8]
Ericaphis ericae[6]
Eriococcus baldonensis[11]
Eriococcus brevenniae[11]
Eriococcus devoniensis (heather scale)[11]
Eriococcus ericae (heather scale)[11]
Eriococcus greeni (Newstead's felt scale)[6]
Eriococcus inermis[6]
Eristalis interrupta[8]
Eristalis lineata[8]
Eristalis tenax (drone fly)[8]
Erythria aureola[6]
Eugnorisma glareosa <Unverified Name>[6]
Eugraphe subrosea <Unverified Name>[6]
Eulecanium franconicum (heather soft scale)[6]
Eulecanium tiliae (nut scale)[6]
Eulithis testata (chevron moth)[7]
Eupithecia absinthiata (Wormwood Pug)[6]
Eupithecia centaureata (Lime-speck Pug)[7]
Eupithecia goossensiata[7]
Eupithecia nanata (Narrow-winged Pug)[7]
Eupithecia satyrata (Satyr Pug Moth)[6]
Eupithecia subfuscata (gray pug)[6]
Eupoecilia angustana[7]
Eurois occulta (great gray dart)[6]
Euxoa cursoria (Coast Dart)[6]
Euxoa obelisca (Square-spot Dart)[6]
Euxoa tritici[6]
Exapate congelatella[7]
Galerina cinctula[10]
Glacies coracina <Unverified Name>[6]
Globiceps juniperi[6]
Gnophos obfuscatus <Unverified Name>[6]
Gnophos obscuratus <Unverified Name>[6]
Godronia callunigena[10]
Gymnopus alpinus[10]
Gymnopus androsaceus[10]
Gymnopus dryophilus (Russet Toughshank)[10]
Gymnoscelis rufifasciata (Double-striped Pug)[7]
Gymnosoma nudifrons[8]
Gynaephora selenitica[7]
Heliothis maritima <Unverified Name>[6]
Heliothis viriplaca[6]
Helophilus hybridus[8]
Helophilus pendulus (Striped Hover Fly)[8]
Helophilus trivittatus (Sun Fly)[8]
Hydriomena furcata (July Highflyer)[6]
Hymenochaetopsis corrugata[10]
Hypochnicium punctulatum[10]
Idaea contiguaria (Weaver's Wave)[6]
Idaea straminata (Plain Wave)[6]
Keissleriella subalpina[10]
Kleidocerys truncatulus[6]
Lacanobia contigua (Beautiful Brocade)[6]
Lachnum virgineum (Snowy Disco)[10]
Lasiocampa quercus (Oak Eggar)[7]
Lasiocampa trifolii (Grass Eggar)[7]
Lepidosaphes ulmi (apple oystershell scale)[11]
Leptotes pirithous (Lang's Short-tailed Blue)[10]
Lita sexpunctella <Unverified Name>[6]
Lithomoia solidaginis (goldenrod brindle)[6]
Lochmaea suturalis <Unverified Name>[6]
Luperus longicornis <Unverified Name>[6]
Lycaeides idas (Northern Blue)[7]
Lycaena phlaeas (Small Copper Butterfly)[8]
Lycia lapponaria <Unverified Name>[6]
Lycophotia molothina[7]
Lycophotia porphyrea (True Lover's Knot)[7]
Lygus pratensis (Common Meadow Bug)[6]
Macrothylacia rubi (Fox Moth)[7]
Melanchra persicariae (Dot Moth)[7]
Melanchra pisi (Broom Moth)[6]
Melanostoma mellinum[8]
Meliscaeva cinctella[8]
Micrelus ericae[6]
Mollisia cinerea[10]
Mollisia obscura[10]
Musca autumnalis (face fly)[8]
Myathropa florea <Unverified Name>[8]
Mycena sanguinolenta (Bleeding Bonnet)[10]
Neofaculta ericetella[7]
Neomyia cornicina[8]
Noctua comes (Lesser Yellow Underwing)[7]
Noctua orbona (Lunar Yellow Underwing)[6]
Nomen dubium <Unverified Name>[6]
Nysius helveticus[6]
Ochlerotatus punctor <Unverified Name>[8]
Oidiodendron tenuissimum[10]
Olethreutes schulziana[6]
Operophtera brumata (winter moth)[6]
Ophiola decumana <Unverified Name>[8]
Orgyia antiqua (Rusty Tussock Moth)[6]
Orgyia recens <Unverified Name>[6]
Orthotylus ericetorum[6]
Pachycnemia hippocastanaria (Horse Chestnut Moth)[6]
Pachythelia villosella[7]
Papestra biren (Glaucous Shears)[6]
Paradiarsia glareosa (Autumnal Rustic)[6]
Paradiarsia sobrina <Unverified Name>[6]
Peliococcus calluneti (heather mealybug)[11]
Pempelia palumbella <Unverified Name>[6]
Perconia strigillaria (Grass Wave)[6]
Perizoma didymata <Unverified Name>[6]
Pestalotiopsis sydowiana[10]
Phaeostalagmus cyclosporus[10]
Phalacropterix graslinella[7]
Philedonides lunana (Walker’s Lanark Tortrix)[7]
Phragmatobia fuliginosa (ruby tiger moth)[7]
Phyllostroma myrtilli (heather cushion scale)[11]
Pieris napi (Green-veined White Butterfly)[8]
Pieris rapae (imported cabbageworm)[8]
Pithomyces valparadisiacus[10]
Platycheirus occultus[8]
Plebejus argus (Silver-studded Blue)[6]
Polia trimaculosa[7]
Pollenia amentaria <Unverified Name>[8]
Prolita sexpunctella (Long-horned Flat-back)[6]
Protolampra sobrina (Cousin German)[7]
Psathyrella senex[10]
Pseudophacidium ledi[10]
Pseudotomentella tristis[10]
Pterostichus diligens[6]
Puto pilosellae (hairy mealybug)[11]
Rhagades pruni[7]
Rhizoecus albidus (white root-mealybug)[11]
Rhodocollybia maculata (Spotted Toughshank)[10]
Rhodostrophia vibicaria (Common Pink-barred)[7]
Rhyparochromus pini[6]
Saturnia pavonia (Emperor moth)[7]
Schrankia costaestrigalis (Pinion-streaked Snout)[6]
Schrankia taenialis (White-line Snout)[7]
Scopula immorata (Lewes Wave)[6]
Scopula ternata (Smoky Wave Moth)[7]
Scotopteryx mucronata[6]
Scythris empetrella[6]
Selagia argyrella[6]
Selidosema brunnearia[6]
Semiothisa carbonaria <Unverified Name>[6]
Sericomyia silentis[8]
Spirosphaera floriformis[10]
Sterrhopterix fusca[6]
Strepsicrates ejectana[13]
Strophingia ericae[6]
Strophosomus capitatus[6]
Strophosomus curvipes[6]
Strophosomus nebulosus[6]
Strophosomus sus[6]
Syngrapha interrogationis (Scarce Silver Y)[7]
Systellonotus triguttatus[6]
Tapesia cinerella[10]
Tapesia lividofusca[10]
Tetramorium caespitum (pavement ant)[10]
Topospora obturata[10]
Trichiura crataegi (Pale Eggar)[6]
Vanessa cardui (Painted Lady)[8]
Vuilleminia macrospora[10]
Xestia agathina (Heath Rustic)[6]
Xestia alpicola <Unverified Name>[6]
Xestia ashworthii <Unverified Name>[6]
Xestia castanea (Grey Rustic)[7]
Xestia xanthographa (Square-spot Rustic)[6]
Xylena vetusta (Red Sword-grass)[6]
Zygaena exulans (Mountain Burnet)[6]
Zygina rubrovittata[6]


Pollinated by 
Aglais io <Unverified Name>[8]
Aglais urticae (Small Tortoiseshell)[8]
Anarta myrtilli (Beautiful Yellow Underwing Moth)[10]
Andrena fuscipes[10]
Apis mellifera (honey bee)[8]
Autographa bractea (Gold Spangle)[10]
Autographa gamma (Silver Y Moth)[8]
Boloria selene (Silver-bordered fritillary)[10]
Bombus bohemicus (Gipsy Cuckoo-bee)[10]
Bombus hypnorum (New garden bumblebee)[10]
Bombus jonellus (Heath Humble-bee)[8]
Bombus lapidarius (Stone Humble-bee)[8]
Bombus lucorum (White-tailed bumblebee)[8]
Bombus pascuorum (Common Carder-bee)[10]
Bombus pratorum (Early-nesting Humble-bee)[8]
Bombus terrestris (Large Earth Humble-bee)[8]
Calliopum aeneum[10]
Celastrina argiolus (Holly Blue Butterfly)[8]
Ceratina cucurbitina[10]
Cerceris arenaria[10]
Cerceris rybyensis[10]
Cheilosia longula[10]
Chrysotoxum bicinctum[10]
Coenonympha pamphilus (Small Heath Butterfly)[8]
Colletes succinctus[10]
Conops flavipes[10]
Conops quadrifasciatus[10]
Dilophus febrilis (Fever Fly)[8]
Dolichovespula sylvestris (Tree Wasp)[10]
Episyrphus balteatus (Marmelade Fly)[8]
Eriothrix rufomaculatus[10]
Eristalis interrupta[8]
Eristalis lineata[8]
Eristalis tenax (drone fly)[8]
Eupeodes corollae[10]
Formica fusca (silky ant)[10]
Gymnosoma nudifrons[8]
Helophilus hybridus[8]
Helophilus pendulus (Striped Hover Fly)[8]
Helophilus trivittatus (Sun Fly)[8]
Lasioglossum fratellum[10]
Lasioglossum prasinum[10]
Leptotes pirithous (Lang's Short-tailed Blue)[10]
Lucilia bufonivora (Toadfly)[10]
Lycaena phlaeas (Small Copper Butterfly)[8]
Maniola jurtina (Meadow Brown Butterfly)[10]
Melanostoma mellinum[8]
Meliscaeva cinctella[8]
Mellinus arvensis (field digger wasp)[10]
Mesapamea didyma (Lesser Common Rustic Moth)[10]
Mimesa equestris[10]
Musca autumnalis (face fly)[8]
Myathropa florea <Unverified Name>[8]
Neomyia cornicina[8]
Nomada rufipes[10]
Nymphalis io[10]
Ochlerotatus punctor <Unverified Name>[8]
Pieris napi (Green-veined White Butterfly)[8]
Pieris rapae (imported cabbageworm)[8]
Platycheirus occultus[8]
Platycheirus peltatus[10]
Pollenia amentaria <Unverified Name>[8]
Pollenia rudis (cluster fly)[10]
Polyommatus icarus (Common Blue Butterfly)[10]
Prosena siberita[10]
Protaetia cuprea (Rose Chafer)[10]
Scaeva pyrastri[10]
Scaeva selenitica[10]
Scathophaga stercoraria (Common Yellow Dung Fly)[10]
Sciara hemerobioides[10]
Sepsis cynipsea[10]
Sericomyia silentis[8]
Sicus ferrugineus[10]
Syritta pipiens (thick-legged hoverfly)[8]
Syrphus ribesii (Summer Fly)[10]
Syrphus torvus[10]
Tachina grossa[10]
Thymelicus lineola (European skipper)[10]
Vanessa cardui (Painted Lady)[8]
Vespula rufa (Red Wasp)[10]
Volucella bombylans[10]
Volucella pellucens (White-banded Drone Fly)[10]
Zygaena trifolii[10]


Mutual (symbiont) 
Clavaria argillacea (Moor Club)[10]
Coltricia perennis[10]
Inocybe praetervisa[10]
Parasitized by 
Cuscuta epithymum (clover dodder)[10]
Erysiphe azaleae[10]
Hymenochaetopsis corrugata (Glue Crust)[10]
Melampyrum sylvaticum[10]
Postia ptychogaster[10]
Shelter for 
Saxicola rubicola (European Stonechat)[8]


North America;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Derived from Allergy-Free Gardening OPALS™, Thomas Leo Ogren (2000)
2Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
3PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish Plants: Status, Size, Life History, Geography and Habitats, M. O. Hill, C. D. Preston & D. B. Roy, Biological Records Centre, NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (2004)
4ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999)
5Paula S, Arianoutsou M, Kazanis D, Tavsanoglu Ç, Lloret F, Buhk C, Ojeda F, Luna B, Moreno JM, Rodrigo A, Espelta JM, Palacio S, Fernández-Santos B, Fernandes PM, and Pausas JG. 2009. Fire-related traits for plant species of the Mediterranean Basin. Ecology 90: 1420.
Paula S. & Pausas J.G. 2013. BROT: a plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species. Version 2013.06.
6Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
7HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
8Ecology of Commanster
9Food eaten by the free-living European bison in Białowieża Forest, Zofia GĘBCZYŃSKA, Marek GĘBCZYŃSKI and Ewa MARTYNOWICZ, Acta Theriologica 36 (3-4), 307-313, 1991.
10Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
11Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
12Dama dama, George A. Feldhamer, Kelly C. Farris-Renner, and Celeste M. Barker, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 317, pp. 1-8 (1988)
13New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
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