Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Ericales > Ericaceae > Empetrum > Empetrum nigrum

Empetrum nigrum (black crowberry)

Wikipedia Abstract

Empetrum nigrum, crowberry or black crowberry, is a species of Empetrum with a circumboreal distribution. It is usually dioecious, but there is a bisexual tetraploid subspecies, Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum, that occurs in more northerly locations and at higher altitude.The metabolism and photosynthetic parameters of Empretrum can be altered in winter-warming experiments.
View Wikipedia Record: Empetrum nigrum



Height [3]  12 inches (0.3 m)
Width [3]  20 inches (0.5 m)
Allergen Potential [1]  Low
Screening - Summer [2]  Dense
Screening - Winter [2]  Moderate
Hardiness Zone Minimum [2]  USDA Zone: 2 Low Temperature: -50 F° (-45.6 C°) → -40 F° (-40 C°)
Light Preference [5]  Mostly Sunny
Soil Acidity [5]  Very Acid
Soil Fertility [5]  Infertile
Soil Moisture [5]  Moist
Water Use [2]  Low
Flower Color [2]  Purple
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Black
Flower Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Fruit Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Bloom Period [2]  Mid Summer
Drought Tolerance [2]  Medium
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  High
Flower Type [3]  Dioecious
Frost Free Days [2]  90 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  Medium
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Summer
Growth Form [2]  Stoloniferous
Growth Period [2]  Summer, Fall
Growth Rate [2]  Slow
Leaf Type [3]  Evergreen
Lifespan [4]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Bees, Flies, Lepidoptera
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Cutting, Seed, Sprig
Root Depth [2]  16 inches (41 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Slow
Seed Vigor [2]  Low
Shape/Orientation [2]  Prostrate
Structure [3]  Shrub
Usage [3]  A purple dye is obtained from the fruit; Can be used for groundcover in exposed locations; Plants should be spaced about 25cm apart each way;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  Slow
View Plants For A Future Record : Empetrum nigrum

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Akkeshi-ko and Bekambeushi-shitsugen 13040 Hokkaido, Japan      
Aniakchak National Monument National Preserve Ib 458519 Alaska, United States
Beinn a`Ghlo 19978 Scotland, United Kingdom
Beinn Dearg 34221 Scotland, United Kingdom
Beinn Eighe National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Ben Alder and Aonach Beag 16453 Scotland, United Kingdom
Ben Lawers 12423 Scotland, United Kingdom
Ben Wyvis 13313 Scotland, United Kingdom
Bering Land Bridge National Preserve Ib 2823882 Alaska, United States
Berwyn a Mynyddoedd de Clwyd/ Berwyn and South Clwyd Mountains 67265 Wales, United Kingdom
Border Mires, Kielder – Butterburn 29286 England, United Kingdom
Budwity 1114 Poland  
Cadair Idris 9353 Wales, United Kingdom
Cairngorms 142543 Scotland, United Kingdom
Cairnsmore of Fleet, Silver Flowe, and Merrick Kells Biosphere Reserve 8794 Scotland, United Kingdom
Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands 354692 Scotland, United Kingdom
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Dartmoor 57244 England, United Kingdom
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
Dolina Lupawy 13612 Poland  
Dolina Wieprzy i Studnicy 35457 Poland  
Dornoch Firth and Morrich More 21499 Scotland, United Kingdom
East Caithness Cliffs 1094 Scotland, United Kingdom
Elenydd 21274 Wales, United Kingdom
Exmoor Heaths 26455 England, United Kingdom
Fagnes de la Polleur et de Malmedy (Malmedy; Waimes) 2697 Belgium  
Fagnes de Samrée et de Tailles (Houffalize; La Roche-en-Ardenne; Vielsalm) 2126 Belgium  
Fannich Hills 23816 Scotland, United Kingdom
Fenn`s, Whixall, Bettisfield, Wem and Cadney Mosses 2346 England/Wales, United Kingdom  
Firth of Lorn 51830 Scotland, United Kingdom
Flanders Mosses 2653 Scotland, United Kingdom
Gazwa 1233 Poland  
Góry Kamienne 59550 Poland  
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Glen Tanar 10329 Scotland, United Kingdom
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Haute-Lomme (Libin; Libramont-Chevigny; Saint-Hubert) 4979 Belgium  
Haute-Wamme et Masblette (Nassogne; Saint-Hubert; Tellin; Tenneville) 18133 Belgium  
Hoy 23474 Scotland, United Kingdom
Inverpolly 29349 Scotland, United Kingdom
Isle of Rum National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Jezioro Bobiecinskie 8360 Poland  
Katmai National Park and Preserve Ib 421782 Alaska, United States
Katunsky Biosphere Reserve 393162 Altai, Russia
Koffituten 49 Germany  
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
Ladder Hills 10769 Scotland, United Kingdom
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Lewis Peatlands 69055 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Loch Maree Complex 38882 Scotland, United Kingdom
Magadansky Zapovednik 2332834 Russia  
Meall na Samhna 4653 Scotland, United Kingdom
Merrick Kells 21494 Scotland, United Kingdom
Migneint–Arenig–Dduallt 49343 Wales, United Kingdom
Mittlerer Thüringer Wald westlich Oberhof 2562 Germany  
Monadhliath 26369 Scotland, United Kingdom
Moor House – Upper Teesdale 95867 England, United Kingdom
Moorfoot Hills 21001 Scotland, United Kingdom
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Nationalpark Sächsische Schweiz 23127 Germany  
North Harris 32450 Scotland, United Kingdom
North Pennine Moors 254789 England, United Kingdom
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
Ostoja Augustowska 264573 Poland  
Ostoja Knyszynska 336272 Poland  
Pirin 99722 Bulgaria  
Plateau des Hautes-Fagnes (Baelen; Jalhay; Malmedy; Waimes) 9860 Belgium  
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Queen Maud Gulf Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird Sanctuary IV 15335601 Nunavut, Canada
Rannoch Moor 24965 Scotland, United Kingdom
Rila 200269 Bulgaria  
Riserva Regionale Paluaccio di Oga 91 Italy  
Rochdale Canal 63 England, United Kingdom
Ronas Hill – North Roe 12110 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Rum 26775 Scotland, United Kingdom
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Schaalsee   Germany      
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
Strathglass Complex 58277 Scotland, United Kingdom
Strathy Point 503 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Taynish National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
The Stiperstones and The Hollies 1486 England, United Kingdom  
Tingon 1407 Scotland, United Kingdom    
Tsentral'no-Lesnoy Biosphere Reserve Ia 62630 Russia  
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Ultimo - Solda nel Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio 69162 Italy  
Vallée de la Helle (Baelen; Eupen; Waimes) 1878 Belgium  
Vallées de la Warche et du Bayehon en aval du barrage de Robertville (Malmedy; Waimes) 1140 Belgium  
West Midlands Mosses 455 England, United Kingdom  
Winisk River Provincial Park II 434735 Ontario, Canada
Wollerscheider und Hoscheider Venn 86 Germany  
Zhuvintas Zapovednik 18223 Lithuania  



Aceria empetri <Unverified Name>[6]
Altica britteni <Unverified Name>[6]
Anarta melanopa (broad-bordered white underwing)[7]
Bombus polaris (Bumblebee)[8]
Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse)[8]
Botryosphaeria hyperborea[9]
Branta hutchinsii (Cackling Goose)[8]
Calcarius lapponicus (Lapland Longspur)[8]
Calidris tenuirostris (Great Knot)[10]
Callophrys rubi (Green Hairstreak Butterfly)[6]
Carsia sororiata (Manchester Treble-Bar)[6]
Chlorissa viridata[7]
Clossiana freija (Freija Fritillary)[7]
Coenophila subrosea (Rosy Marsh Moth)[6]
Corvus corax (Northern Raven)[8]
Entephria caesiata (Grey Mountain Carpet)[7]
Eremocoris fenestratus[6]
Ericaphis fimbriata[6]
Ericaphis latifrons[6]
Eriococcus baldonensis[11]
Falcipennis canadensis (Spruce Grouse)[10]
Falcipennis canadensis franklinii (Franklin’s Grouse)[10]
Glacies coracina <Unverified Name>[6]
Idaea contiguaria (Weaver's Wave)[6]
Lagopus lagopus (Willow Ptarmigan)[8]
Lagopus leucura (White-tailed Ptarmigan)[10]
Lagopus muta (Rock Ptarmigan)[10]
Larus schistisagus (Slaty-backed Gull)[10]
Lemmus sibiricus (brown lemming)[8]
Lepus othus (Alaskan Hare)[12]
Limosa haemastica (Hudsonian Godwit)[10]
Lochmaea caprea <Unverified Name>[6]
Lycaeides idas (Northern Blue)[7]
Lyrurus tetrix (Eurasian Black Grouse)[13]
Martes americana (American Marten)[14]
Myodes rufocanus (gray red-backed vole)[15]
Myodes rutilus (northern red-backed vole)[8]
Numenius tahitiensis (Bristle-thighed Curlew)[10]
Ochotona collaris (Collared Pika)[16]
Ovibos moschatus (muskox)[17]
Paradiarsia glareosa (Autumnal Rustic)[6]
Peliococcus calluneti (heather mealybug)[11]
Phaeangellina empetri[9]
Physalospora empetri[9]
Pluvialis fulva (Pacific Golden-Plover)[10]
Poecile hudsonicus (Boreal Chickadee)[8]
Prolita sexpunctella (Long-horned Flat-back)[6]
Psodos coracina <Unverified Name>[6]
Pygmaena fusca[7]
Scythris empetrella[6]
Swammerdamia conspersella[7]
Sympistis heliophila[7]
Tetrao urogallus (Western Capercaillie)[10]
Ursus americanus (black bear)[14]
Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)[8]
Xestia alpicola <Unverified Name>[6]
Zygaena exulans (Mountain Burnet)[7]


Pollinated by 
Bombus polaris (Bumblebee)[8]


Mutual (symbiont) 
Oidiodendron maius[9]
Parasitized by 
Chrysomyxa empetri[9]
Duplicaria empetri[9]


North America;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Derived from Allergy-Free Gardening OPALS™, Thomas Leo Ogren (2000)
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish Plants: Status, Size, Life History, Geography and Habitats, M. O. Hill, C. D. Preston & D. B. Roy, Biological Records Centre, NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (2004)
5ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999)
6Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
7HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
8Making The Forest And Tundra Wildlife Connection
9Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
10del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
11Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
12Lepus othus, Troy L. Best and Travis Hill Henry, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 458, pp. 1-5 (1994)
13Starling-Westerberg, A. N. N. E. (2001). The habitat use and diet of black grouse Tetrao tetrix in the Pennine hills of northern England. Bird Study, 48(1), 76-89.
14Exploring the Denali Food Web, ParkWise, National Park Service
15Analysing diet of small herbivores: the efficiency of DNA barcoding coupled with high-throughput pyrosequencing for deciphering the composition of complex plant mixtures, Eeva M Soininen, Alice Valentini, Eric Coissac, Christian Miquel, Ludovic Gielly, Christian Brochmann, Anne K Brysting, Jørn H Sønstebø, Rolf A Ims, Nigel G Yoccoz and Pierre Taberlet, Frontiers in Zoology 2009, 6:16
16Ochotona collaris, Stephen O. MacDonald and Clyde Jones, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 281, pp. 1-4 (1987)
17Ovibos moschatus, Peter C. Lent, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 302, pp. 1-9 (1988)
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Ramsar Sites Information Service
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access