Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Myrtales > Combretaceae > Terminalia > Terminalia catappa

Terminalia catappa (india almond; false kamani; Indian almond; troipical almond; tropical almond)

Synonyms: Badamia commersoni; Buceras catappa; Bucida buceras; Juglans catappa; Myrobalanus badamia; Myrobalanus catappa; Myrobalanus commersonii; Myrobalanus procera; Myrobalanus rubrigemmis; Myrobalanus terminalia; Terminalia badamia; Terminalia intermedia; Terminalia kydiana; Terminalia latifolia; Terminalia mauritiana; Terminalia moluccana; Terminalia myrobalana; Terminalia ovatifolia; Terminalia paraensis; Terminalia procera; Terminalia rubrigemmis; Terminalia subcordata

Wikipedia Abstract

Terminalia catappa is a large tropical tree in the leadwood tree family, Combretaceae, that grows mainly in the tropical regions of Asia, Africa, and Australia. It is known by the English common names country-almond, Indian-almond, Malabar-almond, sea-almond, tropical-almond and false kamani.
View Wikipedia Record: Terminalia catappa

Invasive Species

Terminalia catappa is a native plant of Asia that has escaped from cultivation. Due to its ability to cope with sandy, well draining soil, and salt spray it is often found on coastal regions. It is considered invasive in Florida, United States, and several Carribean Islands, including Montserrat, Puerto Rico and the Cayman Islands. Its seeds are highly bouyant which allows it disperse vast distances however they are highly edible so are eaten by bats, crabs and humans. However despite its potential as being an invasive species it is being considered for multiple applications. Due to its extensive and deep-rooting structure it is considered a possible species to use as a dune retention species against proposed climate change and sea-level rise, and in Brazil it is also being considered a potential cultivar to use in bio-fuel creation.
View ISSG Record: Terminalia catappa


Height [1]  37 feet (11.4 m)
Width [1]  30 feet (9.2 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium
Carbon Capture [1]  Low
Screening - Summer [2]  Moderate
Screening - Winter [2]  Moderate
Shade Percentage [1]  83 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 11 Low Temperature: 40 F° (4.4 C°) → 50 F° (10 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 11 Low Temperature: 40 F° (4.4 C°) → 50 F° (10 C°)
Light Preference [2]  Mixed Sun/Shade
Soil Acidity [2]  Neutral
Soil Fertility [2]  Intermediate
Water Use [1]  Moderate to Low
Flower Color [2]  White
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Fruit Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Bloom Period [2]  Indeterminate
Drought Tolerance [2]  Medium
Fire Tolerance [2]  Medium
Frost Free Days [2]  1 year
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  Medium
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Year Round
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Year Round
Growth Form [2]  Single Stem
Growth Period [2]  Year Round
Growth Rate [2]  Moderate
Leaf Type [3]  Evergreen
Lifespan [2]  Perennial
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Seed
Root Depth [2]  33 inches (84 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Moderate
Seed Vigor [2]  Medium
Seeds Per [2]  70 / lb (154 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Erect
Specific Gravity [4]  0.49
Structure [3]  Tree
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Archipelago de Colon Biosphere Reserve 34336011 Galapagos Islands, Ecuador  
Ciénaga de Zapata National Park 1606900 Cuba  
Corcovado National Park 115845 Costa Rica  
Desecheo National Wildlife Refuge   Puerto Rico, United States
Everglades and Dry Tortugas Biosphere Reserve   Florida, United States  
Isla del Coco National Park II 382187 Costa Rica    
Manuel Antonio National Park II 21625 Costa Rica  
Pulu Keeling National Park II 6469 Cocos (Keeling) Islands    
Reserva Biológica Isla del Caño Biological Reserve Ia 1054 Costa Rica  
Santa Rosa National Park II 95780 Costa Rica
Seaflower Marine Protected Area 15125514 Colombia      


Acrocercops diffluella[5]
Acrocercops erioplaca[5]
Acrocercops supplex[5]
Acrocercops terminaliae[5]
Acrocercops vanula[5]
Amazona albifrons (White-fronted Parrot)[6]
Amazona auropalliata (Yellow-naped Parrot)[6]
Anastrepha fraterculus (South American fruit fly)[7]
Anastrepha obliqua (west indian fruit fly)[7]
Anastrepha striata (guava fruit fly)[7]
Anastrepha suspensa (Caribbean fruit fly)[7]
Anastrepha turpiniae[7]
Anastrepha zenildae[7]
Anastrus sempiternus[5]
Aporandria specularia[5]
Ara macao (Scarlet Macaw)[8]
Aratinga canicularis (Orange-fronted Parakeet)[6]
Arctornis submarginata[5]
Arctornis subvitrea[5]
Arhopala centaurus (Centaur Oakblue)[9]
Arhopala eupolis[9]
Artibeus jamaicensis (Jamaican fruit-eating bat)[10]
Aspidiotus destructor (coconut scale)[11]
Automeris melanops[5]
Badamia exclamationis (Brown awl)[5]
Baria elsa[5]
Brachyphylla cavernarum (Antillean fruit-eating bat)[12]
Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly)[7]
Chrysiridia croesus (Croesus moth)[5]
Citheronia hamifera[5]
Coccus viridis (green coffee scale)[11]
Ctenolita anacompa[5]
Cynopterus sphinx (greater short-nosed fruit bat)[13]
Dasychira rocana[5]
Ducula galeata (Marquesan Imperial Pigeon)[14]
Dysmicoccus brevipes (pineapple mealybug)[11]
Dysmicoccus grassii[11]
Eilema vicara[5]
Eos histrio (Red-and-blue Lory)[15]
Eulemur fulvus (brown lemur)[16]
Eulemur macaco (black lemur)[16]
Euproctis rubricosta[5]
Ferrisia virgata (grey mealybug)[11]
Gamelia abasia[5]
Hamanumida daedalus (Guineafowl butterfly)[5]
Howardia biclavis (mining scale)[11]
Hylesia nanus[5]
Hypochrysops apelles[9]
Hypochrysops narcissus[9]
Hyposidra apioleuca[5]
Lopholeucaspis cockerelli (Cockerell scale)[11]
Lymantria ampla[5]
Lymantria lepcha[5]
Maconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug)[11]
Maurilia iconica[5]
Megalopyge krugii[5]
Menevia plagiata[5]
Metanastria hyrtaca[5]
Metisa plana[5]
Micromorphe linta[5]
Milviscutulus mangiferae (mango shield scale)[11]
Miresa melanosticta[5]
Motya abseuzalis[5]
Nilasera centaurus (Centaur Oakblue)[5]
Pagodiella hekmeyeri[5]
Parasaissetia nigra (nigra scale)[17]
Parlatoria proteus (common parlatoria scale)[11]
Phyllocnistis synglypta[5]
Phyllostomus hastatus (greater spear-nosed bat)[18]
Pinnaspis strachani (lesser snow scale)[11]
Planococcus lilacinus (citrus mealybug)[11]
Planococcus minor (Pacific mealybug)[11]
Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (gingging scale)[11]
Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli (false oleander scale)[11]
Pseudococcus orchidicola[11]
Pseudolycaena marsyas (Cambridge Blue)[5]
Pteropus conspicillatus (spectacled flying fox)[19]
Pteropus dasymallus inopinatus (Orii’s flying-fox)[20]
Pteropus giganteus (Indian flying fox)[21]
Pteropus niger (greater mascarene flying fox)[22]
Pteropus samoensis (Samoa Flying Fox)[23]
Pteropus tonganus (Pacific flying fox)[24]
Rousettus leschenaultii (Leschenault's rousette)[21]
Saissetia miranda (mexican black scale)[11]
Sphrageidus producta[5]
Tachardiella artocarpi[11]
Thyas miniacea[5]
Touit purpuratus (Sapphire-rumped Parrotlet)[14]
Trypanophora semihyalina[5]
Urania leilus (Green-banded Urania)[5]
Westermannia argentea[5]
Zesius chrysomallus (Redspot)[16]
Daubentonia madagascariensis (aye-aye)[25]


Shelter for 
Daubentonia madagascariensis (aye-aye)[25]


Caribbean; North America; Oceania;



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Kattge, J. et al. (2011b) TRY - a global database of plant traits Global Change Biology 17:2905-2935
4Jérôme Chave, Helene C. Muller-Landau, Timothy R. Baker, Tomás A. Easdale, Hans ter Steege, Campbell O. Webb, 2006. Regional and phylogenetic variation of wood density across 2,456 neotropical tree species. Ecological Applications 16(6), 2356 - 2367
5HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
7Norrbom, A.L. 2004. Fruit fly (Tephritidae) host plant database. Version Nov, 2004.
8Current Status and Conservation of the Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) in the Osa Conservation Area (ACOSA), Costa Rica, Fiona Dear, Christopher Vaughan and Adrián Morales Polanco, Research Journal of the Costa Rican Distance Education University Vol. 2(1): 7-21, June, 2010
9Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
10Artibeus jamaicensis, Jorge Ortega and Iván Castro-Arellano, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 662, pp. 1–9 (2001)
11Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
12Brachyphylla cavernarum, Pierre Swanepoel and Hugh H. Genoways, Mammalian Species No. 205, pp. 1-6 (1983)
13Cynopterus sphinx, Jay F. Storz and Thomas H. Kunz, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 613, pp. 1-8 (1999)
14del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
15Red-and-blue Lory, BirdLife International (2001) Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International.
16Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
17Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
18Phyllostomus hastatus, Mery Santos, Luis F. Aguirre, Luis B. Vázquez, and Jorge Ortega, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 722, pp. 1–6 (2003)
19The Spectacled Flying-Fox, Pteropus conspicillatus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae), in North Queensland 2. Diet, seed dispersal and feeding ecology, G. C. Richards, Australian Mammalogy, Vol 13 Nos. 1 & 2, pp. 25-31
20The role of Orii’s flying-fox (Pteropus dasymallus inopinatus) as a pollinator and a seed disperser on Okinawa-jima Island, the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan; Atsushi Nakamoto, Kazumitsu Kinjo Masako Izawa; Ecol Res (2009) 24: 405–414
21Sudhakaran, M.R. & P.S. Doss (2012). Food and foraging preferences of three pteropo- did bats in southern India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 4(1): 2295-2303
22An investigation into the role of the Mauritian flying fox, Pteropus niger, in forest regeneration, Dorte Friis Nyhagen, Stephen David Turnbull, Jens Mogens Olesen, Carl G. Jones, Biological Conservation 122 (2005) 491–497
23Pteropus samoensis, Sandra Anne Banack, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 661, pp. 1–4 (2001)
24Pteropus tonganus, Carrie A. Miller and Don E. Wilson, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 552, pp. 1-6 (1997)
25Daubentonia madagascariensis, Aleta Quinn and Don E. Wilson, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 740, pp. 1–6 (2004)
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