Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Sapindales > Sapindaceae > Acer > Acer rubrum

Acer rubrum (red maple)

Synonyms: Acer coccineum; Acer fulgens; Acer glaucum; Acer hypoleucum; Acer leucophyllum; Acer rubrum f. viride; Acer rubrum var. viride; Acer sanguineum; Acer splendens; Acer stenocarpum; Acer virginianum; Acer wagneri; Rufacer rubrum

Wikipedia Abstract

Acer rubrum (red maple, also known as swamp, water or soft maple) is one of the most common and widespread deciduous trees of eastern and central North America. The U.S. Forest service recognizes it as the most commonplace native tree in eastern North America. The red maple ranges from southeastern Manitoba around the Lake of the Woods on the border with Ontario and Minnesota, east to Newfoundland, south to Florida, and southwest to eastern Texas. Many of its features, especially its leaves, are quite variable in form. At maturity it often attains a height of around 15 m (50 ft). Its flowers, petioles, twigs and seeds are all red to varying degrees. Among these features, however, it is best known for its brilliant deep scarlet foliage in autumn.
View Wikipedia Record: Acer rubrum



Height [3]  98 feet (30 m)
Width [1]  50 feet (15.2 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium
Carbon Capture [1]  Medium-High
Screening - Summer [2]  Dense
Screening - Winter [2]  Porous
Shade Percentage [1]  86 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  High
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 4 Low Temperature: -30 F° (-34.4 C°) → -20 F° (-28.9 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 10 Low Temperature: 30 F° (-1.1 C°) → 40 F° (4.4 C°)
Light Preference [2]  Mixed Sun/Shade
Soil Acidity [2]  Moderate Acid
Soil Fertility [2]  Intermediate
Water Use [1]  High
Flower Color [2]  Red
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Red
Fall Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Flower Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Fruit Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Bloom Period [2]  Early Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  Medium
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  Low
Flower Type [3]  Hermaphrodite
Frost Free Days [2]  80 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Spring
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Spring
Growth Form [2]  Single Stem
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Rapid
Hazards [2]  Slight Toxicity
Janka Hardness [4]  940 lbf (426 kgf) Soft
Leaf Type [3]  Deciduous
Lifespan [2]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Seed
Root Depth [2]  30 inches (76 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Moderate
Seed Vigor [2]  Medium
Seeds Per [2]  22720 / lb (50089 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Rounded
Specific Gravity [5]  0.54
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  The leaves are packed around apples, rootcrops etc to help preserve them; The boiled inner bark yields a purple colour; Mixed with lead sulphate this produces a black dye which can also be used as an ink; The dye is dark blue according to another report; The wood is used to make basket splints; This species can successfully establish itself in recently cleared areas and partially open woodlands; It can therefore be used as a pioneer species to speed the regeneration of woodland; Wood - not strong, close grained, hard, very heavy; It weighs 38lb per cubic foot; The grain of some old specimens is undulated, this gives beautiful effects of light and shade on polished surfaces; The wood is commonly used for making furniture, turnery, pulp, etc;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Acer rubrum

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Allegheny Portage Railroad Nat'l Hist. Site National Historic Site III 1152 Pennsylvania, United States
Appomattox Court House National Historical Park V 1687 Virginia, United States
Assateague Island National Seashore II 8621 Maryland, United States
Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area National Recreation Area V 120283 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Blue Ridge Parkway National Parkway V 73611 North Carolina, Virginia, United States
Bluestone National Scenic River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 3517 West Virginia, United States
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Booker T. Washington National Monument V 237 Virginia, United States
Calvin College Ecosystem Preserve 90 Michigan, United States
Canaveral National Seashore II 9090 Florida, United States
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Catoctin Mountain Park National Park II 5994 Maryland, United States
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 19586 Maryland, District of Columbia, United States
Chickamauga & Chattanooga Nat'l Military Park National Military Park V 8248 Georgia, Tennessee, United States
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   North Carolina, United States
Cumberland Gap National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 24282 Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, United States
Desecheo National Wildlife Refuge   Puerto Rico, United States
Edwin S. George Reserve 1297 Michigan, United States
Everglades and Dry Tortugas Biosphere Reserve   Florida, United States  
Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge VI 66133 Arkansas, United States
Fire Island National Seashore V 9433 New York, United States
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fort Donelson National Battlefield III 560 Tennessee, United States
Fort Necessity National Battlefield III 1019 Pennsylvania, United States
Fort Pulaski National Monument V 4213 Georgia, United States
Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania Nat'l Military Park National Military Park V 10384 Virginia, United States
Friendship Hill National Historic Site III 697 Pennsylvania, United States
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
Gauley River National Recreation Area V 10157 West Virginia, United States
George Washington Birthplace National Monument V 435 Virginia, United States
George Washington Memorial Parkway V   Virginia, United States
Georgian Bay Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Grand Rapids Audubon Club Maher Sanctuary 80 Michigan, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge VI 3161 New Jersey, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Harpers Ferry National Historical Park VI 715 West Virginia, United States
Hobcaw Barony (North Inlet) National Estuarine Research Reserve 7585 South Carolina, United States
Hope College Biology Nature Preserve 55 Michigan, United States
Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site III 861 Pennsylvania, United States
Horseshoe Bend National Military Park V 1926 Alabama, United States
Hubbard Brook Biosphere Reserve 7809 New Hampshire, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Johnstown Flood National Memorial VI 175 Pennsylvania, United States
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park III 2897 Georgia, United States
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge VI 28351 Louisiana, United States
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Little River National Wildlife Refuge   Oklahoma, United States
Little St. Simons Island   Georgia, United States
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Moores Creek National Battlefield III 100 North Carolina, United States
Morristown National Historical Park VI 1677 New Jersey, United States
Mount Mitchell State Park   North Carolina, United States
National Capital Parks - Central National Park   District of Columbia, United States
National Capital Region - East National Park   District of Columbia, United States
New Jersey Pinelands Biosphere Reserve   New Jersey, United States  
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Obed Wild and Scenic River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 5268 Tennessee, United States
Ocmulgee National Monument V 693 Georgia, United States
Oconee National Forest Botanical Reserve 306 Georgia, United States  
Petersburg National Battlefield III 3338 Virginia, United States
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Prince Edward Island National Park II   Prince Edward Island, Canada  
Prince William Forest Park 19378 District of Columbia, United States
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Richmond National Battlefield Park III 1517 Virginia, United States
Rock Creek Park   District of Columbia, United States
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Roosevelt Vanderbilt National Historic Site   New York, United States      
Saint Lawrence Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Santee Coastal Reserve and Washo Reserve State Habitat Area IV 20850 South Carolina, United States  
Saratoga National Historical Park   New York, United States
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Tennessee River Gorge   Tennessee, United States
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Valley Forge National Historical Park VI 3509 Pennsylvania, United States
Western Michigan University's Asylum Lake Preserve 274 Michigan, United States


Emblem of

Rhode Island


Acleris chalybeana[6]
Acronicta americana (American dagger moth)[6]
Acronicta retardata[6]
Actias luna (luna moth)[6]
Alsophila pometaria (fall cankerworm)[6]
Amphipyra pyramidoides (copper underwing)[6]
Anacamptodes ephyraria[6]
Anisota oslari (Oslar’s oakworm moth)[6]
Antaeotricha leucillana[6]
Antheraea polyphemus (polyphemus moth)[6]
Archips rosana (Rose Tortrix)[6]
Automeris io (Io moth)[6]
Bombus fervidus (Golden northern bumble bee)[7]
Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Carnation Tortrix)[8]
Caloptilia aceriella[6]
Caloptilia bimaculatella[6]
Caloptilia speciosella[6]
Caloptilia umbratella[6]
Cameraria aceriella[6]
Cameraria saccharella[6]
Campaea perlata (light emerald)[6]
Catastega aceriella[6]
Catocala cerogama (Yellow-banded Underwing)[6]
Cerococcus koebelei[9]
Cerococcus parrotti[9]
Chionaspis acericola (maple chionaspis)[9]
Choristoneura fractivittana[6]
Choristoneura parallela[6]
Choristoneura rosaceana (Oblique Banded Leaf Roller)[6]
Cingilia catenaria (chainspotted geometer)[6]
Coleophora alniella[6]
Colocasia flavicornis (Yellowhorn)[6]
Crocigrapha normani[6]
Cryptococcus williamsi (maple bark scale)[9]
Dasychira plagiata (Northern Pine Tussock)[6]
Datana ministra (yellownecked caterpillar)[6]
Diaspidiotus liquidambaris (sweet gum scale)[9]
Dryocampa rubicunda (Rosy Maple Moth)[6]
Eacles imperialis (Imperial moth)[6]
Ectropis crepuscularia (small engrailed)[6]
Ennomos subsignaria (elm spanworm)[6]
Eotetranychus pruni[8]
Episimus tyrius[6]
Erannis tiliaria (linden looper)[6]
Eupsilia sidus[6]
Eupsilia tristigmata[6]
Eutrapela clemataria[6]
Halysidota tessellaris (Banded Tussock Moth)[6]
Heterocampa biundata[6]
Heterocampa guttivitta (saddled prominent)[6]
Hyalophora cecropia (Cecropia Moth)[6]
Hypagyrtis unipunctata (One-spotted Variant Moth)[6]
Hyphantria cunea (fall webworm)[6]
Lambdina fiscellaria (hemlock looper)[6]
Lepidosaphes ulmi (apple oystershell scale)[9]
Lithacodes fasciola (Ochre-winged hag moth)[6]
Lithophane bethunei[6]
Lithophane innominata (Nameless Pinion)[6]
Lithophane laticinerea[6]
Lithophane petulca[6]
Lophocampa caryae (hickory tussock moth)[6]
Lophocampa maculata (spotted tussock moth)[6]
Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)[6]
Machimia tentoriferella (Gold-striped Leaftier Moth)[6]
Malacosoma americana (Eastern tent caterpillar)[6]
Megalopyge crispata (Crinkled flannel moth)[6]
Melanaspis tenebricosa (gloomy scale)[9]
Melanolophia canadaria[6]
Mesolecanium nigrofasciatum (terrapin scale)[9]
Metanema determinata[6]
Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole)[7]
Nadata gibbosa (Rough Prominent)[6]
Nites betulella[6]
Nymphalis antiopa (camberwell beauty)[7]
Olethreutes appendiceum[6]
Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat)[7]
Oreana unicolorella[6]
Orgyia antiqua (Rusty Tussock Moth)[6]
Orgyia definita (definite tussock moth)[6]
Orthosia revicta[6]
Orthotaenia undulana[6]
Paleacrita vernata (spring cankerworm)[6]
Pandemis lamprosana[6]
Paraclemensia acerifoliella (maple leafcutter)[6]
Parallelia bistriaris (Maple Looper Moth)[6]
Parlatoria oleae (olive parlatoria scale)[9]
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)[7]
Phigalia titea (Spiny Looper)[6]
Phlogophora periculosa (Brown Angle Shades)[6]
Pholiota aurivella (Golden Scalycap)[10]
Phyllonorycter trinotella[6]
Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker)[7]
Plagodis alcoolaria (Hollow-spotted Plagodis)[6]
Plagodis serinaria[6]
Pococera asperatella[6]
Probole alienaria[6]
Probole amicaria[6]
Proteoteras aesculana (Maple Twig Borer)[6]
Proteoteras moffatiana[6]
Proteoteras willingana[6]
Pulvinaria acantholimoni <Unverified Name>[9]
Pulvinaria regalis (horse chestnut scale)[9]
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat)[7]
Selenia kentaria (Kent's Thorn)[6]
Semiothisa aemulataria[6]
Semiothisa ulsterata[6]
Spilosoma virginica (yellow woollybear)[6]
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail)[7]
Symmerista leucitys (orangehumped mapleworm)[6]
Tamias striatus (eastern chipmunk)[7]
Tetracis cachexiata (White Slant-line)[6]
Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Evergreen bagworm moth)[6]
Velataspis dentata (dentate scale)[9]
Xanthotype sospeta[6]
Zale minerea[6]
Actias luna[7]
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)[7]
Antheraea polyphemus[7]
Apis mellifera (honey bee)[7]
Castor canadensis (american beaver)[7]
Dynastes tityus (Eastern hercules beetle)[7]
Lepidosaphes ulmi[7]
Lymantria dispar[7]
Papilio glaucus (Eastern tiger swallowtail)[7]
Pterophylla camellifolia (common true katydid)[7]
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)[7]
Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow)[7]


Pollinated by 
Apis mellifera (honey bee)[7]
Bombus fervidus (Golden northern bumble bee)[7]
Nymphalis antiopa (camberwell beauty)[7]


Parasitized by 
Actenodes acornis[10]
Ampelocissus latifolia (American ivy)[7]
Armillaria mellea (Honey Fungus)[7]
Ganoderma applanatum (Artist’s Bracket)[7]
Lepidosaphes ulmi[7]
Lonicera japonica (Chinese honeysuckle)[7]
Oxyporus populinus (Poplar Bracket)[7]
Pleurotus ostreatus (Oyster Mushroom)[7]
Smilax rotundifolia (Horse Brier)[7]
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)[7]
Shelter for 
Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird)[7]
Dolichovespula maculata (baldfaced hornet)[7]
Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker)[7]
Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat)[7]
Geothlypis trichas (Common Yellowthroat)[7]
Ischnura posita (Fragile forktail)[7]
Libellula lydia (Common whitetail)[7]
Mephitis mephitis (Striped Skunk)[7]
Micrathena gracilis (Spined micrathena)[7]
Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird)[7]
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)[7]
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)[7]
Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee)[7]
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)[7]
Pseudacris crucifer (Spring Peeper)[7]
Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)[7]
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)[7]
Actias luna[7]
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)[7]
Antheraea polyphemus[7]
Apis mellifera (honey bee)[7]
Castor canadensis (american beaver)[7]
Dynastes tityus (Eastern hercules beetle)[7]
Lepidosaphes ulmi[7]
Lymantria dispar[7]
Papilio glaucus (Eastern tiger swallowtail)[7]
Pterophylla camellifolia (common true katydid)[7]
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)[7]
Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow)[7]

Range Map

North America; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
5Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service
6HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
7Study of Northern Virginia Ecology
8Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
9Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
10Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Calvin College Ecosystem Preserve
Edwin S. George Reserve, University of Michigan, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Maher Sanctuary, Grand Rapids Audubon Club
Hope College Biology Nature Preserve
Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake
Images provided by Wikimedia Commons licensed under a Creative Commons License
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access