Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Sapindales > Rutaceae > Citrus > Citrus japonica

Citrus japonica (sour orange)

Synonyms: Atalantia hindsii; Atalantia monophylla; Citrofortunella madurensis; Citrus aurantium subsp. japonica; Citrus aurantium var. globifera; Citrus aurantium var. oliviformis; Citrus hindsii; Citrus inermis; Citrus japonica var. madurensis; Citrus japonica var. margarita; Citrus kinokuni; Citrus madurensis; Citrus margarita; Citrus microcarpa; Citrus nobilis var. inermis; Fortunella bawangica; Fortunella chintou; Fortunella crassifolia; Fortunella hindsii; Fortunella hindsii var. chintou; Fortunella japonica; Fortunella japonica var. margarita; Fortunella margarita; Fortunella obovata; Fortunella venosa; Sclerostylis hindsii; Sclerostylis venosa

Wikipedia Abstract

Calamondin (× Citrofortunella microcarpa or × Citrofortunella mitis) is an important citrofortunella, meaning that it is an intergenetic hybrid between a member of the genus citrus (in this case probably the mandarin orange) and the kumquat belonging to Fortunella.Calamondin is used mainly as an ornamental tree, rather than for food, although the fruit is edible.
View Wikipedia Record: Citrus japonica


Height [2]  30 feet (9 m)
Width [2]  20 feet (6 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Low
Shade Percentage [1]  86 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Low
Wind Reduction [1]  High
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 9 Low Temperature: 20 F° (-6.7 C°) → 30 F° (-1.1 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 11 Low Temperature: 40 F° (4.4 C°) → 50 F° (10 C°)
Water Use [1]  Moderate
Edible [2]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Flower Type [2]  Hermaphrodite
Leaf Type [2]  Evergreen
Pollinators [2]  Apomictic, Insects, Lepidoptera
Structure [2]  Tree
Usage [2]  This species is much used as a rootstock for the sweet orange, C. sinensis, because of its disease resistance and greater hardiness; Grown as a hedging plant in N. America; A semi-drying oil obtained from the seed is used in soap making; Essential oils obtained from the peel, petals and leaves are used as a food flavouring and also in perfumery and medicines; The oil from the flowers is called 'Neroli oil' - yields are very low from this species and so it is often adulterated with inferior oils; The oil from the leaves and young shoots is called 'petit-grain' - 400 kilos of plant material yield about 1 kilo of oil; This is also often adulterated with inferior products; Neroli oil, mixed with vaseline, is used in India as a preventative against leeches;
View Plants For A Future Record : Citrus japonica

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Canaveral National Seashore II 9090 Florida, United States
Everglades and Dry Tortugas Biosphere Reserve   Florida, United States  
Fort Caroline National Memorial III 137 Florida, United States
Guanacaste National Park II 85819 Costa Rica  
Mburucuyá National Park II   Corrientes, Argentina  
Palo Verde National Park II 46190 Costa Rica  
Pico Mogote Ecological Reserve II 3698 Cuba  
Refugio de Vida Silvestre Reserva Karen Mogensen F. Nature Reserve 1866 Costa Rica  
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Tuabaquey - Limones Ecological Reserve II 4859 Cuba  
Ybycu'í National Park II 13915 Paraguay  


Achlyodes busirus[3]
Anastrepha fraterculus (South American fruit fly)[4]
Anastrepha ludens (Mexican fruit fly)[4]
Anastrepha obliqua (west indian fruit fly)[4]
Anastrepha serpentina (sapote fruit fly)[4]
Anastrepha suspensa (Caribbean fruit fly)[4]
Aonidiella aurantii (California red scale)[5]
Aonidiella orientalis (Oriental Scale)[5]
Aphis aurantii (black citrus aphid)[6]
Ara macao (Scarlet Macaw)[7]
Archips occidentalis[3]
Archips pensilis[3]
Archips symmetra[3]
Aulacaspis citri[5]
Automeris complicata[3]
Ceroplastes bergi[5]
Ceroplastes brevicauda[5]
Ceroplastes destructor (soft wax scale)[5]
Ceroplastes rusci (barnacle wax scale)[5]
Ceroplastes sinensis (hard wax scale)[5]
Chrysomphalus aonidum (circular black scale)[6]
Chrysomphalus dictyospermi (dictyospermum scale)[6]
Chrysomphalus diversicolor[5]
Chrysomphalus pallens <Unverified Name>[5]
Cinnyris asiaticus (Purple sunbird)[8]
Citripestis sagittiferella[3]
Coccus capparidis (capparis soft scale)[5]
Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Citricola scale)[5]
Coccus viridis (green coffee scale)[5]
Cryptothelea gloverii[3]
Ctenopseustis obliquana[9]
Dichomeris citrifoliella[3]
Dysmicoccus texensis[5]
Epalxiphora axenana[9]
Ferrisia terani[5]
Ferrisia virgata (grey mealybug)[5]
Fiorinia kumatai[5]
Fiorinia proboscidaria[5]
Geococcus citrinus[5]
Icerya purchasi (cottony cushion scale)[5]
Imbrasia eblis[3]
Insignorthezia pseudinsignis[5]
Ischnaspis longirostris (black line scale)[5]
Lepidosaphes beckii (citrus mussel scale)[5]
Lepidosaphes gloverii (citrus long scale)[5]
Lepidosaphes pinnaeformis (cymbidium scale)[5]
Lopholeucaspis cockerelli (Cockerell scale)[5]
Lopholeucaspis japonica (Japanese maple scale)[5]
Maconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug)[5]
Margarodes gimenezi[5]
Mesolecanium lucidum[5]
Morganella longispina (champaca scale)[5]
Neoselenaspidus silvaticus[5]
Nipaecoccus filamentosus[5]
Nipaecoccus viridis (karoo thorn mealybug)[5]
Papilio anchisiades (Rubyspot swallowtail)[3]
Papilio andraemon (Swallowtail)[3]
Papilio androgeus (Queen page swallowtail)[3]
Papilio astyalus (Broad-banded Swallowtail)[3]
Papilio cresphontes (Orange-dog swallowtail)[3]
Papilio dardanus (Mocker swallowtail)[3]
Papilio demodocus (Esper citrus swallowtail)[3]
Papilio demoleus (Checkered lime swallowtail)[3]
Papilio memnon (Great mormon swallowtail)[3]
Papilio nireus (Narrow blue-banded swallowtail)[3]
Papilio polytes (Common mormon swallowtail)[3]
Paracoccus burnerae (oleander scale)[5]
Parasa viridissima[3]
Parlatoria cinerea (apple parlatoria)[5]
Parlatoria oleae (olive parlatoria scale)[5]
Parlatoria pergandii (black parlatoria scale)[5]
Parlatoria proteus (common parlatoria scale)[5]
Parlatoria ziziphi (citrus parlatoria)[5]
Phenacoccus solenopsis (solenopsis mealybug)[5]
Phyllocnistis citrella (Citrus leafminer)[3]
Pinnaspis aspidistrae <Unverified Name>[5]
Pinnaspis strachani (lesser snow scale)[5]
Planococcus lilacinus (citrus mealybug)[5]
Planococcus minor (Pacific mealybug)[5]
Planotortrix excessana (Greenheaded leafroller)[9]
Planotortrix notophaea[9]
Prays citri (Citrus Blossum Moth)[3]
Protopulvinaria pyriformis (pyriform scale)[5]
Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (gingging scale)[5]
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale)[5]
Pseudococcus cryptus (citriculus mealybug)[5]
Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi (banana mealybug)[5]
Pseudococcus trukensis[5]
Pulvinaria aethiopica[5]
Pulvinaria aurantii[5]
Pulvinaria flavescens[5]
Pulvinaria floccifera (cottony camellia scale)[5]
Pulvinaria mammeae (large cottony scale)[5]
Pulvinaria psidii (green shield scale)[5]
Rastrococcus rubellus[5]
Rastrococcus truncatispinus (Rastrococcus mealybug)[5]
Rastrococcus vicorum[5]
Saissetia coffeae (brown scale)[5]
Saissetia orbiculata[5]
Saissetia privigna[5]
Saissetia somereni[5]
Tachardina actinella[5]
Toumeyella cubensis[5]
Udinia catori[5]
Unaspis citri (citrus snow scale)[5]
Unaspis yanonensis (arrowhead scale)[5]


Caribbean; North America;



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
3HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
4Norrbom, A.L. 2004. Fruit fly (Tephritidae) host plant database. Version Nov, 2004.
5Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
6Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
7Current Status and Conservation of the Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) in the Osa Conservation Area (ACOSA), Costa Rica, Fiona Dear, Christopher Vaughan and Adrián Morales Polanco, Research Journal of the Costa Rican Distance Education University Vol. 2(1): 7-21, June, 2010
8Notes on Feeding and Breeding Habits of the Purple Sunbird Nectarinia asiatica (Cinnyris asiaticus) in Bandar Abbas, Hormozgan, Southern Iran, TAHER GHADIRIAN, ALI T. QASHQAEI & MOHSEN DADRAS, Podoces, 2007, 2(2): 122–126
9New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
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Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access