Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Sapindales > Rutaceae > Citrus > Citrus limon

Citrus limon (lemon)

Synonyms: Citrus aurantium subsp. bergamia; Citrus aurantium var. bergamia; Citrus aurantium var. limonum; Citrus aurantium var. mellarosa; Citrus bergamia; Citrus bergamia subsp. mellarosa; Citrus bergamota; Citrus limodulcis; Citrus limon var. pompia; Citrus limonelloides; Citrus limonia; Citrus limonum; Citrus medica f. limon; Citrus medica subsp. limonum; Citrus medica var. limon; Citrus medica var. limonum; Citrus mellarosa; Citrus meyeri; Limon vulgaris

Wikipedia Abstract

The lemon (Citrus × limon) is a species of small evergreen tree native to Asia. The tree's ellipsoidal yellow fruit is used for culinary and non-culinary purposes throughout the world, primarily for its juice, which has both culinary and cleaning uses. The pulp and rind (zest) are also used in cooking and baking. The juice of the lemon is about 5% to 6% citric acid, which gives a sour taste. The distinctive sour taste of lemon juice makes it a key ingredient in drinks and foods such as lemonade and lemon meringue pie.
View Wikipedia Record: Citrus limon


Height [2]  9.8 feet (3 m)
Width [2]  39 inches (1 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Low
Shade Percentage [1]  86 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Low
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium-High
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 9 Low Temperature: 20 F° (-6.7 C°) → 30 F° (-1.1 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 11 Low Temperature: 40 F° (4.4 C°) → 50 F° (10 C°)
Water Use [1]  Moderate
Edible [2]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Flower Type [2]  Hermaphrodite
Leaf Type [2]  Evergreen
Pollinators [2]  Apomictic, Insects, Lepidoptera
Structure [2]  Shrub
Usage [2]  A semi-drying oil obtained from the seed is used in soap making; An essential oil from the peel is used as a food flavouring and also in perfumery and medicines; A higher quality essential oil is obtained from the flowers; The peel contains 0.4% essential oil; An essential oil obtained from the leaves and young twigs is called 'petitgrain oil'. Yields are around 0.4%; The dried fruit rind has been used as an insect repellent in the clothes cupboard; The juice of the fruit is used for polishing bronze and other metals that have been neglected; It can also be used for removing ink stains; The juice is used as a bleaching agent; Wood - nicely veined, it takes a beautiful polish;
View Plants For A Future Record : Citrus limon

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Everglades and Dry Tortugas Biosphere Reserve   Florida, United States  
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 177278 Hawaii, United States
Tuabaquey - Limones Ecological Reserve II 4859 Cuba  


Abgrallaspis cyanophylli (cyanophyllum scale)[3]
Achlyodes busirus[4]
Achlyodes thraso[5]
Acosmeryx anceus[5]
Acutaspis scutiformis[6]
Adoxophyes fasciculana[5]
Amyelois transitella (Navel Orangeworm)[5]
Anastrepha fraterculus (South American fruit fly)[7]
Anoplophora chinensis (Citrus Longhorned Beetle)[8]
Aonidiella aurantii (California red scale)[6]
Aonidiella orientalis (Oriental Scale)[6]
Aphis aurantii (black citrus aphid)[3]
Argyrotaenia citrana (Orange tortrix)[5]
Aspidiotus nerii (ivy scale)[3]
Aulacaspis citri[6]
Cadra cautella[5]
Ceroplastes cirripediformis (barnacle scale)[6]
Ceroplastes japonicus (fig wax scale)[6]
Ceroplastes macgregori[6]
Ceroplastes rubens (pink wax scale)[6]
Ceroplastes rusci (barnacle wax scale)[6]
Ceroplastes sinensis (hard wax scale)[6]
Chrysomphalus aonidum (circular black scale)[3]
Chrysomphalus pallens <Unverified Name>[6]
Cinnyris asiaticus (Purple sunbird)[9]
Citripestis sagittiferella[5]
Clavaspidiotus apicalis[6]
Coccus africanus[6]
Coccus alpinus[6]
Coccus longulus (long brown scale)[6]
Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Citricola scale)[6]
Coccus viridis (green coffee scale)[6]
Cryptoblabes gnidiella[5]
Ctenopseustis obliquana[10]
Cuniculus paca (Paca)[11]
Duplaspidiotus claviger (camellia mining scale)[6]
Dynaspidiotus britanicus <Unverified Name>[3]
Dysmicoccus brevipes (pineapple mealybug)[6]
Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (annona mealybug)[6]
Dysmicoccus nesophilus[6]
Eucalymnatus tessellatus (tessellated scale)[6]
Ferrisia virgata (grey mealybug)[6]
Fiorinia proboscidaria[6]
Hemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale)[6]
Hippotion scrofa (Scrofa hawk moth)[5]
Howardia biclavis (mining scale)[6]
Hypogeococcus boharti[6]
Icerya purchasi (cottony cushion scale)[6]
Kilifia acuminata (acuminate scale)[6]
Kilifia americana[6]
Lepidosaphes beckii (citrus mussel scale)[6]
Lepidosaphes gloverii (citrus long scale)[6]
Lopholeucaspis cockerelli (Cockerell scale)[6]
Milviscutulus mangiferae (mango shield scale)[6]
Morganella longispina (champaca scale)[6]
Nipaecoccus viridis (karoo thorn mealybug)[6]
Odonaspis morrisoni[6]
Oemona hirta[10]
Papilio amynthor (Norfolk Swallowtail)[4]
Papilio anactus (Small citrus butterfly)[4]
Papilio anchisiades (Rubyspot swallowtail)[5]
Papilio astyalus (Broad-banded Swallowtail)[5]
Papilio cresphontes (Orange-dog swallowtail)[5]
Papilio demoleus (Checkered lime swallowtail)[5]
Papilio demolion (Banded swallowtail)[5]
Papilio machaon (Old World swallowtail)[4]
Papilio nephelus (Black-and-white helen swallowtail)[5]
Papilio nireus (Narrow blue-banded swallowtail)[4]
Papilio polytes (Common mormon swallowtail)[5]
Papilio protenor (Tiger swallowtail)[5]
Papilio thoas (Giant swallowtail)[5]
Papilio xuthus (Tiger swallowtail)[4]
Papilio zelicaon (Anise swallowtail)[5]
Parlatoria cinerea (apple parlatoria)[6]
Parlatoria pergandii (black parlatoria scale)[6]
Parlatoria proteus (common parlatoria scale)[3]
Parlatoria ziziphi (citrus parlatoria)[3]
Parthenolecanium perlatum[6]
Phenacoccus tucumanus[6]
Philephedra tuberculosa[6]
Phyllocnistis citrella (Citrus leafminer)[5]
Phymatus hetaera <Unverified Name>[10]
Pinnaspis aspidistrae <Unverified Name>[6]
Pinnaspis strachani (lesser snow scale)[6]
Planococcus lilacinus (citrus mealybug)[6]
Planococcus minor (Pacific mealybug)[6]
Planotortrix excessana (Greenheaded leafroller)[10]
Platynota stultana (Omnivorous leafroller)[5]
Prays endocarpa[5]
Protopulvinaria pyriformis (pyriform scale)[3]
Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (gingging scale)[6]
Pseudococcus cryptus (citriculus mealybug)[6]
Psorosticha zizyphi (Citrus leafroller moth)[5]
Pulvinaria aurantii[6]
Pulvinaria decorata[6]
Pulvinaria flavescens[6]
Pulvinaria floccifera (cottony camellia scale)[6]
Pulvinaria psidii (green shield scale)[6]
Puto yuccae (large Yucca mealybug)[6]
Rastrococcus invadens (Mango mealybug)[6]
Rastrococcus truncatispinus (Rastrococcus mealybug)[6]
Rastrococcus vicorum[6]
Saissetia coffeae (brown scale)[6]
Saissetia neglecta (Caribbean black scale)[6]
Scirtothrips inermis[10]
Selenaspidus articulatus (rufous scale)[3]
Spilococcus atriplicis (Southern California mealybug)[6]
Strymon melinus (cotton square borer)[5]
Theretra oldenlandiae (Vine hawk moth)[5]
Toumeyella cubensis[6]
Unaspis citri (citrus snow scale)[6]
Zosterops tenuirostris (Slender-billed White-eye)[12]


Caribbean; North America;



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
3Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
5HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
6Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
7Norrbom, A.L. 2004. Fruit fly (Tephritidae) host plant database. Version Nov, 2004.
8Citrus Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), Jamba Gyeltshen and Amanda Hodges, University of Florida
9Notes on Feeding and Breeding Habits of the Purple Sunbird Nectarinia asiatica (Cinnyris asiaticus) in Bandar Abbas, Hormozgan, Southern Iran, TAHER GHADIRIAN, ALI T. QASHQAEI & MOHSEN DADRAS, Podoces, 2007, 2(2): 122–126
10New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
11Dieta da paca (Cuniculus paca) usando métodos indiretos numa área de cultura agrícola na Floresta Atlântica brasileira, Rodrigo Zucaratto, Renata Carrara, Brena Karina Siqueira Franco, Biotemas, 23 (1): 235-239, março de 2010
12del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access