Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Lamiales > Acanthaceae > Avicennia > Avicennia germinans

Avicennia germinans (black mangrove)

Synonyms: Avicennia africana; Avicennia elliptica; Avicennia floridana; Avicennia germinans f. aberrans; Avicennia germinans f. brasiliensis; Avicennia germinans f. venezuelensis; Avicennia germinans var. cumanensis; Avicennia germinans var. guayaquilensis; Avicennia lamarckiana; Avicennia meyeri; Avicennia nitida; Avicennia oblongifolia; Avicennia officinalis var. lanceolata; Avicennia officinalis var. nitida; Avicennia tomentosa; Avicennia tomentosa var. cumanensis; Avicennia tomentosa var. guayaquilensis; Bontia germinans; Hilairanthus nitidus; Hilairanthus tomentosus

Wikipedia Abstract

The black mangrove (Avicennia germinans), is a species of flowering plant in the acanthus family, Acanthaceae. It grows in tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas, on both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, and on the Atlantic coast of tropical Africa, where it thrives on the sandy and muddy shores that seawater reaches.
View Wikipedia Record: Avicennia germinans


Height [1]  30 feet (9.1 m)
Screening - Summer [1]  Dense
Screening - Winter [1]  Dense
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 8 Low Temperature: 10 F° (-12.2 C°) → 20 F° (-6.7 C°)
Light Preference [1]  Full Sun
Soil Acidity [1]  Neutral
Soil Fertility [1]  Infertile
Water Use [1]  High
Flower Color [1]  White
Foliage Color [1]  Dark Green
Fruit Color [1]  Green
Fall Conspicuous [1]  Yes
Flower Conspicuous [1]  Yes
Fruit Conspicuous [1]  Yes
Bloom Period [1]  Indeterminate
Drought Tolerance [1]  Low
Fire Tolerance [1]  Low
Frost Free Days [1]  10 months 28 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [1]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [1]  Year Round
Fruit/Seed End [1]  Year Round
Growth Form [1]  Single Stem
Growth Period [1]  Year Round
Growth Rate [1]  Rapid
Hazards [1]  Slight Toxicity
Leaf Type [2]  Evergreen
Lifespan [1]  Perennial
Propagation [1]  Bare Root, Container, Seed
Root Depth [1]  24 inches (61 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [1]  Rapid
Seed Vigor [1]  High
Shape/Orientation [1]  Vase
Specific Gravity [3]  0.78
Structure [2]  Tree
Vegetative Spread Rate [1]  None

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Archipelago de Colon Biosphere Reserve 34336011 Galapagos Islands, Ecuador  
Buenavista Wetland Reserve 778949 Cuba    
Canaveral National Seashore II 9090 Florida, United States
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Corcovado National Park 115845 Costa Rica  
De Soto National Wildlife Refuge IV 8007 Iowa, Nebraska, United States
Everglades and Dry Tortugas Biosphere Reserve   Florida, United States  
Fort Matanzas National Monument III 269 Florida, United States
Palo Verde National Park II 46190 Costa Rica  
Santa Rosa National Park II 95780 Costa Rica


Amazona albifrons (White-fronted Parrot)[4]
Aratinga canicularis (Orange-fronted Parakeet)[4]
Aratus pisonii (mangrove tree crab)[5]
Brotogeris jugularis (Orange-chinned Parakeet)[4]
Cairina moschata (Muscovy Duck)[6]
Ceroplastes avicenniae[7]
Ceroplastes grandis[7]
Chelonia mydas (Green Turtle)[6]
Coccus aequale[7]
Diaspidiotus juglansregiae (English walnut scale)[7]
Hemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale)[7]
Hemiberlesia rapax (greedy scale)[8]
Junonia evarete (Buckeye)[6]
Melanaspis ponderosa[7]
Mycetaspis apicata[7]
Patagioenas leucocephala (White-crowned Pigeon)[6]
Pseudococcus cryptus (citriculus mealybug)[7]
Pulvinaria brevicornis[7]


Pollinated by 
Apis mellifera (honey bee)[6]
Paratrechina longicornis (crazy ant)[9]
Tapinoma melanocephalum (Ghost ant)[9]

Range Map

Caribbean; North America;



Attributes / relations provided by 1USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture 2Kattge, J. et al. (2011b) TRY - a global database of plant traits Global Change Biology 17:2905-2935 3Jérôme Chave, Helene C. Muller-Landau, Timothy R. Baker, Tomás A. Easdale, Hans ter Steege, Campbell O. Webb, 2006. Regional and phylogenetic variation of wood density across 2,456 neotropical tree species. Ecological Applications 16(6), 2356 - 2367 4FORAGING ECOLOGY OF PARROTS IN A MODIFIED LANDSCAPE: SEASONAL TRENDS AND INTRODUCED SPECIES, GREG D. MATUZAK, M. BERNADETTE BEZY, AND DONALD J. BRIGHTSMITH, The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 120(2):353–365, 2008 5Herbivory and Predation by the Mangrove Tree Crab Aratus pisonii, James W. Beever III, Daniel Simberloff, and Linda L. King, Oecologia (Berl.) 43, 317-328 (1979) 6Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 7Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009 8Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants 9Flower-visiting insects of the Galapagos Islands, McCullen, C. K. 1993. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 69:95-106
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access