Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Lamiales > Lamiaceae > Galeopsis > Galeopsis tetrahit

Galeopsis tetrahit (brittle-stem hemp-nettle; brittlestem hempnettle; bristlestem hempnettle)

Synonyms: Galeopsis alpicola; Galeopsis beckii; Galeopsis crenatifolia; Galeopsis gacognei; Galeopsis glaucocerata; Galeopsis grandiflora; Galeopsis ionantha; Galeopsis lactiflora; Galeopsis laramberguei; Galeopsis leucantha; Galeopsis michelianae; Galeopsis neglecta; Galeopsis nodosum; Galeopsis nodosum var. regularis; Galeopsis persetosa; Galeopsis praecox; Galeopsis pseudotetrahit; Galeopsis reichenbachii; Galeopsis silvestris; Galeopsis subtatrensis; Galeopsis tetrahit f. alba; Galeopsis tetrahit f. albiflora; Galeopsis tetrahit subsp. glaucoserata; Galeopsis tetrahit subsp. parviflora; Galeopsis tetrahit subsp. praecox; Galeopsis tetrahit subsp. reichenbachii; Galeopsis tetrahit subsp. verlotii; Galeopsis tetrahit var. arvensis; Galeopsis tetrahit var. beckii; Galeopsis tetrahit var. idiotropa; Galeopsis tetrahit var. lazistanica; Galeopsis tetrahit var. praecox; Galeopsis tetrahit var. reichenbachii; Galeopsis tetrahit var. sylvestris; Galeopsis tetrahit var. verlotii; Galeopsis tetrahit var. vulgaris; Galeopsis urticifolia; Galeopsis verlotii; Ladanum tetrahit; Lamium tetrahit; Tetrahit grandiflorum; Tetrahit leucanthum; Tetrahit navieri; Tetrahit nodosum; Tetrahit praecox; Tetrahit purpurascens; Tetrahit reichenbachii

Wikipedia Abstract

Galeopsis tetrahit (common hemp-nettle or brittlestem hempnettle) is a flowering plant in the family Lamiaceae, native to Europe and northwestern Asia. It is a herbaceous annual plant growing to 1 m tall; it is a pioneer species and thrives on disturbed sites or roadsides. The plant looks like mint but is taller. The stems have reflexed hairs and swollen nodes. In cross section, the stem is square. The leaves are rhombic to elliptic, with coarsely to bluntly serrate edges. The flowers are multicoloured, with purple, pink, or white areas; diminutive, bilateral and snapdragon-like, and are mostly visited by bumblebees.
View Wikipedia Record: Galeopsis tetrahit


Height [2]  39 inches (1 m)
Light Preference [3]  Mostly Sunny
Soil Acidity [3]  Moderate Acid
Soil Fertility [3]  Intermediate
Soil Moisture [3]  Moist
Bee Flower Color [1]  Blue-Green
Flower Type [2]  Hermaphrodite
Hazards [2]  The plant is poisonous, causing paralysis;
Lifespan [2]  Annual
Pollinators [2]  Bats
Structure [4]  Herb
Usage [2]  A drying oil is obtained from the seed. It is used as a polish for leather; A fibre is obtained from the stems, it is used for making cord;
View Plants For A Future Record : Galeopsis tetrahit

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berchtesgaden Alps National Park II 51433 Germany
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Bruce Peninsula National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Cairnsmore of Fleet, Silver Flowe, and Merrick Kells Biosphere Reserve 8794 Scotland, United Kingdom
Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands 354692 Scotland, United Kingdom
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Cardigan Bay/ Bae Ceredigion 236876 Wales, United Kingdom
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Chilterns Beechwoods 3154 England, United Kingdom  
Dornoch Firth and Morrich More 21499 Scotland, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths 14161 England, United Kingdom
Elk Island National Park II 47171 Alberta, Canada
Eryri/ Snowdonia 48773 Wales, United Kingdom  
Exmoor Heaths 26455 England, United Kingdom
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Georgian Bay Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Glacier National Park II 953799 Montana, United States
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Hubbard Brook Biosphere Reserve 7809 New Hampshire, United States
Isle of Rum National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kootenay National Park II 341762 British Columbia, Canada
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Lands End and Cape Bank 74557 England, United Kingdom  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Lizard Point 34565 England, United Kingdom    
Lower Derwent Valley 2263 England, United Kingdom
Luce Bay and Sands 120487 Scotland, United Kingdom
Lyme Bay and Torbay 77215 England, United Kingdom
Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve II 20461 Quebec, Canada
Moffat Hills 7146 Scotland, United Kingdom
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Mount Mitchell State Park   North Carolina, United States
Mount Revelstoke National Park Ia 18 British Columbia, Canada
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
North Pembrokeshire Woodlands/ Coedydd Gogledd Sir Benfro 780 Wales, United Kingdom  
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Prince Edward Island National Park II   Prince Edward Island, Canada  
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
River Spey 14158 Scotland, United Kingdom
Rum 26775 Scotland, United Kingdom
Saint Lawrence Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Salisbury Plain 52975 England, United Kingdom
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Start Point to Plymouth Sound & Eddystone 84204 England, United Kingdom  
Taynish National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Tingon 1407 Scotland, United Kingdom    
Tsentral'no-Lesnoy Biosphere Reserve Ia 62630 Russia  
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Wast Water 707 England, United Kingdom
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada
Zhuvintas Zapovednik 18223 Lithuania  



Acanthis flammea (Common Redpoll)[5]
Aglais io <Unverified Name>[5]
Aglais urticae (Small Tortoiseshell)[5]
Alauda arvensis (Sky Lark)[5]
Amauromyza labiatarum[6]
Aphantopus hyperantus (Ringlet Butterfly)[5]
Aphis frangulae beccabungae[6]
Autographa gamma (Silver Y Moth)[5]
Bombus hortorum (Small Garden Humble-bee)[5]
Bombus lapidarius (Stone Humble-bee)[5]
Bombus lucorum (White-tailed bumblebee)[5]
Bombus pascuorum (Common Carder-bee)[5]
Carduelis carduelis (European Goldfinch)[5]
Cassida viridis[5]
Ceutorhynchus angulosus <Unverified Name>[6]
Chrysolina fastuosa <Unverified Name>[5]
Cryptomyzus galeopsidis[6]
Dasineura tetrahit[6]
Datonychus angulosus <Unverified Name>[6]
Diachrysia chrysitis (Burnished Brass Moth)[6]
Dibolia cynoglossi <Unverified Name>[6]
Empis livida[5]
Episyrphus balteatus (Marmelade Fly)[5]
Eristalis similis <Unverified Name>[5]
Euphydryas phaeton (Baltimore checkerspot)[7]
Fringilla coelebs (Common Chaffinch)[5]
Gonepteryx rhamni (Brimstone Butterfly)[5]
Grypocoris sexguttatus[5]
Linaria cannabina (Common Linnet)[5]
Liriomyza eupatorii[6]
Liriomyza strigata[6]
Longitarsus kutscherae <Unverified Name>[6]
Longitarsus melanocephalus <Unverified Name>[6]
Lophophanes cristatus (European Crested Tit)[5]
Macroglossum stellatarum (Hummingbird Hawk-Moth)[5]
Meligethes pedicularius <Unverified Name>[6]
Meligethes viduatus <Unverified Name>[6]
Meliscaeva cinctella[5]
Neoascia podagrica[5]
Neoerysiphe galeopsidis[5]
Perizoma alchemillata (small rivulet)[5]
Phyllosticta galeopsidis <Unverified Name>[5]
Phytomyza horticola <Unverified Name>[6]
Phytomyza syngenesiae <Unverified Name>[6]
Pieris brassicae (Large White)[5]
Pieris rapae (imported cabbageworm)[5]
Platycheirus albimanus <Unverified Name>[5]
Platycheirus manicatus[5]
Pyxidiophora caulicola[7]
Rhingia campestris[5]
Sericomyia silentis[5]
Sphaerophoria scripta[5]
Syritta pipiens (thick-legged hoverfly)[5]
Syrphus ribesii (Summer Fly)[5]
Tingis pilosa[5]
Tritomegas bicolor <Unverified Name>[5]
Vanessa cardui (Painted Lady)[5]


Pollinated by 
Aglais io <Unverified Name>[5]
Aglais urticae (Small Tortoiseshell)[5]
Aphantopus hyperantus (Ringlet Butterfly)[5]
Autographa gamma (Silver Y Moth)[5]
Bombus hortorum (Small Garden Humble-bee)[5]
Bombus lapidarius (Stone Humble-bee)[5]
Bombus lucorum (White-tailed bumblebee)[5]
Bombus pascuorum (Common Carder-bee)[5]
Empis livida[5]
Episyrphus balteatus (Marmelade Fly)[5]
Eristalis similis <Unverified Name>[5]
Gonepteryx rhamni (Brimstone Butterfly)[5]
Macroglossum stellatarum (Hummingbird Hawk-Moth)[5]
Meliscaeva cinctella[5]
Neoascia podagrica[5]
Platycheirus albimanus <Unverified Name>[5]
Platycheirus manicatus[5]
Rhingia campestris[5]
Sericomyia silentis[5]
Sphaerophoria scripta[5]
Syritta pipiens (thick-legged hoverfly)[5]
Syrphus ribesii (Summer Fly)[5]
Vanessa cardui (Painted Lady)[5]


Parasitized by 
Neoerysiphe galeopsidis[5]
Phyllosticta galeopsidis <Unverified Name>[5]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Svalbard Global Seed Vault


North America;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Arnold SEJ, Faruq S, Savolainen V, McOwan PW, Chittka L, 2010 FReD: The Floral Reflectance Database — A Web Portal for Analyses of Flower Colour. PLoS ONE 5(12): e14287.
2Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
3ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999)
4Kattge, J. et al. (2011b) TRY - a global database of plant traits Global Change Biology 17:2905-2935
5Ecology of Commanster
6Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
7Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access