Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Lamiales > Oleaceae > Fraxinus > Fraxinus pennsylvanica

Fraxinus pennsylvanica (green ash)

Synonyms: Calycomelia campestris; Calycomelia elliptica; Calycomelia expansa; Calycomelia lancea; Calycomelia lanceolata; Calycomelia ovata; Calycomelia pennsylvanica; Calycomelia pubescens; Calycomelia richardii; Fraxinus americana subsp. pennsylvanica; Fraxinus americana var. normale; Fraxinus americana var. pennsylvanica; Fraxinus americana var. pubescens; Fraxinus americana var. rubicunda; Fraxinus americana var. subpubescens; Fraxinus arbutifolia; Fraxinus aucubifolia; Fraxinus campestris; Fraxinus cerasifolia; Fraxinus cinerea; Fraxinus concolor; Fraxinus darlingtonii; Fraxinus elliptica; Fraxinus expansa; Fraxinus fusca; Fraxinus glabra; Fraxinus juglandifolia var. aucubifolia; Fraxinus juglandifolia var. subintegerrima; Fraxinus lancea; Fraxinus lanceolata; Fraxinus lanceolata var. lindheimeri; Fraxinus lanceolata var. macrocarpa; Fraxinus lanceolata var. viridis; Fraxinus lancifolia; Fraxinus longifolia; Fraxinus media; Fraxinus nigra var. pubescens; Fraxinus oblongocarpa; Fraxinus ovalis; Fraxinus ovata; Fraxinus pennsylvanica f. aucubifolia; Fraxinus pennsylvanica f. colorata; Fraxinus pennsylvanica f. erythrocarpa; Fraxinus pennsylvanica f. megaphylla; Fraxinus pennsylvanica f. scotica; Fraxinus pennsylvanica subsp. subintegerrima; Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. aucubifolia; Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. austini-megaphylla; Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. austinii; Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. campestris; Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. lanceolata; Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. ovata; Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. pubescens; Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. subintegerrima; Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. typica; Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. viridis; Fraxinus platyphylla; Fraxinus pubescens; Fraxinus pubescens var. boscii; Fraxinus pubescens var. coriacea; Fraxinus pubescens var. lindheimeri; Fraxinus pubescens var. nana; Fraxinus pubescens var. ovata; Fraxinus pubescens var. subpubescens; Fraxinus richardii; Fraxinus rubicunda; Fraxinus rufa; Fraxinus smallii; Fraxinus subvillosa; Fraxinus trialata; Fraxinus viridis; Fraxinus viridis var. pubescens; Fraxinus viridis var. trialata; Leptalix cinerea; Leptalix elliptica; Leptalix expansa; Leptalix fusca; Leptalix lancifolia; Leptalix longifolia; Leptalix media; Leptalix ovata; Leptalix pubescens; Leptalix richardii; Leptalix rubicunda; Leptalix rufa

Wikipedia Abstract

Fraxinus pennsylvanica (green ash or red ash) is a species of ash native to eastern and central North America, from Nova Scotia west to southeastern Alberta and eastern Colorado, south to northern Florida, and southwest to eastern Texas. It has spread and become naturalized in much of the western United States and also in central Europe from Spain to Russia.It is a medium-sized deciduous tree reaching 12–25 m (rarely to 45 m) tall with a trunk up to 60 cm in diameter.
View Wikipedia Record: Fraxinus pennsylvanica


Height [3]  66 feet (20 m)
Width [3]  66 feet (20 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  High
Carbon Capture [1]  Medium
Screening - Summer [2]  Dense
Screening - Winter [2]  Moderate
Shade Percentage [1]  82 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium-High
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 3 Low Temperature: -40 F° (-40 C°) → -30 F° (-34.4 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 9 Low Temperature: 20 F° (-6.7 C°) → 30 F° (-1.1 C°)
Light Preference [2]  Mostly Shady
Soil Acidity [2]  Neutral
Soil Fertility [2]  Intermediate
Water Use [1]  Moderate
Flower Color [2]  Green
Foliage Color [2]  Yellow
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Fall Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Bloom Period [2]  Late Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  Medium
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  Medium
Flower Type [3]  Dioecious
Frost Free Days [2]  4 months
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Spring
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Summer
Growth Form [2]  Single Crown
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Rapid
Janka Hardness [4]  1200 lbf (544 kgf) Soft
Leaf Type [3]  Deciduous
Lifespan [2]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Seed
Root Depth [2]  3.3 feet (102 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Moderate
Seed Vigor [2]  Medium
Seeds Per [2]  14320 / lb (31570 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Erect
Specific Gravity [5]  0.56
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  A fairly wind resistant tree, it can be grown as part of a shelterbelt planting; A red dye is extracted from the bark; Logs of wood can be beaten with mauls to separate the growth layers, these layers can then be cut into strips and woven into baskets; Wood - hard, heavy, rather strong, tough, elastic, brittle, coarse-grained. It weighs 44lb per cubic foot. Used for tool handles, furniture etc; The wood is of poorer quality than F. americana, though it is usually sold under that name;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Fraxinus pennsylvanica

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Appomattox Court House National Historical Park V 1687 Virginia, United States
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area National Recreation Area V 120283 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Blue Ridge Parkway National Parkway V 73611 North Carolina, Virginia, United States
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Bruce Peninsula National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Carlsbad Caverns National Park II 15448 New Mexico, United States
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 19586 Maryland, District of Columbia, United States
Chippewa Nature Center   Michigan, United States    
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Desecheo National Wildlife Refuge   Puerto Rico, United States
Edwin S. George Reserve 1297 Michigan, United States
El Palmar National Park II   Entre Rios, Argentina  
Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge VI 66133 Arkansas, United States
Fort Donelson National Battlefield III 560 Tennessee, United States
Fort Larned National Historic Site III 706 Kansas, United States
Fort Union Trading Post National Hist. Site National Historic Site III 24 Montana, United States
Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania Nat'l Military Park National Military Park V 10384 Virginia, United States
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
George Washington Memorial Parkway V   Virginia, United States
Georgian Bay Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Herbert Hoover National Historic Site   Iowa, United States
Homestead National Monument of America V 850 Nebraska, United States
Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site III 861 Pennsylvania, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Khopersky Zapovednik Ia 47103 Russia  
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
Little River National Wildlife Refuge   Oklahoma, United States
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Morristown National Historical Park VI 1677 New Jersey, United States
National Capital Parks - Central National Park   District of Columbia, United States
National Capital Region - East National Park   District of Columbia, United States
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Oconee National Forest Botanical Reserve 306 Georgia, United States  
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Petersburg National Battlefield III 3338 Virginia, United States
Pipestone National Monument V 326 Minnesota, United States
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Prince Edward Island National Park II   Prince Edward Island, Canada  
Richmond National Battlefield Park III 1517 Virginia, United States
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Roosevelt Vanderbilt National Historic Site   New York, United States      
Saint Lawrence Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Scotts Bluff National Monument V 3185 Nebraska, United States
Shiloh National Military Park III 4061 Tennessee, United States
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Tennessee River Gorge   Tennessee, United States
Tsentral'no-Chernozemny Biosphere Reserve Ia 13064 Kursk, Russia
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Valley Forge National Historical Park VI 3509 Pennsylvania, United States
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Western Michigan University's Asylum Lake Preserve 274 Michigan, United States
Wind Cave National Park II 29471 South Dakota, United States


Acrobasis caryivorella[6]
Adita chionanthi[6]
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer)[7]
Amphipyra pyramidoides (copper underwing)[6]
Anacamptodes ephyraria[6]
Caloptilia syringella <Unverified Name>[8]
Catocala ultronia (Dark Red Underwing)[6]
Ceratomia undulosa (waxed sphinx)[6]
Chionaspis gleditsiae (honey locust chionaspis)[9]
Crocigrapha normani[6]
Cydia ingrata[6]
Ectropis crepuscularia (small engrailed)[6]
Ennomos subsignaria (elm spanworm)[6]
Eriococcus gerbergi (Gerberg eriococcin)[9]
Eutrapela clemataria[6]
Heterocampa guttivitta (saddled prominent)[6]
Hyalophora cecropia (Cecropia Moth)[7]
Hypagyrtis unipunctata (One-spotted Variant Moth)[6]
Lepidosaphes ulmi (apple oystershell scale)[9]
Lithophane petulca[6]
Macrophya punctumalbum <Unverified Name>[8]
Marmara basidendroca[6]
Marmara corticola[6]
Marmara fraxinicola[6]
Melanolophia canadaria[6]
Metanema determinata[6]
Nemoria mimosaria (White-fringed Emerald)[6]
Orthotaenia undulana[6]
Paleacrita vernata (spring cankerworm)[6]
Papaipema furcata[6]
Papilio glaucus (Eastern tiger swallowtail)[7]
Podosesia syringae (Lilac borer)[6]
Pseudosciaphila duplex (Aspen Leaftier)[6]
Schizura concinna (redhumped caterpillar)[6]
Sicya macularia[6]
Sphinx chersis (Great Ash Sphinx)[6]
Tolype velleda[6]


Shelter for 
Myotis keenii (Keen's myotis)[10]

Range Map

North America; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
5Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service
6HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
7Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
8Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
9Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
10Myotis septentrionalis, M. Carolina Caceres and Robert M. R. Barclay, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 634, pp. 1–4 (2000)
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Carlsbad Caverns National Park
Chippewa Nature Center
Edwin S. George Reserve, University of Michigan, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access