Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Lamiales > Oleaceae > Olea > Olea europaea

Olea europaea (olive)

Synonyms: Olea pallida; Olea sativa

Wikipedia Abstract

The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "european olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands, Mauritius and Réunion. The species is cultivated in many places and considered naturalized in all the countries of the Mediterranean coast, as well as in Argentina, Saudi Arabia, Java, Norfolk Island, California and Bermuda.
View Wikipedia Record: Olea europaea


Invasive Species

In Europe and Northern Africa, the olive tree (Olea europaea) has been widely cultivated for its fruit and valuable oil for thousands of years (i.e. subspecies europaea). Escapes from cultivation are known to occur due to the large amount of bird-dispersed seed produced; potentially resulting in the formation of dense monocultures which can permanently displace native plant species and increase the fire hazard. There are several physical and chemical management options available for O. europaea; but these are generally labour intensive and require follow-up operations due to the large amount of seed produced as well as its coppicing ability.
View ISSG Record: Olea europaea


Height [2]  33 feet (10 m)
Width [2]  26 feet (8 m)
Allergen Potential [1]  High
Dispersal Mode [5]  Zoochory
Edible [2]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Flower Type [2]  Hermaphrodite
Janka Hardness [3]  3180 lbf (1442 kgf) Very Hard
Leaf Type [2]  Evergreen
Lifespan [4]  Perennial
Pollinators [2]  Wind
Specific Gravity [6]  0.806
Structure [2]  Tree
Usage [2]  The non-drying oil obtained from the seed is also used for soap making, lighting and as a lubricant; The oil is a good hair tonic and dandruff treatment; Maroon and purple dyes are obtained from the whole fresh ripe fruits; Blue and black dyes are obtained from the skins of fresh ripe fruits; A yellow/green dye is obtained from the leaves; Plants are used to stabilize dry dusty hillsides; Wood - very hard, heavy, beautifully grained, takes a fine polish and is slightly fragrant. It is used in turnery and cabinet making, being much valued by woodworkers;
View Plants For A Future Record : Olea europaea

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Canaveral National Seashore II 9090 Florida, United States
Ghajn Barrani Area 135 Malta  
Il-Ballut tal-Wardija (l/o San Pawl il-Bahar) 50 Malta  
Is-Salini 58 Malta  
Is-Simar (l/o San Pawl il-Bahar) 144 Malta  
Kemmuna, Kemmunett, il-Hagriet ta' Bejn il-Kmiemen u l-Iskoll ta' Taht il-Mazz 728 Malta  
L-Imgiebah / Tal-Mignuna Area 436 Malta  
Mburucuyá National Park II   Corrientes, Argentina  
Norfolk Island National Park II 1723 Australian external territories, Australia  
Rdumijiet ta' Malta: Ir-Ramla tac-Cirkewwa sa Il-Ponta ta' Benghisa 5724 Malta  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve V 1777 Spain  
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Wied il-Mizieb 61 Malta  
Xlendi - Wied tal-Kantra Area 732 Malta  

Emblem of

Palestinian Territory, Occupied


Abgrallaspis cyanophylli (cyanophyllum scale)[7]
Abgrallaspis latastei[8]
Acherontia atropos (Death's-head hawk moth)[9]
Acosmeryx anceus[10]
Acutaspis paulista[8]
Amblypelta brevicornis[9]
Anastrepha fraterculus (South American fruit fly)[11]
Aonidia oleae[8]
Aonidiella aurantii (California red scale)[8]
Aonidiella orientalis (Oriental Scale)[8]
Aspidiotus nerii (ivy scale)[7]
Aspidiotus tafiranus[8]
Asterodiaspis pustulans <Unverified Name>[7]
Autoba abrupta[10]
Bactrocera oleae (olive fruit fly)[12]
Callipepla californica (Californian Quail)[9]
Characoma nilotica[10]
Chrysomphalus aonidum (circular black scale)[9]
Clavaspis covilleae (covillea scale)[8]
Cossus cossus (Goat Moth)[10]
Cryptophlebia leucotreta[9]
Cyclophora nanaria (Dwarf Tawny Wave)[10]
Delottococcus aberiae[8]
Diaspidiotus africanus (grey scale)[8]
Diaspidiotus ancylus (Howard scale)[8]
Diaspidiotus lenticularis[8]
Diaspidiotus lepineyi[8]
Diaspidiotus mairei[8]
Diaspidiotus maleti[8]
Diaspidiotus marani[8]
Diaspidiotus ostreaeformis (European fruit scale)[8]
Diaspidiotus perieri[8]
Diaspidiotus perniciosus (California scale)[8]
Diaspidiotus pyri[8]
Dynaspidiotus britanicus <Unverified Name>[7]
Dynaspidiotus britannicus (holly scale)[8]
Dynaspidiotus ericarum[8]
Epidiaspis leperii (European pear scale)[8]
Eucereon sylvius[10]
Euzophera pinguis (Tabby Knot-horn)[10]
Euzophera semifuneralis[10]
Filippia follicularis[8]
Fiorinia pakistanensis[8]
Gueriniella serratulae[8]
Gymnoscelis rufifasciata (Double-striped Pug)[10]
Hemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale)[8]
Hemiberlesia rapax (greedy scale)[8]
Hippotion scrofa (Scrofa hawk moth)[10]
Homona magnanima[10]
Howardia biclavis (mining scale)[8]
Hypargyria metalliferella[10]
Lamprotornis chalybaeus (Greater Blue-eared Starling)[13]
Lecanodiaspis rufescens[8]
Lepidosaphes ulmi (apple oystershell scale)[8]
Leucanella memusae[10]
Leucaspis riccae (white olive scale)[8]
Lichtensia viburni (viburnum cushion scale)[7]
Lindingaspis rossi (araucaria black scale)[8]
Lobesia botrana (European Grapevine Moth)[10]
Macropoliana natalensis[10]
Meridarchis reprobata[10]
Meridarchis scyrodes[10]
Metriochroa latifoliella[10]
Morganella longispina (champaca scale)[8]
Neogalea sunia (lantana stick caterpillar)[10]
Neopinnaspis harperi (Harper scale)[8]
Neoselenaspidus silvaticus[8]
Paracoccus burnerae (oleander scale)[8]
Parlatoreopsis chinensis (Chinese obscure scale)[8]
Parlatoreopsis longispina (Asiatic pomegranate scale)[8]
Parlatoria oleae (olive parlatoria scale)[8]
Paropta johannes[10]
Peliococcus cycliger[8]
Podosesia syringae (Lilac borer)[10]
Poecile rufescens (Chestnut-backed Chickadee)[9]
Prays chrysophyllae[10]
Prays oleae (Olive Moth)[10]
Problepsis digammata[10]
Psilogramma menephron (Australian privet hawk moth)[10]
Sabulodes aegrotata (omnivorous looper)[10]
Saharaspis ceardi[8]
Saissetia coffeae (brown scale)[8]
Saissetia privigna[8]
Salicicola archangelskyae (Archangelskaya scale)[8]
Saturnia atlantica[10]
Saturnia pyri (Great peacock moth)[10]
Saxicola torquatus (Common Stonechat)[13]
Sylvia atricapilla (Eurasian Blackcap)[14]
Sylvia borin (Garden Warbler)[15]
Sylvia melanocephala (Sardinian Warbler)[16]
Turdus merula (Eurasian Blackbird)[14]
Turdus migratorius (American Robin)[9]
Tyrannus verticalis (Western Kingbird)[9]
Vescisa commoda[10]
Voraspis ceratoniae[8]
Voraspis nerii[8]
Xenaleyrodes artocarpi[9]
Zelleria oleastrella[10]
Zeuzera pyrina (leopard moth)[10]


Parasitized by 
Hemicycliophora arenaria <Unverified Name>[17]


North America; Oceania;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Derived from Allergy-Free Gardening OPALS™, Thomas Leo Ogren (2000)
2Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
3Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
4USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
5Paula S, Arianoutsou M, Kazanis D, Tavsanoglu Ç, Lloret F, Buhk C, Ojeda F, Luna B, Moreno JM, Rodrigo A, Espelta JM, Palacio S, Fernández-Santos B, Fernandes PM, and Pausas JG. 2009. Fire-related traits for plant species of the Mediterranean Basin. Ecology 90: 1420.
Paula S. & Pausas J.G. 2013. BROT: a plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species. Version 2013.06.
6Chave J, Coomes D, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Swenson NG, Zanne AE (2009) Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Ecology Letters 12: 351-366. Zanne AE, Lopez-Gonzalez G, Coomes DA, Ilic J, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Miller RB, Swenson NG, Wiemann MC, Chave J (2009) Data from: Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Dryad Digital Repository.
7Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
8Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
9Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
10HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
11Norrbom, A.L. 2004. Fruit fly (Tephritidae) host plant database. Version Nov, 2004.
12Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Insecta: Diptera: Tephritidae), Morgan A. Byron and Jennifer L. Gillett-Kaufman, University of Florida, January 2016
13del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
16Frugivory, external morphology and digestive system in Mediterranean sylviid warblers Sylvia spp., Pedro Jordano, IBIS 129: 175-189 (1987)
17Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access