Plantae > Tracheophyta > Liliopsida > Poales > Poaceae > Hordeum > Hordeum vulgare

Hordeum vulgare (cereal barley; Barley; common barley)

Synonyms: Frumentum hordeum; Frumentum sativum; Hordeum aestivum; Hordeum americanum; Hordeum barbaricum; Hordeum bifarium; Hordeum brachyatherum; Hordeum caspicum; Hordeum coeleste; Hordeum coeleste var. barbatum; Hordeum daghestanicum; Hordeum defectoides; Hordeum durum; Hordeum elongatum; Hordeum gymnodistichum; Hordeum heterostychon; Hordeum hexastichon; Hordeum hexastichon var. densum; Hordeum hexastichon var. laxum; Hordeum hexastichon var. mandshuricum; Hordeum hibernaculum; Hordeum hibernans; Hordeum himalayense; Hordeum hirtiusculum; Hordeum horsfordianum; Hordeum ircutianum; Hordeum jarenskianum; Hordeum juliae; Hordeum kalugense; Hordeum karzinianum; Hordeum kiarchanum; Hordeum laevipaleatum; Hordeum lapponicum; Hordeum latum; Hordeum leptostachys; Hordeum macrolepis; Hordeum mandshuricum; Hordeum mandshuroides; Hordeum michalkowii; Hordeum nekludowii; Hordeum nigrum; Hordeum nudum-distichum; Hordeum pamiricum; Hordeum parvum; Hordeum pensanum; Hordeum perversum; Hordeum polystichon; Hordeum polystichon var. hackelii; Hordeum polystichon var. hexastichon; Hordeum polystichon var. vulgare; Hordeum praecox; Hordeum pyramidatum; Hordeum revelatum; Hordeum sativum; Hordeum sativum subsp. hexastichon; Hordeum sativum subsp. vulgare; Hordeum sativum var. trifurcatum; Hordeum scabriusculum; Hordeum septentrionale; Hordeum stassewitschii; Hordeum strobelense; Hordeum taganrocense; Hordeum tanaiticum; Hordeum tetrastichum; Hordeum tetrastichum var. nudum; Hordeum transcaucasicum; Hordeum violaceum; Hordeum vulgare f. hexastichon; Hordeum vulgare subsp. antasiaticum; Hordeum vulgare subsp. hexastichon; Hordeum vulgare subsp. medioasiaticum; Hordeum vulgare subsp. tetrastichum; Hordeum vulgare var. abdulbasirovii; Hordeum vulgare var. addis-abebae; Hordeum vulgare var. aestivum; Hordeum vulgare var. africanum; Hordeum vulgare var. ancoberense; Hordeum vulgare var. atratum; Hordeum vulgare var. bachteevii; Hordeum vulgare var. brachyura; Hordeum vulgare var. breviaristatum; Hordeum vulgare var. brevispicatum; Hordeum vulgare var. brunneinudum; Hordeum vulgare var. chalunicum; Hordeum vulgare var. chinense; Hordeum vulgare var. chungense; Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste; Hordeum vulgare var. coerulescens; Hordeum vulgare var. colonicum; Hordeum vulgare var. daghestanicum; Hordeum vulgare var. euryhypatherum; Hordeum vulgare var. glabribrevisetum; Hordeum vulgare var. glabrideficiens; Hordeum vulgare var. glabrierectum; Hordeum vulgare var. glabrigracilius; Hordeum vulgare var. glabrispicatum; Hordeum vulgare var. glabriviride; Hordeum vulgare var. gobicum; Hordeum vulgare var. griseinigrum; Hordeum vulgare var. griseinudum; Hordeum vulgare var. hadaka; Hordeum vulgare var. hangaicum; Hordeum vulgare var. harlanii; Hordeum vulgare var. hexastichon; Hordeum vulgare var. hybernum; Hordeum vulgare var. hypatherum; Hordeum vulgare var. ibericum; Hordeum vulgare var. insularum; Hordeum vulgare var. interpallidum; Hordeum vulgare var. ismailii; Hordeum vulgare var. japonicum; Hordeum vulgare var. kobdicum; Hordeum vulgare var. latibrevisetum; Hordeum vulgare var. latinudipyramidatum; Hordeum vulgare var. latirevelatum; Hordeum vulgare var. leioheterolepis; Hordeum vulgare var. lukyanovae; Hordeum vulgare var. lvovii; Hordeum vulgare var. macrosteron; Hordeum vulgare var. mandshuricum; Hordeum vulgare var. micrurum; Hordeum vulgare var. mongolicum; Hordeum vulgare var. multispiculum; Hordeum vulgare var. nanum; Hordeum vulgare var. nigrinudum; Hordeum vulgare var. nigrum; Hordeum vulgare var. nipponicum; Hordeum vulgare var. nudijaponicum; Hordeum vulgare var. nudinipponicum; Hordeum vulgare var. palestinicum; Hordeum vulgare var. pallidum; Hordeum vulgare var. patimatae; Hordeum vulgare var. rarum; Hordeum vulgare var. revelatum; Hordeum vulgare var. saidii; Hordeum vulgare var. sessilifurcatum; Hordeum vulgare var. sikangense; Hordeum vulgare var. sinicum; Hordeum vulgare var. sinojaponicum; Hordeum vulgare var. solitarum; Hordeum vulgare var. suberectum; Hordeum vulgare var. subneogenes; Hordeum vulgare var. subnudipiramidatum; Hordeum vulgare var. subnudum; Hordeum vulgare var. subnutans; Hordeum vulgare var. subpyramidatum; Hordeum vulgare var. subzeocrithon; Hordeum vulgare var. syriacum; Hordeum vulgare var. tetranutans; Hordeum vulgare var. tetrapallidum; Hordeum vulgare var. tibetanum; Hordeum vulgare var. tortile; Hordeum vulgare var. trofimovskajae; Hordeum vulgare var. uljassutaicum; Hordeum vulgare var. urgaicum; Hordeum vulgare var. valentinae; Hordeum vulgare var. viride; Hordeum vulgare var. zeocrithideficiens; Hordeum vulgare var. zuleichatae; Hordeum walpersii; Secale orientale; Triticum hordeiforme

Wikipedia Abstract

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally. It was one of the first cultivated grains, particularly in Eurasia as early as 13,000 years ago. Barley has also been used as animal fodder, as a source of fermentable material for beer and certain distilled beverages, and as a component of various health foods. It is used in soups and stews, and in barley bread of various cultures. Barley grains are commonly made into malt in a traditional and ancient method of preparation.
View Wikipedia Record: Hordeum vulgare


Height [2]  39 inches (1 m)
Width [2]  8 inches (0.2 m)
Screening - Summer [1]  Moderate
Screening - Winter [1]  Porous
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 2 Low Temperature: -50 F° (-45.6 C°) → -40 F° (-40 C°)
Light Preference [3]  Full Sun
Soil Acidity [3]  Neutral
Soil Fertility [3]  Rich
Soil Moisture [3]  Mostly Dry
Water Use [1]  Moderate
Flower Color [1]  Yellow
Foliage Color [1]  Green
Fruit Color [1]  Brown
Fruit Conspicuous [1]  Yes
Bloom Period [1]  Spring
Drought Tolerance [1]  Medium
Edible [2]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [1]  Low
Flower Type [2]  Hermaphrodite
Frost Free Days [1]  90 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [1]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [1]  Spring
Fruit/Seed End [1]  Summer
Growth Form [1]  Bunch
Growth Period [1]  Spring, Fall, Winter
Growth Rate [1]  Rapid
Leaf Type [1]  Deciduous
Lifespan [2]  Annual
Pollinators [2]  Wind
Propagation [1]  Seed
Regrowth Rate [1]  Slow
Root Depth [1]  10 inches (25 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [1]  Slow
Seed Vigor [1]  High
Seeds Per [1]  13600 / lb (29983 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [1]  Erect
Structure [4]  Grass
Usage [2]  The stems, after the seed has been harvested, have many uses. They are a source of fibres for making paper, a biomass for fuel etc, they can be shredded and used as a mulch;
Vegetative Spread Rate [1]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Hordeum vulgare

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Avon Gorge Woodlands 376 England, United Kingdom
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
Burnham Beeches 946 England, United Kingdom  
Cardigan Bay/ Bae Ceredigion 236876 Wales, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes 5491 England, United Kingdom
Exmoor Heaths 26455 England, United Kingdom
Firth of Tay & Eden Estuary 38085 Scotland, United Kingdom
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Khopersky Zapovednik Ia 47103 Russia  
Lower Derwent Valley 2263 England, United Kingdom
Luce Bay and Sands 120487 Scotland, United Kingdom
Lundy 7573 England, United Kingdom  
North Norfolk Coast 7926 England, United Kingdom  
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Richmond National Battlefield Park III 1517 Virginia, United States
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada


Abacarus hystrix (cereal rust mite)[5]
Agromyza rondensis[5]
Anas acuta (Northern Pintail)[6]
Anas americana (American Wigeon)[5]
Anser albifrons (Greater White-fronted Goose)[5]
Apamea anceps (Large Nutmeg)[5]
Apamea sordens[5]
Blissus leucopterus (Chinch bug)[5]
Camnula pellucida (Clear-winged Grasshopper)[5]
Cephus pygmeus <Unverified Name>[7]
Chlamydotis undulata (Houbara Bustard)[8]
Contarinia tritici[7]
Corvus frugilegus (Rook)[9]
Coturnix pectoralis (Stubble Quail)[8]
Delia coarctata[5]
Diuraphis noxia (Russian wheat aphid)[5]
Dysmicoccus trispinosus[10]
Eriophyes tulipae <Unverified Name>[7]
Haplodiplosis marginata[7]
Hemileuca oliviae[5]
Hydraecia micacea (potato stem worm)[7]
Lasiommata maera <Unverified Name>[7]
Luperina testacea (Flounced Rustic)[7]
Melanoplus borealis (Northern Grasshopper)[5]
Melanoplus fasciatus (Huckleberry Locust)[5]
Mesoligia literosa[7]
Metopolophium dirhodum (Rose grain aphid)[7]
Mythimna separata (Northern armyworm)[11]
Nothoprocta ornata (Ornate Tinamou)[12]
Oria musculosa[7]
Oulema melanopus (Cereal leaf beetle)[5]
Persectania aversa[11]
Phenacoccus graminicola (ryegrass mealybug)[10]
Phenacoccus hordei (barley mealybug)[10]
Phenacoccus interruptus (Green's mealybug)[10]
Phyllotreta vittula <Unverified Name>[7]
Phytomyza nigra[7]
Porphyrophora parieli[10]
Rhopalosiphum maidis (Corn aphid)[5]
Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae (apple grain aphid)[5]
Rhopalosiphum padi (Oat aphid)[5]
Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale (Rice root aphid)[11]
Rhyzopertha dominica (lesser grain borer)[7]
Sesamia nonagrioides[5]
Sitobion avenae (English grain aphid)[5]
Sitophilus oryzae (Rice weevil)[5]
Tibetococcus dingriensis[10]
Tibetococcus nyalamiensis[10]
Trionymus aberrans <Unverified Name>[10]
Trionymus haancheni (Haanchen barley mealybug)[10]
Zabrus tenebrioides[7]


Parasitized by 
Blumeria graminis[5]
Helicotylenchus dihystera <Unverified Name>[13]
Helicotylenchus erythrinae <Unverified Name>[13]
Puccinia graminis[5]
Puccinia hordei (Barley brown rust)[5]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Svalbard Global Seed Vault


North America; Oceania;



Attributes / relations provided by
1USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
2Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
3ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999)
4Kattge, J. et al. (2011b) TRY - a global database of plant traits Global Change Biology 17:2905-2935
5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
7Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
8del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
9CONTRIBUTION TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE DIET OF IRANIAN BIRDS, Abolghasem Khaleghizadeh, Mohammad E. Sehhatisabet, Екологія, Беркут 15, Вип. 1-2. 2006. pp. 145-150
10Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
11New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
13Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access