Plantae > Tracheophyta > Liliopsida > Poales > Poaceae > Lolium > Lolium perenne

Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass; perennial rye grass; italian ryegrass)

Synonyms: Festuca perennis; Hordeum compressum; Lolium aechicum; Lolium agreste; Lolium annuum; Lolium brasilianum; Lolium canadense; Lolium cechicum; Lolium compressum; Lolium cristatum; Lolium felix; Lolium glumosum; Lolium gmelinii; Lolium halleri; Lolium jechelianum; Lolium latum; Lolium marschallii; Lolium montevidense; Lolium perenne f. microstachyum; Lolium perenne subsp. stoloniferum; Lolium perenne subsp. tenue; Lolium perenne subsp. trabutii; Lolium perenne var. aristulatum; Lolium perenne var. brasilianum; Lolium perenne var. commune; Lolium perenne var. compositum; Lolium perenne var. compressum; Lolium perenne var. cristatum; Lolium perenne var. festuciforme; Lolium perenne var. humile; Lolium perenne var. monstrosum; Lolium perenne var. orgiale; Lolium perenne var. pacyi; Lolium perenne var. paleaceum; Lolium perenne var. paniculatum; Lolium perenne var. scabriculme; Lolium perenne var. stickneiensis; Lolium perenne var. stoloniferum; Lolium perenne var. tenue; Lolium perenne var. viviparum; Lolium perenne var. vulgare; Lolium perenne var. whitworthiense; Lolium pseudoitalicum; Lolium repens; Lolium rigidum var. compressum; Lolium rosetlanum; Lolium strictum var. compressum; Lolium tenue; Lolium trabutii; Lolium vulgare

Wikipedia Abstract

Lolium perenne, common name perennial rye-grass or English ryegrass or winter ryegrass, is a grass from the family Poaceae. It is native to Europe, Asia and northern Africa, but is widely cultivated and naturalised around the world.
View Wikipedia Record: Lolium perenne


Height [3]  39 inches (1 m)
Allergen Potential [1]  High
Screening - Summer [2]  Moderate
Screening - Winter [2]  Porous
Hardiness Zone Minimum [2]  USDA Zone: 5 Low Temperature: -20 F° (-28.9 C°) → -10 F° (-23.3 C°)
Light Preference [4]  Mostly Sunny
Soil Acidity [4]  Moderate Acid
Soil Fertility [4]  Intermediate
Soil Moisture [4]  Moist
Water Use [2]  High
Flower Color [2]  Yellow
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Bloom Period [2]  Mid Spring
Dispersal Mode [5]  Anemochory
Drought Tolerance [2]  Low
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  Low
Flower Type [3]  Hermaphrodite
Frost Free Days [2]  3 months 10 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Spring
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Summer
Growth Form [2]  Bunch
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Fall
Growth Rate [2]  Rapid
Leaf Type [3]  Evergreen
Lifespan [3]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Seed
Regrowth Rate [2]  Moderate
Root Depth [2]  10 inches (25 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Moderate
Seed Vigor [2]  High
Seeds Per [2]  240400 / lb (529991 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Erect
Structure [6]  Grass
Usage [3]  The plant has the potential to be used as a source of biomass. Yields of up to 25 tonnes per hectare have been reported from Europe. In the absence of definitive yield information an average yield of 17.5 tonnes of dry matter per hectare per year and an energy content of 17.5 GJ per metric tonne are assumed;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Lolium perenne

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Andakill Protected Habitat Area 7626 Iceland      
Assateague Island National Seashore II 8621 Maryland, United States
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berchtesgaden Alps National Park II 51433 Germany
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Blue Ridge Parkway National Parkway V 73611 North Carolina, Virginia, United States
Cairnsmore of Fleet, Silver Flowe, and Merrick Kells Biosphere Reserve 8794 Scotland, United Kingdom
Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands 354692 Scotland, United Kingdom
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Carlsbad Caverns National Park II 15448 New Mexico, United States
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   North Carolina, United States
Crater Lake National Park II 180091 Oregon, United States
Craven Limestone Complex 13166 England, United Kingdom
Cumberland Gap National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 24282 Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, United States
Dorset Heaths 14161 England, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes 5491 England, United Kingdom
Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve V   Washington, United States
Elenydd 21274 Wales, United Kingdom
Elk Island National Park II 47171 Alberta, Canada
Essex Estuaries 114016 England, United Kingdom
Fire Island National Seashore V 9433 New York, United States
Fort Donelson National Battlefield III 560 Tennessee, United States
Fort Larned National Historic Site III 706 Kansas, United States
Fraser Biosphere Reserve 23050 Colorado, United States  
Galichia Gora Zapovednik Ia 568 Lipetsk, Russia
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
George Washington Birthplace National Monument V 435 Virginia, United States
Glacier National Park II 953799 Montana, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Grand Rapids Audubon Club Maher Sanctuary 80 Michigan, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
H.J. Andrews Biosphere Reserve 15815 Oregon, United States
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Isle of Rum National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Isles of Scilly Complex 66350 England, United Kingdom    
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Khopersky Zapovednik Ia 47103 Russia  
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
Lago Puelo National Park II 47607 Chubut, Argentina
Lands End and Cape Bank 74557 England, United Kingdom  
Limestone Coast of South West Wales/ Arfordir Calchfaen de Orllewin Cymru 3940 Wales, United Kingdom  
Lizard Point 34565 England, United Kingdom    
Lochs Duich, Long and Alsh Reefs 5883 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Los Alerces National Park II 463045 Chubut, Argentina  
Los Glaciares National Park II 1329020 Santa Cruz, Argentina
Lyme Bay and Torbay 77215 England, United Kingdom
Mojave and Colorado Deserts Biosphere Reserve 5901 California, United States  
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Mount Revelstoke National Park Ia 18 British Columbia, Canada
Mousa 1311 Scotland, United Kingdom
Nahuel Huapi National Park II 759703 Argentina  
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Norfolk Island National Park II 1723 Australian external territories, Australia  
North Norfolk Coast 7926 England, United Kingdom  
North Pembrokeshire Woodlands/ Coedydd Gogledd Sir Benfro 780 Wales, United Kingdom  
North Pennine Moors 254789 England, United Kingdom
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
Oconee National Forest Botanical Reserve 306 Georgia, United States  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Petrified Forest National Park II 44522 Arizona, United States
Philip L. Boyd Deep Canyon Desert Research Center 6101 California, United States
Pipestone National Monument V 326 Minnesota, United States
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Reserva de la Biosfera de Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve V 1777 Spain  
Richmond National Battlefield Park III 1517 Virginia, United States
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
South Wight Maritime 49082 England, United Kingdom
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
St Kilda 62932 Scotland, United Kingdom    
Sunart 25320 Scotland, United Kingdom
Taynish National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
The Broads 14554 England, United Kingdom  
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Valley Forge National Historical Park VI 3509 Pennsylvania, United States
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada
Zhuvintas Zapovednik 18223 Lithuania  



Abacarus hystrix (cereal rust mite)[7]
Adarrus ocellaris <Unverified Name>[7]
Agromyza nigrella[7]
Anoecia krizusi[7]
Anser albifrons (Greater White-fronted Goose)[8]
Argynnina hobartia <Unverified Name>[9]
Arthaldeus pascuellus <Unverified Name>[7]
Balanococcus poae[10]
Bipolaris sorokiniana[11]
Blumeria graminis[11]
Branta leucopsis (Barnacle Goose)[12]
Callipepla californica (Californian Quail)[8]
Capsus ater[7]
Cerodontha incisa[7]
Cetema neglecta <Unverified Name>[7]
Chorizoccus oreophilis <Unverified Name>[13]
Chorizococcus oreophilus[10]
Claviceps purpurea (Ergot)[11]
Contarinia lolii[7]
Costelytra zealandica[13]
Coturnix pectoralis (Stubble Quail)[12]
Cygnus columbianus (Tundra Swan)[8]
Dama dama (fallow deer)[14]
Delia coarctata[7]
Deltocephalus pulicaris[7]
Dicranotropis hamata[7]
Doratura stylata <Unverified Name>[7]
Elymana sulphurella[7]
Eriococcus brachypodii (falsebrome felt scale)[10]
Eriococcus glyceriae (grass felt scale)[10]
Eriococcus greeni (Newstead's felt scale)[10]
Eriophyes tenuis <Unverified Name>[7]
Eriophyes tulipae <Unverified Name>[7]
Eurycoccus antiscius[10]
Euscelis incisus <Unverified Name>[7]
Euscelis lineolatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Geomyza tripunctata[7]
Haplodiplosis marginata[7]
Heterococcus nudus (naked grass-mealybug)[10]
Javesella pellucida[7]
Lecanopsis subterranea (Borchsenius' grass scale)[10]
Lecanopsis turcica[10]
Listronotus bonariensis <Unverified Name>[13]
Macrosteles laevis[7]
Macrosteles variatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Maniola jurtina (Meadow Brown Butterfly)[11]
Marielliottia dematioidea[8]
Mayetiola avenae[7]
Metopolophium festucae[7]
Mocydiopsis parvicauda[7]
Naupactus leucoloma[13]
Neophilaenus lineatus[7]
Odontria striata[13]
Opomyza germinationis[7]
Oscinella frit (fruit fly)[7]
Oscinella nitidissima[7]
Oscinella pusilla[7]
Oscinella vastator[7]
Oulema melanopus (Cereal leaf beetle)[8]
Paprides nitidus[13]
Penthaleus major[7]
Perognathus flavescens (plains pocket mouse)[15]
Phenacoccus graminicola (ryegrass mealybug)[10]
Phytomyza nigra[7]
Psammotettix confinis[7]
Pseudococcus gouxi[10]
Pseudonapomyza atra[7]
Pyronia tithonus (Gatekeeper)[7]
Rhea americana (Greater Rhea)[16]
Rhizoecus cacticans (cacticans mealybug)[10]
Rhizoecus californicus (California ground mealybug)[10]
Rhizoecus graminis (graminis ground mealybug)[10]
Rhizoecus rumicis (Grassroot mealybug)[13]
Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale (Rice root aphid)[13]
Ribautodelphax angulosus[7]
Sigaus australis[13]
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm)[8]
Stiphrosoma sabulosum[7]
Streptanus sordidus <Unverified Name>[7]
Tetramesa hyalipennis[7]
Trionymus aberrans <Unverified Name>[10]
Trionymus ascripticius[10]
Trionymus placatus (pleasant grass mealybug)[10]
Trionymus tangi <Unverified Name>[10]
Typhula incarnata[8]
Utamphorophora humboldti[7]
Wiseana cervinata[13]
Wiseana copularis[13]
Zyginidia scutellaris[7]


Pollinated by 
Melanostoma scalare[11]


Parasitized by 
Blumeria graminis[8]
Drechslera andersenii[8]
Limonomyces roseipellis[8]
Puccinia coronata[8]
Subanguina radicicola (Grass root-gall nematode)[9]
Urocystis bolivarii[8]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Svalbard Global Seed Vault


Caribbean; North America; Oceania;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Derived from Allergy-Free Gardening OPALS™, Thomas Leo Ogren (2000)
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999)
5Paula S, Arianoutsou M, Kazanis D, Tavsanoglu Ç, Lloret F, Buhk C, Ojeda F, Luna B, Moreno JM, Rodrigo A, Espelta JM, Palacio S, Fernández-Santos B, Fernandes PM, and Pausas JG. 2009. Fire-related traits for plant species of the Mediterranean Basin. Ecology 90: 1420.
Paula S. & Pausas J.G. 2013. BROT: a plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species. Version 2013.06.
6Kattge, J. et al. (2011b) TRY - a global database of plant traits Global Change Biology 17:2905-2935
7Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
8Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
9Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
10Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
11Ecology of Commanster
12del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
13New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
14Dama dama, George A. Feldhamer, Kelly C. Farris-Renner, and Celeste M. Barker, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 317, pp. 1-8 (1988)
15Food Habits of Rodents Inhabiting Arid and Semi-arid Ecosystems of Central New Mexico, ANDREW G. HOPE AND ROBERT R. PARMENTER, Special Publication of the Museum of Southwestern Biology, NUMBER 9, pp. 1–75 (2007)
16Comparatore, Viviana, and Cristina Yagueddú. Diet of the Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) in an agroecosystem of the Flooding Pampa, Argentina. Ornitologia Neotropical 18.2 (2007): 187-194.
Protected Areas provided by Ramsar Sites Information Service
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Carlsbad Caverns National Park
Maher Sanctuary, Grand Rapids Audubon Club
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access