Plantae > Tracheophyta > Liliopsida > Poales > Poaceae > Phragmites > Phragmites australis
 

Phragmites australis (common reed; Giant reed; Cane; Ditch reed; Giant reedgrass; Phragmites; Reed grass; Roseau; Roseau cane; Yellow cane)

Synonyms: Arundo australis

Wikipedia Abstract

Phragmites, the common reed, is a large perennial grass found in wetlands throughout temperate and tropical regions of the world. Phragmites australis is sometimes regarded as the sole species of the genus Phragmites, though some botanists divide Phragmites australis into three or four species.
View Wikipedia Record: Phragmites australis

Infraspecies

Invasive Species

Phragmites australis grows on level ground in tidal and non-tidal marshes, lakes, swales and backwater areas of rivers and streams. It is found on sites that are seasonally flooded with not more than 50cm of water. It grows on most soil textures from fine clay to sandy loams and is somewhat tolerant of saline or alkaline conditions. Phragmites australis is especially common along railroad tracks, roadside ditches and piles of dredge spoil, wherever slight depressions will hold water. Throughout most of its range, it typically forms closed mono-dominant stands in both disturbed and pristine areas. It is capable of vigorous vegetative reproduction and its seeds, which are normally dispersed by wind, may be transported by birds that nest among the reeds. The seeds are also dispersed by water. Newly opened sites may be colonised by seed or by rhizome fragments carried to the area in soils and on machinery or naturally in floodwaters. Invasion and continued spread is aided by disturbances or stresses such as pollution, alteration of the natural hydrologic regime, dredging and increased sedimentation. In coastal marshes, spread of Phragmites australis is also facilitated by natural disturbance caused by tidal movements of dead vegetation.
View ISSG Record: Phragmites australis

Attributes

Height [2]  11.8 feet (3.6 m)
Width [2]  9.8 feet (3 m)
Screening - Summer [1]  Dense
Screening - Winter [1]  Moderate
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 3 Low Temperature: -40 F° (-40 C°) → -30 F° (-34.4 C°)
Light Preference [3]  Mostly Sunny
Soil Acidity [3]  Neutral
Soil Fertility [3]  Intermediate
Soil Moisture [3]  Wet
Water Use [1]  Moderate
Flower Color [1]  White
Foliage Color [1]  Green
Fruit Color [1]  White
Fruit Conspicuous [1]  Yes
Bloom Period [1]  Summer
Drought Tolerance [1]  Low
Edible [2]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [1]  High
Flower Type [2]  Hermaphrodite
Frost Free Days [1]  3 months 20 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [1]  Medium
Fruit/Seed Begin [1]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [1]  Fall
Growth Form [1]  Rhizomatous
Growth Period [1]  Spring
Growth Rate [1]  Rapid
Leaf Type [1]  Deciduous
Lifespan [2]  Perennial
Pollinators [2]  Wind
Propagation [1]  Sprig
Regrowth Rate [1]  Moderate
Root Depth [1]  20 inches (51 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [1]  Slow
Seed Vigor [1]  High
Shape/Orientation [1]  Erect
Structure [4]  Grass
Usage [2]  The common reed can provide a large quantity of biomass and this is used in a wide variety of ways as listed below. Annual yields of 40 - 63 tonnes per hectare have been reported; The plant is also converted into alcohol (for use as a fuel), is burnt as a fuel and is made into fertilizer; The plant is rich in pentosans and may be used for the production of furfural - the nodes and sheaths yield 6.6% whilst the underground parts over 13% of furfural; The pentosan content increases throughout the growing period and is maximum in the mature reed; The reed can be used also for the preparation of absolute alcohol, feed yeast and lactic acid; The stems are useful in the production of homogeneous boards; They can also be processed into a fine fibrous material suitable as a filler in upholstery; The stems have many uses. They are used for thatching roofs; It can last for 100 years; The stems and leaves are also used for building dwellings, lattices, fences, arrows by Indians, and for weaving mats, carrying nets, basket making, insulation, fuel, as a cork substitute etc; The stem contains over 50 percent cellulose and is useful in the manufacture of pulps for rayon and paper; The fibre from the leaves and stems is used for making paper; The fibre is 0.8 - 3.0 mm long and 5.0 - 30.5µm in diameter. The stems and leaves are harvested in the summer, cut into usable pieces and soaked for 24 hours in clear water. They are then cooked for 2 hours with lye and beaten in a blender. The fibre makes a khaki paper; A fibre obtained from the plant is used for making string; The flowering stalks yield a fibre suitable for rope making; The leaves are used in basket making and for weaving mats etc; A light green dye is obtained from the flowers; Freshly cut shoots are a good green manure[74] (Does this man as a soil mulch?[K]). The inflorescences are used as brooms; The plant can be used as a cork substitute; No further details. The plant is mixed with mud to make a plaster for walls; Pens for writing on parchment were cut and fashioned from the thin stems of this reed; The plant has a very vigorous and running rootstock, it is useful for binding the soil along the sides of streams etc; It is planted for flood control since it stablizes the banks and gradually builds up soil depth, thus raising the level of the bank.
Vegetative Spread Rate [1]  Rapid
View Plants For A Future Record : Phragmites australis

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Barents Sea Drainages Finland, Norway, Russia, Svalbard Palearctic Polar Freshwaters    
Cantabric Coast - Languedoc France, Spain Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Central & Western Europe Austria, Belgium, Byelarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Chesapeake Bay United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Dniester - Lower Danube Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Turkey, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Eastern Coastal Australia Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Coastal Rivers    
Eastern Iberia Andorra, France, Spain Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Gulf of Venice Drainages Italy, San Marino, Slovenia, Switzerland Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Lake Onega - Lake Ladoga Finland, Russia Palearctic Large Lakes    
Laurentian Great Lakes Canada, United States Nearctic Large Lakes    
Murray - Darling Australia Australasia Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Northeast US & Southeast Canada Atlantic Drainages Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Northern Baltic Drainages Denmark, Finland, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Polar Freshwaters    
Norwegian Sea Drainages Norway, Sweden Palearctic Polar Freshwaters    
Southern Iberia Portugal, Spain Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
St. Lawrence Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Teays - Old Ohio United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Upper Danube Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Western Iberia Portugal, Spain Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Arches National Park II 76539 Utah, United States
Assateague Island National Seashore II 8621 Maryland, United States
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Basegi Zapovednik Ia 93739 Perm, Russia
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Ben Nevis 23023 Scotland, United Kingdom
Berchtesgaden Alps National Park II 51433 Germany
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area V 36286 Montana, Wyoming, United States
Bolshekhekhtsirsky Zapovednik Ia 112282 Khabarovsk, Russia
Braunton Burrows 3328 England, United Kingdom
CUENCA DE GALLOCANTA 38287 Spain  
Cairnsmore of Fleet, Silver Flowe, and Merrick Kells Biosphere Reserve 8794 Scotland, United Kingdom
Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands 354692 Scotland, United Kingdom
Canaveral National Seashore II 9090 Florida, United States
Canyonlands National Park II 335430 Utah, United States
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve V 619089 Jilin, China  
Chernye Zemli Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik IV 621951 Russia  
Chesil and the Fleet 4032 England, United Kingdom
Daurskiy Biosphere Reserve 562659 Russia  
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Dorset Heaths 14161 England, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes 5491 England, United Kingdom
Elk Island National Park II 47171 Alberta, Canada
Essex Estuaries 114016 England, United Kingdom
Fire Island National Seashore V 9433 New York, United States
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge VI 3161 New Jersey, United States
Gulf Island National Seashore II 67487 Florida, Mississippi, United States
Hobcaw Barony (North Inlet) National Estuarine Research Reserve 7585 South Carolina, United States
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Isles of Scilly Complex 66350 England, United Kingdom    
Karoo National Park II 190300 Western Cape, South Africa
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Kedrovaya Pad Zapovednik Ia 44224 Primorsky Krai , Russia
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Khopersky Zapovednik Ia 47103 Russia  
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
Kruger National Park II 4718115 Mpumalanga, South Africa
LAGUNAS DEL SUR DE CORDOBA 3635 Spain  
Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge VI 28351 Louisiana, United States
Lago Puelo National Park II 47607 Chubut, Argentina
Lago di Mezzola e Pian di Spagna 3981 Italy  
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Lizard Point 34565 England, United Kingdom    
Lyme Bay and Torbay 77215 England, United Kingdom
MATARRAĂ‘A - AIGUABARREIX 90747 Spain  
Mandra - Poda 15162 Bulgaria  
Merrick Kells 21494 Scotland, United Kingdom
Mojave and Colorado Deserts Biosphere Reserve 5901 California, United States  
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
Natural Bridges National Monument III 7412 Utah, United States
North Norfolk Coast 7926 England, United Kingdom  
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
River Spey 14158 Scotland, United Kingdom
Riverland Biosphere Reserve Ia 1490891 South Australia, Australia
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
SOTOS Y CARRIZALES DEL RĂŤO ARAGĂ“N 4774 Spain  
Salisbury Plain 52975 England, United Kingdom
Santa Rosa National Park II 95780 Costa Rica
Santee Coastal Reserve and Washo Reserve State Habitat Area IV 20850 South Carolina, United States  
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Severn Estuary/ MĂ´r Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Solway Firth 107829 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
South Uist Machair 8482 Scotland, United Kingdom
South Wight Maritime 49082 England, United Kingdom
The Broads 14554 England, United Kingdom  
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Tigrovaia Balka Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 146860 Tajikistan  
Tsentral'no-Chernozemny Biosphere Reserve Ia 13064 Kursk, Russia
Tsentral'no-Lesnoy Biosphere Reserve Ia 62630 Russia  
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Ukrainskii Stepnoi Zapovednik Nature Zapovednik Ia 2920 Ukraine  
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Ussuriysky Zapovednik Ia 99910 Primorsky Krai , Russia
Valley Forge National Historical Park VI 3509 Pennsylvania, United States
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Woodland Caribou Provincial Wilderness Park Provincial Park II 1072124 Ontario, Canada
Zhuvintas Zapovednik 18223 Lithuania  
Zion National Park II 135667 Utah, United States

Ecosystems

Predators

Acanthomytilus sacchari[5]
Acanthophiobolus helicosporus[6]
Aclerda wiltshirei[5]
Acremonium alternatum[6]
Adelosoma phragmitidis[5]
Agromyza hendeli[6]
Agromyza phragmitidis[6]
Albotricha acutipila[6]
Albotricha albotestacea[6]
Anagnota bicolor[6]
Anthomyza gracilis[6]
Anthostomella punctulata[6]
Anthostomella tomicoides[6]
Antonina crawi (cottony bamboo scale)[5]
Apiospora montagnei[6]
Archanara geminipuncta (Twin-spotted Wainscot)[7]
Arthrinium phaeospermum[6]
Aulacaspis herbae[5]
Batrachedra parvulipunctella[8]
Belonium excelsior[6]
Botryosphaeria festucae[6]
Brachmia inornatella[8]
Buergenerula typhae[6]
Camarosporium feurichii[6]
Cerodontha incisa[6]
Cerodontha phragmitidis[6]
Cerodontha phragmitophila[6]
Chaetococcus phragmitis (bog-reed scale)[5]
Chaetococcus turanicus[5]
Chilodes maritimus <Unverified Name>[8]
Coprinopsis kubickae[6]
Cosmopterix lienigiella <Unverified Name>[8]
Cosmopterix orichalcea <Unverified Name>[8]
Cosmopterix scribaiella[8]
Ctenopharyngodon idella (silver orfe)[6]
Cytoplacosphaeria rimosa[6]
Donacia clavipes <Unverified Name>[8]
Donacia simplex <Unverified Name>[8]
Duplachionaspis graminella[5]
Duplachionaspis natalensis (mango scale)[5]
Duplachionaspis saccharifolii (cane leaf scale of java)[5]
Dysmicoccus glandularis[5]
Dysmicoccus walkeri (Walker's mealybug)[5]
Elachista monosemiella <Unverified Name>[8]
Eriococcus trispinatus[5]
Eriopeltis festucae (cottony grass scale)[5]
Eriopeltis lichtensteini[5]
Euripersia pennisetus[5]
Giraudiella inclusa[7]
Greenaspis elongata[5]
Hendersonia culmiseda[6]
Hendersonia epicalamia[6]
Heteropterus morpheus (Large Chequered Skipper)[8]
Hyalopterus pruni (Mealy plum aphid)[6]
Hymenoscyphus robustior[6]
Kiritshenkella sacchari[5]
Lachnum controversum[6]
Lachnum tenuissimum[6]
Lentithecium arundinaceum[6]
Lentithecium lineare[6]
Leptocorticium sasae[6]
Leptosphaeria albopunctata[6]
Lichenopeltella nigroannulata[6]
Lophiostoma semiliberum[6]
Lophodermium arundinaceum[6]
Loxodonta africana (African Bush Elephant)[9]
Marasmius curreyi[6]
Marasmius limosus[6]
Massarina igniaria[6]
Microdiscula phragmitis[6]
Minimelanolocus verruculosus[6]
Miscanthicoccus miscanthi[5]
Misericoccus imperatae[5]
Mollisia hydrophila[6]
Mollisia palustris[6]
Mollisia pulla[6]
Morenoina phragmitis[6]
Mycosphaerella lineolata[6]
Myocastor coypus (nutria)[10]
Myrmecridium phragmitis[6]
Myrothecium cinctum[6]
Myrothecium masonii[6]
Nectria ellisii[6]
Neomassariosphaeria typhicola[6]
Neotrionymus monstatus[5]
Nipponaclerda biwakoensis[5]
Nipponaclerda turanica[5]
Niptera lacustris[6]
Notaris bimaculatus[8]
Odacantha melanura[6]
Odonaspis phragmitis[5]
Odonaspis saccharicaulis (paragrass scale)[5]
Paraputo asparodosensis <Unverified Name>[5]
Periconia atra[6]
Periconia digitata[6]
Periconia glyceriicola[6]
Periconia hispidula[6]
Periconia minutissima[6]
Perrotia distincta[6]
Phaeosphaeria fuckelii[6]
Phaeosphaeria graminis[6]
Phaeosphaeria herpotrichoides[6]
Phaeosphaeria vagans[6]
Phomatospora berkeleyi[6]
Phragmiticola phragmitis[6]
Poanes viator (Broad-winged Skipper)[6]
Poaspis jahandiezi (Balachowsky's soft scale)[5]
Porphyrophora hamelii[5]
Psathyrella typhae[6]
Pseudomassariosphaeria grandispora[6]
Pseudorobillarda phragmitis[6]
Resinomycena saccharifera[6]
Rhabdospora curva[6]
Rhizaspidiotus secretus[5]
Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae (apple grain aphid)[6]
Rugaspidiotus communis[5]
Rutstroemia lindaviana[6]
Scirrhia rimosa[6]
Sclerocona acutellus <Unverified Name>[8]
Sigarispora arundinis[6]
Sigarispora caudata[6]
Sirozythiella sydowiana[6]
Sistotrema subtrigonospermum[6]
Spaelotis ravida (Stout Dart)[8]
Spilococcus flavus[5]
Spilococcus halli (Viktorin grass mealybug)[5]
Stagonospora cylindrica[6]
Stagonospora elegans[6]
Stiphrosoma cingulatum[6]
Tapesia evilescens[6]
Taractrocera papyria (White-banded Grass-dart)[11]
Telicota ancilla (Dark Palm Dart)[11]
Telicota colon (The dart butterfly)[11]
Tetraploa scheueri[6]
Trichobelonium kneiffii[6]
Trichocladium opacum[6]
Trionymus calamagrostidis[5]
Trionymus copiosus[5]
Trionymus kurilensis[5]
Trionymus orientalis[5]
Trionymus phragmiticola <Unverified Name>[5]
Tubeufia paludosa[6]
Typhula capitata[6]
Typhula subhyalina[6]
Wettsteinina niesslii[6]
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)[12]
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)[12]
Branta canadensis (Canada Goose)[12]
Melanoplus differentialis (Differential Grasshopper)[12]
Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat)[12]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Puccinia magnusiana[6]
Puccinia phragmitis[6]
Ustilago grandis[6]
Shelter for 
Aedes albopictus (forest day mosquito)[12]
Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird)[12]
Ameiurus natalis (Yellow bullhead)[12]
Anax junius (green darner)[12]
Anaxyrus americanus americanus (Eastern American Toad)[12]
Anguilla rostrata (American eel)[12]
Aquarius remigis (Common water strider)[12]
Ardea herodias (Great Blue Heron)[12]
Castor canadensis (american beaver)[12]
Charadrius vociferus (Killdeer)[12]
Chelydra serpentina (Common Snapping Turtle)[12]
Corydalus cornutus (dobsonfly)[12]
Cyprinus carpio (Common carp)[12]
Daphnia ambigua (Water flea)[12]
Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick)[12]
Dolomedes triton (Six-spottedfishingspider)[12]
Etheostoma olmstedi (Tessellated darter)[12]
Gambusia holbrooki (Bore-drain fish)[12]
Geothlypis trichas (Common Yellowthroat)[12]
Heterodon platirhinos (Eastern Hognose Snake)[12]
Hyalella azteca (Scud)[12]
Ictalurus punctatus (Channel catfish)[12]
Ischnura posita (Fragile forktail)[12]
Libellula lydia (Common whitetail)[12]
Lithobates catesbeianus (American Bullfrog)[12]
Lithobates sphenocephalus sphenocephalus (Florida Leopard Frog)[12]
Macrobdella decora (Freshwater leech)[12]
Macrocyclops albidus (Copepod)[12]
Micropterus salmoides (Northern largemouth bass)[12]
Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole)[12]
Nerodia sipedon (Northern Water Snake)[12]
Notemigonus crysoleucas (Golden shiner minnow)[12]
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)[12]
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)[12]
Pomoxis nigromaculatus (Strawberry bass)[12]
Procotyla fluviatilis (Flatworm)[12]
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)[12]
Pseudacris crucifer (Spring Peeper)[12]
Semotilus atromaculatus (Horned dace)[12]
Tenodera aridifolia (Chinese mantid)[12]
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)[12]
Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove)[12]
Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow)[12]
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)[12]
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)[12]
Branta canadensis (Canada Goose)[12]
Melanoplus differentialis (Differential Grasshopper)[12]
Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat)[12]

Distribution

Bassegi Zapovednik; Caribbean; North America;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture 2Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License 3ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999) 4Kattge, J. et al. (2011b) TRY - a global database of plant traits Global Change Biology 17:2905-2935 5Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009 6Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 7Tscharntke, T. 1992. Cascade effects among four trophic levels: bird predation on galls affects density-dependent parasitism. Ecology 73:1689–1698 8Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants 9Diet and distribution of elephant in the Maputo Elephant Reserve, Mozambique, Willem F. De Boer, Cornelio P. Ntumi, Augusto U. Correia and Jorge M. Mafuca, Afr. J. Ecol., 38, 188-201 (2000) 10Food habits of the coypu, Myocastor coypus, and its impact on aquatic vegetation in a freshwater habitat of NW Italy, Claudio PRIGIONI, Alessandro BALESTRIERI and Luigi REMONTI, Folia Zool. – 54(3): 269–277 (2005) 11Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19 12Study of Northern Virginia Ecology
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access