Plantae > Tracheophyta > Liliopsida > Poales > Poaceae > Poa > Poa pratensis

Poa pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass)

Synonyms: Briza virens; Paneion pratense; Poa agassizensis; Poa anceps var. breviculmis; Poa angustifolia; Poa angustifolia subsp. anceps; Poa angustifolia subsp. costata; Poa angustifolia var. angustiglumis; Poa angustifolia var. pratensis; Poa angustiglumis; Poa articulata; Poa athroostachya var. anceps; Poa avatshensis; Poa bidentata; Poa boliviensis; Poa brintnellii; Poa caerulea; Poa complanata; Poa compressoformis; Poa costata; Poa dolichachyra; Poa dolichachyra var. longiflora; Poa dolichochyra; Poa dubia; Poa eragrostiformis; Poa filifolia; Poa filiformis; Poa florida; Poa garanica; Poa gelida; Poa glabra; Poa ianthoides; Poa kuraica; Poa latifolia; Poa luzoniensis; Poa macounii; Poa magensiana; Poa maydellii; Poa montana; Poa nymannii; Poa oligeria; Poa pachyantha; Poa paratunkensis; Poa peckii; Poa pinegensis; Poa pratensis f. humilis; Poa pratensis f. latifolia; Poa pratensis f. major; Poa pratensis f. setacea; Poa pratensis f. variegata; Poa pratensis f. vulgaris; Poa pratensis subsp. agassizensis; Poa pratensis subsp. alpestris; Poa pratensis subsp. anceps; Poa pratensis subsp. angustiglumis; Poa pratensis subsp. atlantis; Poa pratensis subsp. dolichophylla; Poa pratensis subsp. jordanii; Poa pratensis subsp. latifolia; Poa pratensis subsp. rigens; Poa pratensis subsp. sabulosa; Poa pratensis subsp. sergievskajae; Poa pratensis subsp. skrjabinii; Poa pratensis subsp. sobolevskiana; Poa pratensis subsp. stenachyra; Poa pratensis subsp. turfosa; Poa pratensis subsp. vulgaris; Poa pratensis subsp. zhukoviae; Poa pratensis var. alpestris; Poa pratensis var. anceps; Poa pratensis var. angustiglumis; Poa pratensis var. arenaria; Poa pratensis var. arida; Poa pratensis var. atlantica; Poa pratensis var. contracta; Poa pratensis var. costata; Poa pratensis var. dolichophylla; Poa pratensis var. domestica; Poa pratensis var. filifolia; Poa pratensis var. latifolia; Poa pratensis var. laxiflora; Poa pratensis var. macounii; Poa pratensis var. maydellii; Poa pratensis var. muralis; Poa pratensis var. paratunkensis; Poa pratensis var. pinegensis; Poa pratensis var. planiculmis; Poa pratensis var. retroflexa; Poa pratensis var. rigens; Poa pratensis var. sabulosa; Poa pratensis var. subglabriflora; Poa pratensis var. transnominata; Poa pratensis var. turfosa; Poa pratensis var. umbrosa; Poa pratensis var. urjanchaica; Poa pratensis var. variegata; Poa pratensis var. vera; Poa pratensis var. vulgaris; Poa pseudopratensis; Poa pubescens; Poa rigens; Poa sabulosa; Poa sergievskajae; Poa skrjabinii; Poa sobolevskiana; Poa stenachyra; Poa stricta; Poa subcaerulea var. anceps; Poa subglabriflora; Poa todarii; Poa turfosa; Poa urjanchaica; Poa virens; Poa viridis; Poa zhukovae

Wikipedia Abstract

Poa pratensis, commonly known as Kentucky bluegrass, smooth meadow-grass, or common meadow-grass, is a perennial species of grass native to Europe, Asia, North America, and northern Africa. Poa pratensis forms a valuable pasture plant, characteristic of well-drained, fertile soil. It is also used for making lawns in parks and gardens and is common in cool moist climates like the northeastern United States.
View Wikipedia Record: Poa pratensis

Invasive Species

Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) is a rhizomatous grass that is regarded as a crop in some systems, but as a weed in others. It is highly valued as a pasture and turf grass, particularly in golf courses. However, it is considered an invasive weed in natural grassland ecosystems where it outcompetes native species and reduces biodiversity and alters nitrogen cycling and ecosystem function.
View ISSG Record: Poa pratensis


Height [3]  39 inches (1 m)
Allergen Potential [1]  High
Screening - Summer [2]  Porous
Screening - Winter [2]  Porous
Hardiness Zone Minimum [2]  USDA Zone: 3 Low Temperature: -40 F° (-40 C°) → -30 F° (-34.4 C°)
Light Preference [4]  Mostly Sunny
Soil Acidity [4]  Moderate Acid
Soil Fertility [4]  Intermediate
Soil Moisture [4]  Moist
Water Use [2]  High
Flower Color [2]  Yellow
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Bloom Period [2]  Mid Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  Low
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  High
Flower Type [3]  Hermaphrodite
Frost Free Days [2]  90 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Spring
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Summer
Growth Form [2]  Rhizomatous
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer, Fall
Growth Rate [2]  Moderate
Leaf Type [2]  Deciduous
Lifespan [3]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Seed
Regrowth Rate [2]  Moderate
Root Depth [2]  10 inches (25 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Slow
Seed Vigor [2]  Low
Seeds Per [2]  1389837 / lb (3064069 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Erect
Structure [5]  Grass
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  Rapid
View Plants For A Future Record : Poa pratensis

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Andakill Protected Habitat Area 7626 Iceland      
Arches National Park II 76539 Utah, United States
Assateague Island National Seashore II 8621 Maryland, United States
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Baikalskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 458883 Russia  
Basegi Zapovednik Ia 93739 Perm, Russia
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berchtesgaden Alps National Park II 51433 Germany
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area National Recreation Area V 120283 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area V 36286 Montana, Wyoming, United States
Blue Ridge Parkway National Parkway V 73611 North Carolina, Virginia, United States
Bolshekhekhtsirsky Zapovednik Ia 112282 Khabarovsk, Russia
Cairnsmore of Fleet, Silver Flowe, and Merrick Kells Biosphere Reserve 8794 Scotland, United Kingdom
Cape Lookout National Seashore II 18379 North Carolina, United States
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Central Plains Biosphere Reserve 15345 United States  
Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve V 619089 Jilin, China  
Chernye Zemli Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik IV 621951 Russia  
Chickamauga & Chattanooga Nat'l Military Park National Military Park V 8248 Georgia, Tennessee, United States
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Crater Lake National Park II 180091 Oregon, United States
Craven Limestone Complex 13166 England, United Kingdom
Cumberland Gap National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 24282 Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, United States
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
Desert Biosphere Reserve 68236 Utah, United States
Exmoor Heaths 26455 England, United Kingdom
Fire Island National Seashore V 9433 New York, United States
Firth of Lorn 51830 Scotland, United Kingdom
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Fraser Biosphere Reserve 23050 Colorado, United States  
Gates of the Arctic National Park Ib 184461 Alaska, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Ilmensky Zapovednik Ia 84955 Chelyabinsk, Russia
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Isles of Scilly Complex 66350 England, United Kingdom    
Katmai National Park and Preserve Ib 421782 Alaska, United States
Katunsky Biosphere Reserve 393162 Altai, Russia
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Khopersky Zapovednik Ia 47103 Russia  
Lago Puelo National Park II 47607 Chubut, Argentina
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Lanín National Park II 536819 Neuquen, Argentina
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Los Alerces National Park II 463045 Chubut, Argentina  
Los Glaciares National Park II 1329020 Santa Cruz, Argentina
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
Luce Bay and Sands 120487 Scotland, United Kingdom
Magadansky Zapovednik 2332834 Russia  
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Nahuel Huapi National Park II 759703 Argentina  
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Noatak Biosphere Reserve 7500143 Alaska, United States  
North Norfolk Coast 7926 England, United Kingdom  
North Pennine Moors 254789 England, United Kingdom
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Perito Moreno National Park II 234320 Santa Cruz, Argentina  
Petrified Forest National Park II 44522 Arizona, United States
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
River Spey 14158 Scotland, United Kingdom
River Tay 23469 Scotland, United Kingdom
Salisbury Plain 52975 England, United Kingdom
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Solway Firth 107829 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
South Wight Maritime 49082 England, United Kingdom
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Taimyrsky Biosphere Reserve Ia 4403240 Taimyr, Russia
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Tierra Del Fuego National Park II 172861 Argentina
Tigrovaia Balka Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 146860 Tajikistan  
Tsentral'no-Chernozemny Biosphere Reserve Ia 13064 Kursk, Russia
Tsentral'no-Lesnoy Biosphere Reserve Ia 62630 Russia  
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Ussuriysky Zapovednik Ia 99910 Primorsky Krai , Russia
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Wind Cave National Park II 29471 South Dakota, United States
Winisk River Provincial Park II 434735 Ontario, Canada
Woodland Caribou Provincial Wilderness Park Provincial Park II 1072124 Ontario, Canada
Zhuvintas Zapovednik 18223 Lithuania  
Zion National Park II 135667 Utah, United States



Abacarus hystrix (cereal rust mite)[6]
Acanthis flammea (Common Redpoll)[7]
Adarrus ocellaris <Unverified Name>[6]
Agriphila latistria <Unverified Name>[7]
Agriphila tristella <Unverified Name>[7]
Alopochen aegyptiaca (Egyptian Goose)[7]
Amblytylus nasutus[6]
Anaphothrips obscurus[8]
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)[9]
Anser anser (Greylag Goose)[7]
Anthomyza pallida[8]
Aphantopus hyperantus (Ringlet Butterfly)[7]
Arphia sulphurea (Spring Yellow-winged Locust)[8]
Arthaldeus pascuellus <Unverified Name>[6]
Atalopedes campestris (Field skipper)[8]
Balanococcus singularis (solitary mealybug)[10]
Berytinus crassipes[6]
Branta canadensis (Canada Goose)[7]
Capreolus capreolus (western roe deer)[7]
Carduelis carduelis (European Goldfinch)[7]
Cathartes aura (Turkey Vulture)[9]
Caviceps trilineata <Unverified Name>[6]
Cephus nigrinus <Unverified Name>[6]
Cercyonis oetus (Small Wood-nymph)[8]
Cercyonis pegala (common wood-nymph)[8]
Cercyonis sthenele (Sthenele wood nymph)[8]
Cervus elaphus (wapiti or elk)[7]
Cetema elongata <Unverified Name>[6]
Chaetocnema hortensis <Unverified Name>[6]
Chaetococcus sulcii (false-brome scale)[10]
Chloephaga picta (Upland Goose)[11]
Chloephaga rubidiceps (Ruddy-headed Goose)[11]
Chrysoteuchia culmella (Garden Grass-veneer Moth)[7]
Coenonympha pamphilus (Small Heath Butterfly)[7]
Coenonympha tullia (California ringlet)[6]
Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)[9]
Columba oenas (Stock Dove)[7]
Columba palumbus (Common Wood Pigeon)[7]
Contarinia floricola[6]
Costelytra zealandica[12]
Delia coarctata[6]
Deltocephalus pulicaris[6]
Deltote bankiana (Silver Barred)[6]
Deltote deceptoria <Unverified Name>[7]
Dicranotropis hamata[6]
Dolerus aeneus <Unverified Name>[6]
Dolerus niger <Unverified Name>[7]
Doratura stylata <Unverified Name>[6]
Elachista collitella[6]
Elachista humilis[6]
Elachista luticomella[6]
Elachista pomerana[6]
Elymana sulphurella[6]
Emberiza citrinella (Yellowhammer)[7]
Emberiza schoeniclus (Reed Bunting)[7]
Erebia epistygne[8]
Erebia magdalena (Magdalena Alpine)[8]
Erebia neoridas (Autumn Ringlet)[8]
Erebia oeme (Bright Eyed Ringlet)[8]
Erebia tyndarus (Swiss Brassy Ringlet)[8]
Erebia zapateri (Zapater's Ringlet)[8]
Eriococcus glyceriae (grass felt scale)[10]
Eriopeltis festucae (cottony grass scale)[10]
Euptychia cymela (Little wood satyr)[13]
Euscelis incisus <Unverified Name>[6]
Euscelis lineolatus <Unverified Name>[6]
Fonscolombia tomlinii <Unverified Name>[10]
Fringilla coelebs (Common Chaffinch)[7]
Grus grus (Common Crane)[7]
Hesperia dacotae (Dakota skipper)[8]
Hesperia juba (Juba Skipper)[13]
Hesperia leonardus (Leonard's skipper)[8]
Heterococcus nudus (naked grass-mealybug)[10]
Hipparchia fidia (Striped Grayling)[8]
Hybolasioptera cerealis <Unverified Name>[6]
Hybolasioptera fasciata[6]
Hylephila phylaeus (fiery skipper)[8]
Jacksonia papillata[6]
Javesella pellucida[6]
Lecanopsis formicarum[10]
Lecanopsis subterranea (Borchsenius' grass scale)[10]
Leptopterna ferrugata[6]
Lepus europaeus (European Hare)[7]
Longicoccus festucae (Koteja's mealybug)[10]
Longicoccus longiventris[10]
Macrosiphum rosae rosae[6]
Macrosteles laevis[6]
Macrosteles variatus <Unverified Name>[6]
Maniola jurtina (Meadow Brown Butterfly)[7]
Marmota flaviventris (yellow-bellied marmot)[14]
Mayetiola joannisi[6]
Melanitis leda (Evening brown butterfly)[8]
Melanoplus femurrubrum (Red-legged Grasshopper)[8]
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)[9]
Melitaea cinxia (Glanville Fritillary)[6]
Meromyza saltatrix (Wheat Stem Maggot Fly)[6]
Metadenopus festucae (long mealybug)[10]
Metopolophium festucae[6]
Microtus agrestis (field vole)[7]
Microtus arvalis (common vole)[7]
Mocydiopsis parvicauda[6]
Mycosphaerella recutita[7]
Neophilaenus lineatus[7]
Neottiglossa pusilla <Unverified Name>[6]
Oarisma garita (Garita Skipperling)[8]
Oarisma powesheik (Powesheik Skipperling)[8]
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)[9]
Odontria striata[12]
Omphaloscelis lunosa (Lunar Underwing Moth)[7]
Opomyza germinationis[6]
Oscinella frit (fruit fly)[6]
Oscinella nitidissima[6]
Oscinella pusilla[6]
Pachynematus clitellatus <Unverified Name>[6]
Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)[7]
Passer montanus (Eurasian Tree Sparrow)[7]
Peliococcopsis parvicerarius[10]
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)[9]
Phenacoccus hordei (barley mealybug)[10]
Phytomyza milii <Unverified Name>[6]
Phytomyza nigra[6]
Poanes zabulon (Zabulon Skipper)[8]
Polites mystic (long dash skipper)[8]
Polites sabuleti (Sandhill Skipper)[13]
Polites themistocles (Tawny-edged Skipper)[8]
Procapra przewalskii (Przewalski's gazelle)[15]
Psammotettix confinis[6]
Pseudococcus kozari[10]
Pseudococcus moldavicus[10]
Rhopalomyzus poae[6]
Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae (apple grain aphid)[6]
Ribautodelphax angulosus[6]
Scotopteryx chenopodiata (Shaded Broad-bar Moth)[6]
Sipha glyceriae[6]
Sitodiplosis cambriensis[6]
Streptanus sordidus <Unverified Name>[6]
Streptopelia decaocto (Eurasian Collared-Dove)[7]
Streptopelia turtur (European Turtle-Dove)[7]
Sylvilagus audubonii (Desert Cottontail)[16]
Taiwanaphis niuginii[6]
Tenthredopsis coquebertii <Unverified Name>[6]
Trachyrhachys kiowa (Kiowa Grasshopper)[8]
Trionymus cynodontis <Unverified Name>[10]
Trionymus kirgisicus[10]
Urocitellus armatus (Uinta ground squirrel)[17]
Urocitellus columbianus (Columbian ground squirrel)[18]
Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)[8]
Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove)[9]
Armadillidium vulgare (pillbug)[9]
Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole)[9]
Narceus americanus (North american millipede)[9]
Philaenus spumarius (meadow froghopper)[9]
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat)[9]
Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow)[9]


Pollinated by 
Ashmeadiella bucconis[8]
Chloralictus sparsus <Unverified Name>[19]
Cryptorhopalum haemorrhoidale[8]
Euphoria fulgida[8]
Melanostoma scalare[8]
Meromyza americana (wheat stem maggott)[8]
Nomada parva[8]
Rhamphomyia hirtipes[8]
Triepeolus donatus[8]


Parasitized by 
Blumeria graminis[8]
Shelter for 
Acrosternum hilare (Green stinkbug)[9]
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)[9]
Anaxyrus americanus americanus (Eastern American Toad)[9]
Antheraea polyphemus (polyphemus moth)[9]
Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse)[9]
Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal)[9]
Cicindela sexguttata (Six-spotted Tiger Beetle)[9]
Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick)[9]
Heterodon platirhinos (Eastern Hognose Snake)[9]
Lithobius forficatus (Brown centipede)[9]
Marmota monax (woodchuck)[9]
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)[9]
Phanaeus vindex (Dung beetle)[9]
Phidippus audax (Daring Jumping Spider)[9]
Plestiodon fasciatus (Five-lined Skink)[9]
Scalopus aquaticus (Eastern Mole)[9]
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)[9]
Tenodera aridifolia (Chinese mantid)[9]
Terrapene carolina (Florida Box Turtle)[9]
Thamnophis sirtalis (Common Garter Snake)[9]
Armadillidium vulgare (pillbug)[9]
Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole)[9]
Narceus americanus (North american millipede)[9]
Philaenus spumarius (meadow froghopper)[9]
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat)[9]
Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow)[9]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Svalbard Global Seed Vault


Bassegi Zapovednik; Caribbean; North America; Oceania;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Derived from Allergy-Free Gardening OPALS™, Thomas Leo Ogren (2000)
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999)
5Kattge, J. et al. (2011b) TRY - a global database of plant traits Global Change Biology 17:2905-2935
6Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
7Ecology of Commanster
8Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
9Study of Northern Virginia Ecology
10Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
11del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
12New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
13Butterflies of Canada, Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility
14Predicting seasonal diet in the yellow-bellied marmot: success and failure for the linear programming model, G.P. Edwards, Oecologia (1997) 112:320-330
15Procapra przewalskii (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), DAVID M. LESLIE, JR., COLIN P. GROVES, AND ALEXEI V. ABRAMOV, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 42(860):124–137
16Sylvilagus audubonii, Joseph A. Chapman and Gale R. Willner, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 106, pp. 1-4 (1978)
17Spermophilus armatus, Bruce D. Eshelman and Cara S. Sonnemann, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 637, pp. 1–6 (2000)
18Individual variation in the ability of Columbian ground squirrels to select an optimal diet, MARK E. RITCHIE, Evolutionary Ecology, 1988, 2, 232-252
19Robertson, C. Flowers and insects lists of visitors of four hundred and fifty three flowers. 1929. The Science Press Printing Company Lancaster, PA.
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Ramsar Sites Information Service
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access