Plantae > Tracheophyta > Liliopsida > Poales > Poaceae > Secale > Secale cereale

Secale cereale (common rye; rye; mountain rye; cereal rye; Cultivated annual rye; cultivated rye)

Synonyms: Secale aestivum; Secale ancestrale; Secale ancestrale var. aidinum; Secale ancestrale var. arenosum; Secale ancestrale var. karaburun; Secale ancestrale var. spontaneum; Secale arundinaceum; Secale cereale f. brevispicatum; Secale cereale f. montaniforme; Secale cereale subsp. aestivum; Secale cereale subsp. ancestrale; Secale cereale subsp. indo-europaeum; Secale cereale subsp. rigidum; Secale cereale subsp. tetraploidum; Secale cereale subsp. tsitsinii; Secale cereale var. aestivum; Secale cereale var. ancestrale; Secale cereale var. arundinaceum; Secale cereale var. biflorum; Secale cereale var. compositum; Secale cereale var. hybernum; Secale cereale var. ramosum; Secale cereale var. spontaneum; Secale cereale var. vernum; Secale cereale var. vulgare; Secale compositum; Secale creticum; Secale hybernum; Secale montanum subsp. balcanum; Secale montanum var. balcanum; Secale spontaneum; Secale strictum subsp. balcanum; Secale triflorum; Secale turkestanicum; Secale vernum; Triticum cereale; Triticum cereale f. brevispicatum; Triticum cereale var. montaniforme; Triticum ramosum; Triticum secale

Wikipedia Abstract

Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and as a forage crop. It is a member of the wheat tribe (Triticeae) and is closely related to barley (Hordeum) and wheat (Triticum). Rye grain is used for flour, rye bread, rye beer, crisp bread, some whiskeys, some vodkas, and animal fodder.
View Wikipedia Record: Secale cereale


Height [2]  5.9 feet (1.8 m)
Width [2]  3.9 inches (0.1 m)
Screening - Summer [1]  Moderate
Screening - Winter [1]  Moderate
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 3 Low Temperature: -40 F° (-40 C°) → -30 F° (-34.4 C°)
Light Preference [3]  Mostly Sunny
Soil Acidity [3]  Neutral
Soil Fertility [3]  Rich
Soil Moisture [3]  Moist
Water Use [1]  High
Flower Color [1]  Yellow
Foliage Color [1]  Green
Fruit Color [1]  Brown
Bloom Period [1]  Early Spring
Drought Tolerance [1]  Medium
Edible [2]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [1]  None
Flower Type [2]  Hermaphrodite
Frost Free Days [1]  3 months 20 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [1]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [1]  Spring
Fruit/Seed End [1]  Summer
Growth Form [1]  Bunch
Growth Period [1]  Spring, Summer, Fall
Growth Rate [1]  Rapid
Leaf Type [1]  Deciduous
Lifespan [2]  Annual
Pollinators [2]  Wind
Propagation [1]  Seed
Regrowth Rate [1]  Slow
Root Depth [1]  8 inches (20 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [1]  Slow
Seed Vigor [1]  Medium
Seeds Per [1]  18160 / lb (40036 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [1]  Erect
Structure [4]  Grass
Usage [2]  The straw is used as a fuel or as a biomass in industry; It is quite strong; Other uses for the straw include as a packing material for nursery stock, bricks and tiles, for bedding, archery targets, and mushroom compost; The plant is a good green manure crop. It is fast growing with an extensive and deep root system; It is especially useful if sown in late autumn. Its growth over the winter will prevent soil erosion and the leaching of nutrients from the soil, it can then be incorporated into the soil in the spring; The extensive root system also makes this a good plant to use for soil stabilization, especially on sandy soils;
Vegetative Spread Rate [1]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Secale cereale

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Arches National Park II 76539 Utah, United States
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Chickamauga & Chattanooga Nat'l Military Park National Military Park V 8248 Georgia, Tennessee, United States
Devils Tower National Monument V 1361 Wyoming, United States
Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes 5491 England, United Kingdom
Firth of Tay & Eden Estuary 38085 Scotland, United Kingdom
Fort Donelson National Battlefield III 560 Tennessee, United States
Fraser Biosphere Reserve 23050 Colorado, United States  
Galichia Gora Zapovednik Ia 568 Lipetsk, Russia
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Khopersky Zapovednik Ia 47103 Russia  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Lundy 7573 England, United Kingdom  
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
North Somerset and Mendip Bats 1387 England, United Kingdom
Oconee National Forest Botanical Reserve 306 Georgia, United States  
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Roosevelt Vanderbilt National Historic Site   New York, United States      
Saint Lawrence Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Santee Coastal Reserve and Washo Reserve State Habitat Area IV 20850 South Carolina, United States  
Scotts Bluff National Monument V 3185 Nebraska, United States
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
South Uist Machair 8482 Scotland, United Kingdom
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Tsentral'no-Chernozemny Biosphere Reserve Ia 13064 Kursk, Russia
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Wyperfeld National Park II 890865 Victoria, Australia
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada
Zion National Park II 135667 Utah, United States


Agriotes lineatus (lined click beetle)[5]
Agriotes obscurus <Unverified Name>[5]
Agriotes sputator <Unverified Name>[5]
Agromyza albipennis[5]
Agromyza ambigua[5]
Agromyza cinerascens[5]
Agromyza intermittens[5]
Agromyza nigrella[5]
Agromyza nigrociliata[5]
Agromyza rondensis[5]
Apamea sordens[6]
Athous haemorrhoidalis <Unverified Name>[5]
Blissus leucopterus (Chinch bug)[6]
Bryobia praetiosa (clover mite)[5]
Camarota curvipennis[5]
Cerodontha incisa[5]
Cerodontha lateralis <Unverified Name>[5]
Chaetocnema hortensis <Unverified Name>[5]
Chlorops pumilionis (Gout fly)[5]
Chromatomyia nigra[6]
Contarinia tritici[5]
Delia coarctata[5]
Delia florilega (bean seed maggot)[5]
Delia platura (seedcorn maggot)[5]
Diuraphis noxia (Russian wheat aphid)[6]
Eriococcus glyceriae (grass felt scale)[7]
Euxoa scandens (white cutworm)[6]
Euxoa tritici[5]
Frankliniella tenuicornis[5]
Haplodiplosis marginata[5]
Hybolasioptera cerealis <Unverified Name>[5]
Hybolasioptera fasciata[5]
Lecanopsis turcica[7]
Leptopterna dolabrata (meadow plant bug)[5]
Lepus granatensis (Granada Hare)[8]
Mayetiola destructor (hessian fly)[5]
Melanoplus femurrubrum (Red-legged Grasshopper)[6]
Mesoligia literosa[5]
Muellerianella fairmairei[5]
Nemapogon granella (European grain moth)[6]
Opomyza florum (Wheat fly)[5]
Oria musculosa[5]
Oscinella frit (fruit fly)[5]
Oulema melanopus (Cereal leaf beetle)[6]
Phaeosphaeria graminis[6]
Phenacoccus hordei (barley mealybug)[7]
Phytomyza nigra[5]
Pseudonapomyza atra[5]
Pyrenophora tritici-repentis[6]
Rhopalosiphum maidis (Corn aphid)[6]
Simyra henrici[6]
Siteroptes cerealium <Unverified Name>[5]
Sitobion avenae (English grain aphid)[6]
Sitodiplosis mosellana (wheat midge)[5]
Trachelus tabidus <Unverified Name>[5]
Trachelus troglodyta <Unverified Name>[5]
Trionymus smithii (Smith grass mealybug)[7]
Zabrus tenebrioides[5]


Parasitized by 
Blumeria graminis[6]
Claviceps purpurea (Ergot)[6]
Helicotylenchus dihystera <Unverified Name>[9]
Puccinia graminis[6]
Puccinia recondita[6]
Urocystis occulta[6]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Svalbard Global Seed Vault


North America;



Attributes / relations provided by
1USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
2Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
3ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999)
4Kattge, J. et al. (2011b) TRY - a global database of plant traits Global Change Biology 17:2905-2935
5Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
6Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
7Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
8Diet of the Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis) in a mountain ecosystem, Joana Paupério & Paulo Célio Alves, Eur J Wildl Res (2008) 54:571–579
9Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access